nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2022‒09‒26
thirty-six papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. Copper at the crossroads : Assessment of the interactions between low-carbon energy transition and supply limitations By Gondia Sokhna Seck; Emmanuel Hache; Clement Bonnet; Marine Simoën; Samuel Carcanague
  2. How CBO Analyzes the Effects of Charging the Oil and Gas Industry for Methane Emissions By Congressional Budget Office
  3. Projecting the fuel efficiency of conventional vehicles: The role of regulations, gasoline taxes and autonomous technical change By Ioannis Tikoudis; Rose Mba Mebiame; Walid Oueslati
  4. Electrolysis as a Flexibility Resource on Energy Islands: The Case of the North Sea By Lüth, Alexandra; Werner, Yannick; Egging-Bratseth, Ruud; Kazempour, Jalal
  5. Framework for industry’s net-zero transition: Developing financing solutions in emerging and developing economies By OECD
  6. Costs and Benefits of the Paris Climate Targets By Richard S. J. Tol
  7. Is the German energy transition perceived as gender- and socially-just? By Kuschan, Marika; Burghard, Uta; Groneweg, Kiara; Strebel, Annika
  8. Does Environmental Policy Uncertainty Hinder Investments Towards a Low-Carbon Economy? By Joelle Noailly; Laura Nowzohour; Matthias van den Heuvel
  9. Do Twitter Sentiments Really Effective on Energy Stocks? Evidence from Intercompany Dependency By Yılmaz, Emrah Sıtkı; Ozpolat, Aslı; Destek, Mehmet Akif
  10. The G7 Summit: Advancing international climate cooperation? Options and priorities for the German G7 presidency By Dröge, Susanne; Feist, Marian
  11. Indirect Energy Costs and Comparative Advantage By Ron H. Chan; Edward Manderson; Fan Zhang
  12. How much are individuals willing to pay to offset their carbon footprint? The role of information disclosure and social norms By Schleich, Joachim; Alsheimer, Sven
  13. Rebound effects in residential heating: How much does an extra degree matter? By Cécile Hediger
  14. Not all political relation shocks are alike: Assessing the impacts of US-China tensions on the oil market By Yifei Cai; Valérie Mignon; Jamel Saadaoui
  15. Striving for low-carbon lifestyles: An analysis of the mobility patterns of different urban household types with regard to emissions reductions in a real-world lab experiment in Berlin By Bäuerle, Max Juri
  16. A fundamental Game Theoretic model and approximate global Nash Equilibria computation for European Spot Power Markets By Ioan Alexandru Puiu; Raphael Andreas Hauser
  17. Building portfolios of sovereign securities with decreasing carbon footprints By Gong Cheng; Eric Jondeau; Benoit Mojon
  18. Economic Globalisation and Inclusive Green Growth in Africa: Contingencies and Policy-Relevant Thresholds of Governance By Isaac K. Ofori; Francesco Figari
  19. Hoja de ruta que conecte cada una de las acciones y objetivos de la NDC con fuentes de financiación públicas y privadas; incluyendo para cada acción, barreras, oportunidades y recomendaciones By Juan Benavides; Ximena Cadena; Martha E. Delgado-Rojas; Helena García; María C. García
  20. Information overload and environmental degradation: learning from H.A. Simon and W. Wenders By Tommaso Luzzati; Ilaria Tucci; Pietro Guarnieri
  21. Competitiveness and investments under emissions trading By Leon Bremer; Konstantin Sommer
  22. Wie Haushalte Gas sparen können: Welche Optionen abseits des Preises gibt es? By Küper, Malte; Potthoff, Jennifer
  23. Panacea or Placebo? Exploring Causal Effects of Nonlocal Vehicle Driving Restriction Policies on Traffic Congestion Using Difference-in-differences Approach By Yuan Liang; Quan Yuan; Daoge Wang; Yong Feng; Pengfei Xu; Jiangping Zhou
  24. Towards the measurement of electromobility in international trade. An interactive online dashboard By Ronzheimer, Ira Nadine; Durán Lima, José Elías; Budnevich, Cristóbal; Gomies, Matthew
  25. Menú de opciones de política pública para implementar la electromovilidad By Rozas, Patricio
  26. We Can’t Be on the Sidelines: The Role of Human Services in Advancing Environmental Justice By Chloe Green; Alex Bauer; Colleen Psomas; Shaun Stevenson; Anu Rangarajan; Matthew Stagner; Jacque Gombach
  27. Preparing a multi-country, sub-national CGE model: EuroTERM including Ukraine By Glyn Wittwer
  28. The nexus between urbanization, economic development, corruption and ecological footprints in Commonwealth of Independent States countries By Irina Kalina; Andrey Pushkarev
  29. An empirical evaluation of environmental Alternative Dispute Resolution methods By Bonev, Petyo; Matsumoto, Shigeru
  30. Building Social Capital through Rural Women’s Groups: The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Oil Host Communities By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi
  31. Green Economy: Eine Perspektive für die Wirtschafts-, Beschäftigungs- und Stadtentwicklung in Bremerhaven? By Nischwitz, Guido; von Bestenbostel, Martin
  32. La transición energética en medio de la volatilidad macroeconómica By Catelén, Ana Laura
  33. The environmental sustainability competence toolbox: From leaving a better planet for our children to leaving better children for our planet By Francesca Borgonovi; Ottavia Brussino; Helke Seitz; Alice Bertoletti; Federico Biagi; Abdelfeteh Bitat; Zbigniew Karpinski; Marco Montanari
  34. Young people’s environmental sustainability competence: Emotional, cognitive, behavioural, and attitudinal dimensions in EU and OECD countries By Francesca Borgonovi; Ottavia Brussino; Helke Seitz; Alice Bertoletti; Federico Biagi; Abdelfeteh Bitat; Zbigniew Karpinski; Marco Montanari
  35. Wie kann eine konsequent klimagerechte Verkehrsplanung aussehen? Bedarfe einer mit den Klimaschutzzielen des Übereinkommens von Paris im Einklang stehenden Mobilitäts- und Verkehrsinfrastrukturplanung des Bundes By Siebert, Jonathan
  36. L'éducation à l'action climatique By OCDE

  1. By: Gondia Sokhna Seck (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles); Emmanuel Hache (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles, IRIS - Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Clement Bonnet (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles); Marine Simoën (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles); Samuel Carcanague (IRIS - Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques)
    Abstract: This article aims to assess the impact of copper availability on the energy transition and to determine whether copper could become critical due to the high copper content of low-carbon technologies compared to conventional technologies. In assessing copper availability through to 2050, we rely on our linear programming world energy-transport model, TIAM-IFPEN. We examine two climate scenarios (2 °C and 4 °C) with two mobility shape, implemented with a recycling chain. The penetration of low-carbon technologies in the transport and energy sectors (electric vehicles and low-carbon power generation technologies) is likely to significantly increase copper demand by 2050. To investigate how tension over copper resources can be reduced in the energy transition context, we consider two public policy drivers: sustainable mobility and recycling practices. Results show that in the most stringent scenario, the cumulative primary copper demand between 2010 and 2050 is found to be 89.4% of the copper resources known in 2010. They also pinpoint the importance of China and Chile in the future evolution of the copper market.
    Keywords: Copper,Bottom-up modelling,Energy transition,Transport sector,Power sector,Recycling
    Date: 2020–12
  2. By: Congressional Budget Office
    Abstract: Methane is a greenhouse gas, which traps heat in the atmosphere. It has a stronger warming effect than carbon dioxide but remains in the atmosphere for a shorter period. This report outlines CBO's approach to analyzing the nonbudgetary effects of charging the oil and gas industry for methane emissions. It generally describes how imposing such a charge affects emissions, companies’ costs, and natural gas prices. (The 2022 reconciliation act, signed into law on August 16, 2022, imposes such a charge.)
    JEL: H00 H20 Q54
    Date: 2022–08–31
  3. By: Ioannis Tikoudis (OECD); Rose Mba Mebiame (OECD); Walid Oueslati (OECD)
    Abstract: The fuel efficiency of conventional private vehicles is a key input in the design of several economic and environmental policies. Reliable projections of the fuel efficiency variable can improve estimates on the future emission savings from policies promoting vehicle replacement, and on future revenues from fuel taxes. This paper examines the evolution of fuel efficiency using data on cars entering the US market from 1984 to 2020. It uses a series of new indexes for the gasoline cost in OECD countries and the stringency of fuel economy regulations. The paper shows that the effect of fuel prices and taxes is significant and robust. Doubling the user cost of gasoline with a stringent carbon tax will cause an irreversible increase in fuel efficiency by 6-11%. Increasing the stringency of the US CAFE standards by 10% raises average fuel efficiency by 2-3%. The impact of cross-market regulations is ambiguous.
    Keywords: CAFE standards, conventional cars, EU regulations, fuel economy, fuel efficiency, fuel taxes, gasoline prices
    JEL: H23 Q48 Q55 R48 O31
    Date: 2022–09–15
  4. By: Lüth, Alexandra (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School); Werner, Yannick (Technical University of Denmark); Egging-Bratseth, Ruud (Norwegian University of Science and Technology); Kazempour, Jalal (Technical University of Denmark)
    Abstract: Energy islands are meant to facilitate offshore sector integration by combining offshore wind energy with power-to-x technologies and storage. In this study, we investigate the operation of electrolysers on energy islands: We assess the potential flexibility contribution of the elec-trolyser and then analyse different market integration strategies of the islands. We develop a two-stage stochastic optimisation model to find the cost-efficient dispatch for an integrated day-ahead and balancing electricity market. For the market integration of the energy island we align our approach to the current debate and compare the case of a single offshore bidding zone to a case where the energy island is integrated into a home market zone. We find that electrolysers on energy islands will run at low capacity factors and provide flexibility in 26–30 % of their run time. In addition, offshore electrolysers produce more hydrogen when they are allocated to an offshore bidding zone, and thus earn higher profits. We conclude that combining offshore wind with electrolysers on an energy island relies on additional economic incentives if their main role is envisioned to be the delivery of balancing flexibility.
    Keywords: Energy islands; Offshore energy hub; Flexibility resources; Bidding zones; Hydrogen
    JEL: C44 C61 C63 D47 L94 L95 Q41 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2022–08–29
  5. By: OECD
    Abstract: The manufacturing industry is a major source of global carbon dioxide emissions. Industrial production will continue to shift to emerging and developing economies. New investments are needed in low-carbon technologies to align industry’s growth with countries’ net-zero emission targets. In order to reduce the risks associated with the high cost and low maturity of the many needed low-carbon technologies, scaling up finance from both public and private financial sources will be crucial. OECD’s new “Framework for industry’s net-zero transition” is a step-by-step approach to assist emerging and developing economies in designing solutions for financing and to improve the enabling conditions that can accelerate industry’s transition. Outcomes of the Framework implementation in emerging and developing economies will contribute to the broader climate and finance policies and it can help to facilitate international co-operation for transition at scale.
    Keywords: blended finance, carbon border adjustment mechanism, carbon price, carbon tax, CCUS, circular economy, clean energy finance, clean energy investment, clean energy policy framework, climate change, climate change mitigation, climate resilience, de-risking instruments, emission trading system, emissions reductions, enabling conditions, energy efficiency, financing instruments, green hydrogen, green industry, green infrastructure, greening supply chains, industry decarbonisation, industry transformation, industry transition, large corporates, low-carbon fuels, low-carbon industry, low-carbon investment, low-carbon technologies, material efficiency, Net-zero emissions, renewable energy, renewable heat, small and medium enterprises, sustainable business, sustainable industry, sustainable infrastructure, transition finance
    Date: 2022–09–08
  6. By: Richard S. J. Tol
    Abstract: The temperature targets in the Paris Agreement cannot be met without very rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The latter requires large, perhaps prohibitively large subsidies. The central estimate of the costs of climate policy, unrealistically assuming least-cost implementation, is 3.8-5.6\% of GDP in 2100. The central estimate of the benefits of climate policy, unrealistically assuming constant vulnerability, is 2.8-3.2\% of GDP. The uncertainty about the benefits is larger than the uncertainty about the costs. The Paris targets do not pass the cost-benefit test unless risk aversion is high and discount rate low.
    Date: 2022–09
  7. By: Kuschan, Marika; Burghard, Uta; Groneweg, Kiara; Strebel, Annika
    Abstract: [Conclusion] The aim of this paper was to investigate citizens' perceptions of the energy transition initiated by the federal government through the lens of gender and social justice. For this purpose, data were collected in surveys and workshops with two target groups - TG 1 comprising persons already ac-tively participating in the energy transition, and TG 2 made up of persons who have not been active in the energy transition so far. As already elaborated, there are no crucial differences in the perceptions of these two target groups. One main result was that the energy transition planned by the German government, i.e. in a top-down approach is perceived as generally unjust by both groups. It is noteworthy that gender as-pects were not seen as the main drivers of this injustice. Instead, the participants pointed out that specific social groups are not yet considered enough when it comes to energy transition projects. Practical recommendations for the federal government can be derived from the results of this study: The federal government should include an intersectional perspective in their energy policies as well as in acceptance policies and measures. This should increase the approval of energy transition pro-jects by German citizens in terms of accessibility, use of energy services, investments or decision-making processes. To ensure a gender-just and socially-just energy transition, different perspectives must be included, since all social groups influence the energy value chain (in households, local communities, and energy markets). The participation and representation of different social groups must be encouraged and planned, not only from the governmental side, but also from the civil society side. As mentioned in the dis-cussion, citizen energy projects in Europe are still dominated by white men with financial resources. Diversifying and democratizing citizen energy projects requires acceptance at local level, i.e. at community level, as a precondition. Once citizens are convinced about the potential of such energy projects and mobilised to take part, such citizen energy projects have huge potential to influence energy policies from the bottom up. Recent developments, such as the war in Ukraine, can be regarded as an additional driver to in-crease the acceptance of renewable energy projects. The resulting rising prices and predicted short-ages for fossil fuel-based energy could lead to a stronger shift towards renewable energies. Fur-thermore, the war has enhanced the awareness in society of the dangers of dependency on energy/ fossil fuels from abroad. This could act as another driver towards locally produced renewable ener-gies and their increased acceptance by society.
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Joelle Noailly; Laura Nowzohour; Matthias van den Heuvel
    Abstract: We use machine learning algorithms to construct a novel news-based index of US environmental and climate policy uncertainty (EnvPU) available on a monthly basis over the 1990-2019 period. We find that our EnvPU index spikes during the environmental spending disputes of the 1995-1996 government shutdown, in the early 2010s due the failure of the national cap-and-trade climate bill and during the Trump presidency. We examine how elevated levels of environmental policy uncertainty relate to investments in the low-carbon economy. In firm-level estimations, we find that a rise in the EnvPU index is associated with a reduced probability for cleantech startups to receive venture capital (VC) funding. In financial markets, a rise in our EnvPU index is associated with higher stock volatility for firms with above-average green revenue shares. At the macro level, shocks in our index lead to declines in the number of cleantech VC deals and higher volatility of the main benchmark clean energy exchange-traded fund. Overall, our results are consistent with the notion that policy uncertainty has adverse effects on investments for the low-carbon economy.
    JEL: C55 D81 E22 Q58
    Date: 2022–08
  9. By: Yılmaz, Emrah Sıtkı; Ozpolat, Aslı; Destek, Mehmet Akif
    Abstract: The study aims to examine the effects of social media activities on stock prices of the energy sector. In this respect, the sample covers the monthly period from 2015m6 to 2020m5 has been observed. Energy stocks as S&P 500 index (SP), stock market volatility index (VIX), trade-weighted USD index (USD) and Brent oil prices (OIL) have been used as independent variables. Accordingly, three different models have been created to analyze the link between returns, volatility and trading volume and Twitter sentiments by using Augment mean Group. As a result, we found that Twitter sentiment values have no significant impact on the returns and volatility of the companies. Tweets, on the other hand, appear to have a favorable impact on company trading volume values.
    Keywords: Social media; Twitter; Energy Sector; Stock Prices
    JEL: G0 Q4
    Date: 2022–03–01
  10. By: Dröge, Susanne; Feist, Marian
    Abstract: At the G7 summit in June 2022, the German government intends to promote international climate cooperation by establishing a climate club. This club is envisioned to foster implementation of the Paris climate goals and, ideally, grow into a global alliance of ambitious countries. In light of Russia's attack on Ukraine, energy policy cooperation is now one of the most pressing issues at the G7 summit. Energy security as a short-term priority must be reconciled with accelerated decarbonisation and the international climate agenda. A climate club can certainly provide an impetus for this through agreements on joint regulatory approaches and climate action projects. In terms of the international political process, however, it is important to prevent the initiative from being perceived as a rich countries' club. The German government should carefully manage expectations: Strong signals are needed for COP27 in Egypt in autumn, first and foremost by way of increasing climate finance commitments. Moreover, it will be crucial to shape the G7 club as an ambitious but inclusive initiative.
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Ron H. Chan; Edward Manderson; Fan Zhang
    Abstract: We investigate whether the costs of an input to production embodied in the supply chain can be a source of comparative advantage. Motivated by the fact that most industrial energy use takes place in the supply chain, we focus on the case of energy costs. Using a disaggregated dataset on trade flows in manufacturing industries around the world, we find that both direct and indirect energy costs passed on through intermediate goods have a significant effect on the pattern of international trade. We also show that industries in countries with high energy prices attempt to mitigate these effects by importing energy-intensive, intermediate goods from countries that have lower energy prices. We consider the economic significance of our results by calculating the effects of the energy price increases that occurred in the European Union in the mid-2000s onwards. We find that EU manufacturing exports decline anywhere from 6.8 percent to 15 percent, depending on the elasticity of input substitution. Our results demonstrate that there is a substantial difference in the estimated effect of energy prices on international trade when indirect energy costs are taken into account.
    Keywords: Energy prices; Intermediate goods; Comparative advantage; Exports
    JEL: Q5 Q4 F1 L2
    Date: 2022–09
  12. By: Schleich, Joachim; Alsheimer, Sven
    Abstract: This paper examines individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) to offset their carbon footprint in response to receiving information about (i) the size of their own carbon footprint, and (ii) further receiving in addition information about the difference between their carbon footprint and the target footprint, i.e. per-capita GHG emissions compatible with the 1.5êC target. The analysis employs a demographically representative survey among the adult population in Germany, which includes a comprehensive online carbon footprint calculator and randomized information treatments. The findings from estimating double hurdle models suggest that disclosing information about the size of the individual carbon footprint increases average WTP by about one third. Providing this information appears to affect the intensive margin but not the extensive margin. In comparison, providing information about the size of their carbon footprint together with information about the difference between their carbon footprint and the target footprint does not appear to affect individuals' WTP. Further, the WTP is related with income, gender, age, education, carbon literacy, the belief that carbon offsetting is effective, and with environmental preferences. In comparison, the findings provide no statistically significant evidence that the WTP is associated with the size of the individual carbon footprint, and whether participants consider their carbon footprint to be higher or lower than the carbon footprint of the average adult in the population.
    Keywords: carbon footprint,willingness to pay,social norms,information disclosure
    JEL: H41 Q54
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Cécile Hediger
    Abstract: Households reactions to efficiency gains in heating, known as rebound effects, are investigated in this article. First, an increase in temperature for households living in more efficient dwellings is studied (direct rebound). This increased temperature is then converted into energy following the heating degree days method. Second, the energy embodied in the re-spending of efficiency gains savings on other goods and services than heating is assessed (indirect rebound). Overall, about 20% of the potential energy savings are taken back by those households adjustments, with a direct rebound estimated between 4% and 7%, and an indirect rebound of 15%. As only a partial direct rebound was considered, these results represent a lower limit. In addition, we find that low income households increase more their heating usage than affluent households when efficiency improves, indicating that buildings retrofits have the potential to improve the living conditions of the poorest households.
    Keywords: Rebound effects; Energy efficiency; Energy demand; Embodied energy; Micro data
    JEL: D12 D90 Q41 Q47 R22
    Date: 2022–09
  14. By: Yifei Cai; Valérie Mignon; Jamel Saadaoui
    Abstract: This paper assesses the effects of US-China political tensions on the oil market. Relying on a quantitative measure of these relationships, we investigate how their dynamics impact oil demand, supply, and prices over various periods, starting from 1971 to 2019. To this end, we estimate a structural vector autoregressive model as well as local projections and show that political tensions between the two countries pull down oil demand and raise supply at medium- and long-run horizons. Overall, our findings show that conflicting relationships between these two major players in the oil market may have crucial impacts, such as the development of new strategic partnerships.
    Keywords: China;Oil market;Political relations
    JEL: Q4 F51 C32
    Date: 2022–08
  15. By: Bäuerle, Max Juri
    Abstract: The transport sector has so far shown little success in reducing emissions. Demand-side solutions such as lifestyle and behavioural changes of individuals and private households entail extensive reduction potential that could greatly complement technological solutions in transport. Private households are therefore relevant actors through their transport demand and modal choice. Yet, challenges and opportunities for reducing emissions vary with the household living situations and individual preconditions for action. The real-world lab experiment KLIB pursued to support and motivate households that intended to reduce their carbon footprint during an one year real lab phase using a carbon tracker tool. Based on the KLIB mobility data, this study aims to enhance understanding on the extent of emissions reductions through voluntary changes in mobility behaviour. This implies to identify through which changes in modal choice and transport demand how much of emissions reductions were achieved and where obstacles and limits to voluntary efforts existed. A mixed-methods research design is adopted: transport sociologically grounded type formation groups the KLIB households along relevant household characteristics. Subsequent type-based statistical data analysis examines changes of the types' mobility patterns and associated emissions. The findings indicate that within everyday ground mobility voluntary behavioural changes like the shift to low-carbon modes can lead to considerable emissions reductions depending on the household living situation and particularly car equipment. Nevertheless, car ownership presents a strong carbon lock-in and barrier to emissions reductions. Contradictory results are provided by air travel, where emissions increase for almost all household types, offsetting or outbalancing ground mobility savings. It emerges that behavioural changes are contextspecific and constrained by counteractive effects and obstacles, especially in holiday contexts and emissions-intensive air travel.
    Date: 2022
  16. By: Ioan Alexandru Puiu; Raphael Andreas Hauser
    Abstract: Spot electricity markets are considered under a Game-Theoretic framework, where risk averse players submit orders to the market clearing mechanism to maximise their own utility. Consistent with the current practice in Europe, the market clearing mechanism is modelled as a Social Welfare Maximisation problem, with zonal pricing, and we consider inflexible demand, physical constraints of the electricity grid, and capacity-constrained producers. A novel type of non-parametric risk aversion based on a defined worst case scenario is introduced, and this reduces the dimensionality of the strategy variables and ensures boundedness of prices. By leveraging these properties we devise Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel iterative schemes for computation of approximate global Nash Equilibria, which are in contrast to derivative based local equilibria. Our methodology is applied to the real world data of Central Western European (CWE) Spot Market during the 2019-2020 period, and offers a good representation of the historical time series of prices. By also solving for the assumption of truthful bidding, we devise a simple method based on hypothesis testing to infer if and when producers are bidding strategically (instead of truthfully), and we find evidence suggesting that strategic bidding may be fairly pronounced in the CWE region.
    Date: 2022–08
  17. By: Gong Cheng; Eric Jondeau; Benoit Mojon
    Abstract: We propose a strategy to build portfolios of sovereign securities with progressively declining carbon footprints. Passive investors could use it as a new Paris-consistent benchmark to construct a "net zero" (NZ) portfolio while tracking closely the risk-adjusted returns of a business-as-usual (BAU) benchmark. Our strategy rewards sovereign issuers that have made stronger efforts in reducing carbon intensity, measured by total domestic emissions per capita. The NZ portfolio would have reduced carbon intensity by 41% between 2014 and 2019, by assigning higher weights to countries that have had lower carbon emissions. Among advanced economies, rebalancing leads to raising shares of France, Italy and Spain in the portfolio at the expense of the United States. And among emerging market economies, this leads to higher shares for Chile, the Philippines and Romania at the expense of China. Importantly, the NZ portfolio retains the same creditworthiness as the BAU benchmark without entailing materially higher foreign exchange risks.
    Keywords: carbon footprints, sovereign debt, portfolio rebalancing, portfolio optimisation, active share, tracking error
    JEL: G11 G24 Q56
    Date: 2022–09
  18. By: Isaac K. Ofori (University of Insubria, Varese, Italy); Francesco Figari (University of Insubria, Varese, Italy)
    Abstract: This study employs macrodata for 23 African countries to examine whether good governance interacts with economic globalisation (EG) to foster inclusive green growth (IGG). First, the study finds that EG hampers IGG in Africa. Second, although unconditionally good governance promotes IGG, only government effectiveness interacts with EG to foster IGG. Across the social and environmental sustainability dimensions of IGG, however, the effects differ substantially. Notably, while the EG-governance pathways yield remarkable environmental sustainability net gains, a modest harmful effect was observed for socioeconomic sustainability. Evidence from our threshold analyses also suggests that while government effectiveness is critical for propelling EG to promote IGG, across the social and environmental perspectives of IGG, it is investments in building frameworks and structures for corruption control and the rule of law that are crucial. Our results shed new light on IGG and have several implications for Agenda 2030 and Agenda 2063.
    Keywords: Africa; Economic Globalisation; Governance; Inclusive Growth; Inclusive Green Growth; Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sustainable Development
    JEL: F18 F4 F6 F63 F64 H1 O55 Q01 Q56
    Date: 2022–01
  19. By: Juan Benavides; Ximena Cadena; Martha E. Delgado-Rojas; Helena García; María C. García
    Abstract: La hoja de ruta, a partir de un diagnóstico de barreras de mitigación y necesidades de adaptación, especifica las funciones institucionales que se deben llenar para escalar la financiación climática; propone medidas transversales, complementarias y para avanzar en financiación; y presenta la secuencia de medidas entre 2024 y 2030. Para ello, la hoja de ruta está organizada en dos grandes bloques de propuestas. El primer bloque es el Trípode Institucional e incluye potenciar la capacidad de orquestación (coordinación), crear una facilidad pública de estructuración de proyectos, e instituir un fondo de blended finance. El segundo bloque sobre Avances en Financiación, Transversales y Complementarios contempla robustecer el Sistema MRV, aplicar la Taxonomía Verde, fortalecer capacidades internas públicas, definir el modelo de financiación climática pública para mitigación y adaptación, promover instrumentos para reducir la brecha entre oferta y demanda de financiamiento climático, priorizar la construcción de carteras en segmentos de alto impacto en mitigación y adaptación y establecer condiciones habilitantes para segmentos de alta complejidad, y adoptar una política de gestión de riesgos de adaptación. ****** Abstract : The road map, based on an assessment of mitigation barriers and adaptation needs, specify the institutional functions that must be filled to scale-up climate finance; proposes actions to advance in financing, cross-sectional and complementary; and present the action sequence between 2024 and 2030. For this purpose, the road map is organized in two big sets of proposals. The first set is the Institutional Tripod (Trípode Institucional) and includes enhancing the orchestration (coordination) capacity, creating a public facility to structure projects, and instituting a blended finance fond. The second set is about actions to Advance in Financing, Cross-sectional and Complementary considers reinforcing the Sistema MRV, applying the Green Taxonomy, strengthening internal public capacities, defining the public climate finance model for mitigation and adaptation, promoting instruments to reduce the gap between supply and demand of climate finance, prioritizing the construction of portfolios in high-impact mitigation and adaptation segments and stablishing enabling conditions in high-complexity segments, and adopting a risk of adaptation management policy.
    Keywords: Cambio Climático, NDC, Mitigación, Adaptación, Financiamiento Climático
    JEL: Q01 Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2022–04–24
  20. By: Tommaso Luzzati; Ilaria Tucci; Pietro Guarnieri
    Abstract: This paper discusses the relevance of information overload for explaining environmental degradation. Our argument goes that information overload and detachment from nature, caused by energy abundance, have made individuals unaware of the unsustainable effects of their choices and lifestyles.
    Date: 2022–09
  21. By: Leon Bremer (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Konstantin Sommer (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We study the effects of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) on employment and profits as well as on the investment decisions of Dutch manufacturing firms. Motivated both by sizable differences between firms that are regulated in different phases and by the gradual increase in regulatory stringency, we pay close attention to treatment effect heterogeneity between firms and over time. We use microdata from Statistics Netherlands to apply two difference-in-differences (DiD) estimators: (1) a matched twoway fixed effects regression and (2) a recently developed, more flexible DiD method, designed for staggered treatment and treatment effect heterogeneity. We find that firms that were first regulated in phase 1 and 2 experience temporary employment losses of between 7 to 9% early in the regulation, but we do not find conclusive evidence for changes in profits. Firms that were regulated the earliest reduced their investments throughout all phases.
    Keywords: Emissions trading, Environmental regulation, Staggered Difference-in-Differences, Treatment heterogeneity, Manufacturing
    JEL: H23 L51 Q52
    Date: 2022–09–07
  22. By: Küper, Malte; Potthoff, Jennifer
    Abstract: Angesichts der aktuellen Gasnotlage sind alle Verbraucher aufgefordert ihre Gasnachfrage zu reduzieren. Als wirksamster Anreiz zur Einsparung gelten hohe Preise. Doch viele Haushalte spüren das volle Ausmaß der Preisanstiege an den Gasmärkten aufgrund bestehender Verträge erst mit deutlicher Verzögerung. Verhaltensökonomische Instrumente haben das Potenzial, abseits des Preises nennenswerte Gaseinsparungen anzureizen. Um Gaskonsumgewohnheiten zu ändern, kennt die Verhaltensökonomie unter anderem folgende Lösungsansätze ("Nudges"): Selbstverpflichtung und konkrete Zielsetzung, Feedback zum Gasverbrauch und Appell an soziale Normen. Durch Feedback zum eigenen Gasverbrauch und Informationen zum Verbrauch von vergleichbaren Nachbarn (sozialer Vergleich) inklusive Energiespartipps könnten in Deutschland jährlich fast 30 TWh Gas eingespart werden. Bei richtiger Ausgestaltung können Nudges Einspareffekte anreizen, schränken die Wahlfreiheit der Menschen aber nicht ein und können relativ unkompliziert und kostenschonend für die Haushalte implementiert werden. Dadurch ist die zu erwartende Akzeptanz dieser Maßnahmen relativ hoch und die Sozialverträglichkeit gewährleistet. Auch können bestimmte Gruppen gezielt adressiert werden, denn die Einführung ist sowohl zentral vom Bund als auch dezentral durch die Länder, Kommunen, Städte, Nachbarschaften und Haushalte möglich. Die Auswahl der Maßnahmen sollte jedoch auf Basis von Kosten-Nutzen-Analysen getroffen werden. Um Gaseinsparungen von privaten Haushalten möglichst zeitnah, langanhaltend und in hoher Menge zu realisieren, empfehlen wir den politischen Entscheidungsträgern Verhaltensanreize (Nudges) als effektive Ergänzung zu Preissignalen zu implementieren. Einzelne Nudges, zum Beispiel ein sozialer Vergleich und regelmäßiges Feedback zum Verbrauch, können auch miteinander kombiniert werden, um die potenziellen Einspareffekte zu maximieren. Angesichts der aktuellen Gasnotlage ist jedes einzelne Prozent Gaseinsparung ein wertvoller Beitrag der Energiekrise nachhaltig entgegenzuwirken.
    JEL: A12 H12 Q41 Q43
    Date: 2022
  23. By: Yuan Liang; Quan Yuan; Daoge Wang; Yong Feng; Pengfei Xu; Jiangping Zhou
    Abstract: Car dependence has been threatening transportation sustainability as it contributes to congestion and associated externalities. In response, various transport policies that restrict the use of private vehicle have been implemented. However, empirical evaluations of such policies have been limited. To assess these policies' benefits and costs, it is imperative to accurately evaluate how such policies affect traffic conditions. In this study, we compile a refined spatio-temporal resolution data set of the floating-vehicle-based traffic performance index to examine the effects of a recent nonlocal vehicle driving restriction policy in Shanghai, one of most populous cities in the world. Specifically, we explore whether and how the policy impacted traffic speeds in the short term by employing a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences modeling approach. We find that: (1) In the first month, the policy led to an increase of the traffic speed by 1.47% (0.352 km/h) during evening peak hours (17:00-19:00) but had no significant effects during morning peak hours (7:00-9:00). (2) The policy also helped improve the traffic speed in some unrestricted hours (6:00, 12:00, 14:00, and 20:00) although the impact was marginal. (3) The short-term effects of the policy exhibited heterogeneity across traffic analysis zones. The lower the metro station density, the greater the effects were. We conclude that driving restrictions for non-local vehicles alone may not significantly reduce congestion, and their effects can differ both temporally and spatially. However, they can have potential side effects such as increased purchase and usage of new energy vehicles, owners of which can obtain a local license plate of Shanghai for free.
    Date: 2022–08
  24. By: Ronzheimer, Ira Nadine; Durán Lima, José Elías; Budnevich, Cristóbal; Gomies, Matthew
    Abstract: The dashboard presented here was developed in the framework of a collaboration project between ECLAC and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) on electromobility in Latin America. The dashboard represents the visualization of a methodology proposed for analysing trade flows in electric bus components in Latin America and worldwide in order to evaluate the productive capacity of Latin American countries in this area. The required components have accordingly been disaggregated into three levels: processed and semi-processed components and raw materials. The dashboard captures the complexity of this methodology and makes it accessible to policymakers and entrepreneurs, who can use it to evaluate their country’s or business’s potential to participate in the value chain of electric buses.
    Date: 2022–07–14
  25. By: Rozas, Patricio
    Abstract: En este documento se presenta una caja de herramientas dirigida a los encargados de la toma de decisiones en materia de políticas relacionadas con las inversiones y el financiamiento de la electromovilidad en los países de América Latina y el Caribe. Para su diseño, se han tenido en cuenta dos aspectos esenciales: la transversalidad de las políticas (dado que la conectividad no tiene que ver únicamente con temas de transporte) y la sostenibilidad económica y ambiental. El objetivo es abordar un conjunto de problemas que inciden en la capacidad de los países de definir e implementar una política de conectividad eficiente, sostenible e integrada. Entre los aspectos que se abarcan, cabe mencionar las deficiencias institucionales en la evaluación de los proyectos de inversión y financiamiento con recursos públicos o privados; el tratamiento de las fallas de mercado y los conflictos de competencia en mercados relevantes; el desarrollo de mercados e instrumentos financieros; la definición y ejecución de una política energética compatible con la electromovilidad, así como de un marco y una institucionalidad regulatorios adecuados, y el apoyo a las actividades de innovación tecnológica y de inversión privada.
    Date: 2022–06–22
  26. By: Chloe Green; Alex Bauer; Colleen Psomas; Shaun Stevenson; Anu Rangarajan; Matthew Stagner; Jacque Gombach
    Abstract: This article explores actions human services leaders can take to embed the sector in critical conversations surrounding climate change and effectively engage in efforts to address issues stemming from climate impact and environmental injustice.
    Keywords: Climate change, Environmental justice, Human services
  27. By: Glyn Wittwer
    Abstract: This paper describes the preparation of a database that identifies 74 industries in each of 328 regions in 40 countries, predominantly in Europe. The data are configured to support EuroTERM models of Europe at user chosen levels of industry and regional disaggregation. The TERM (The Enormous Regional Model) methodology has been applied to many countries over the past two decades to model sub-national regional impacts of policy scenarios. The methodology does not rely on sub-national regional input-output tables. Instead, estimates of regional activity shares are used to split a national CGE database into regions. Activity shares are based on industry by region employment numbers extracted from census data, regional agricultural and mining activity data and international trade data by port. EuroTERM provides an example of extending the TERM methodology. First, the GTAP master database is aggregated for non-European nations while keeping European nations plus Ukraine, Russia, Moldova (proxied by Rest of Eastern Europe), Belarus, Georgia, Albania, Iran, Turkey and North Africa represented separately. The database is reconfigured to 40 individual CGE databases. Using NUTS2 data and regional data for the oblasts of Ukraine, regional shares are estimated. Eurostats is the main source of these data. Regional shares provide the basis for splitting 24 European CGE databases to the NUTS-2 level and Ukraine to oblasts. The other nations in the database remain as single country regions. Industry cost structures or technologies are based on GTAP data for each nation. This approach differs from single-nation TERM, in which a single industry technology applies to each region. The methodology used to estimate inter-regional trades in TERM has been modified to accommodate matrices of known international trades from GTAP, while splitting origins and destinations into sub-national regions. Port activity data also contribute to estimation of subnational trade matrices. Electricity Global data on power plants by location have contributed to a split of electricity into 9 generating sectors plus distribution. The war in Ukraine has provided motivation for adding Ukraine, represented by 24 oblasts plus Kyiv city. The EuroTERM master database at present includes 74 sectors in 328 regions. A prototype 438 region GlobeTERM model, including virtually all regions in the GTAP master database, has also been developed as part of the project.
    Keywords: regional economics, Europe, global analysis
    JEL: C68 R10 R11 R15
    Date: 2022–08
  28. By: Irina Kalina (Ural Federal University); Andrey Pushkarev (Ural Federal University)
    Abstract: Developing countries have achieved significant economic growth over the past few decades. Economic growth contributes to the development of infrastructure facilities, reducing poverty and improving the standard of living of the population. To achieve rapid economic growth, developing economies sacrifice their reserves of natural resources, which leads to serious environmental degradation. The same economic structure, trade ties, similarity in the mindsets of population, common economic environment and history bound the current Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. In this perspective we assume possible similarities in terms of ecology and ecological footprints within the CIS countries. Therefore, this study investigates the impact of economic growth, natural resources, urbanization, foreign direct investments, trade, corruption on the ecological footprint of the CIS countries in the time frame spanning from 1996 to 2018. For empirical analysis we follow the log-linear form of the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model. STIRPAT is a coordinated research program dedicated to understanding the dynamic relationships between human systems and the ecosystems on which they depend aimed to identify the major drivers of environmental harm and to reveal the levers to reduce that harm (Dietz & Rosa, 1994; York et al., 2003). Results of Pesaran's CD test and Bias-corrected LM test evidence the cross-sectional dependence across countries. The unit root test show stationary of variables at 1st difference. Besides, testing for slope heterogeneity allows us to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that slope coefficients are heterogeneity. Additionally, our study explores the effects on ecological footprint in CIS counties by using the pooled mean group (PMG) estimator. We also report estimates applying the mean-group (MG) estimator and dynamic fixed-effects (DFE) estimator for comparison and robustness purpose. The empirical evidence from PMG estimations shows positive and significant influence of economic growth, urbanization, natural resources rent and foreign direct investments on the ecological footprint in the group of CIS countries. Our findings demonstrate the negative impact of these factors on environmental quality. Finally, the CIS countries' governments should collaborate to reduce the excessive use of natural resources and promote institutional development favorable for the environment.
    Keywords: Urbanization, Economic development, Corruption, Ecological footprints, Commonwealth of Independent States, STIRPAT model, Pooled mean group (PMG) estimator
    JEL: Q01 Q59 O10
    Date: 2022–07
  29. By: Bonev, Petyo; Matsumoto, Shigeru
    Abstract: This paper empirically evaluates different Alternative Dispute Resolution methods. Using a novel dataset on environmental disputes from Japan, we show that consensus-based approaches such as mediation lead on average to shorter duration and higher satisfaction than top-down approaches such as arbitration. Moreover, our findings suggest that the benefits depend on the transaction cost of resolving a dispute: while disputes with high transaction costs tend to benefit more from top-down approaches, disputes with lower costs benefit more from consensual resolution methods.
    Keywords: Environmental policy, environmental disputes, Alternative Dispute Resolution, Coase Theorem
    JEL: C21 C41 C78 D04 D74 D83 Q34 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2022–08
  30. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives implemented by multinational oil companies (MOCs) in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the global memorandum of understanding (GMoU) on closing the social capital, through enterprising rural women’s groups in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach – This paper adopted a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population. Itwas essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 800women respondents were sampled across the rural areas of the Niger Delta region. Findings – The results from the logistic regression model indicate that CSR of the MOCs using the GMoU model has recorded little but significant success in improving women’s participation in the socio-economic activities of the region. The results also demonstratethat women’s groups and other forms of collective actions can be effective in building social capital and addressing gender gaps in other areas as well, through reducing transactions cost, pooling risks, developing skills, and building confidence. Practical implications – The result suggests that building women’s social capital can be an effective way to improve information exchange and resource allocation, pool risks, and ensure that women’s voices are heard in decision-making at all levels. Additionally, it proposes that community-based organizations including cluster development boards (CDBs) and women’s groupscan be useful for generating social capital. Social implications – The result implies that women’s groups that serve as production cooperatives, savings associations, and marketing groupscan boost production and help women in maintaining control over the additional income they earn. It also indicates that achieving scale through pooling resources can help women in overcoming some of the constraints experiencedby individual farmers. Originality/value – This research contributes to the gender discourse in social capitalfrom a CSR perspective in developing countries and the rationale for host communities’ desires for social projects. It concludes that businessesmust assist in solving public-interest challenges.
    Keywords: Gender, social capital, corporate social responsibility, multinational oil companies, sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022–01
  31. By: Nischwitz, Guido; von Bestenbostel, Martin
    Abstract: Bereits seit einigen Jahrzehnten muss die Stadt Bremerhaven tiefgreifende, sozioökonomische Strukturbrüche und Anpassungsprozesse bewältigen. Neben akuten Krisen (Corona-Pandemie, Niedergang der lokalen Windkraftindustrie) stellen auch Metatrends, wie demografischer Wandel, Digitalisierung und Klimawandel die Stadt vor veränderte Herausforderungen. Vor diesem Hintergrund gewinnen neue Entwicklungsansätze zunehmend an Bedeutung. Als ein strategisch wichtiges Zukunftsfeld kristallisiert sich seit einigen Jahren die Verfolgung eines Green-Economy-Ansatzes heraus. Der Magistrat und insbesondere die Wirtschaftsförderung in Bremerhaven richten ihr Augenmerk verstärkt auf die Förderung eines nachhaltigen Wirtschaftens in der Seestadt. Der Fokus auf die Green Economy impliziert zugleich einen umfangreichen Wandel im Bereich der Beschäftigung. Einerseits werden sich die Tätigkeitsprofile in vielen Berufen verändern, andererseits sind neue Ansprüche hinsichtlich der Ausbildung und Qualifizierung zu erwarten. Die vorliegende Untersuchung im Auftrag der Arbeitnehmerkammer nimmt die Trag- und Anschlussfähigkeit der Green Economy als strategisches Zukunftsfeld für Bremerhaven in den Blick. Darüber hinaus zielt das Projekt insbesondere auf die Analyse von Potenzialen und Bedarfen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt.
    Date: 2022
  32. By: Catelén, Ana Laura
    Abstract: El cambio hacia tecnologías más limpias debe ser gradual en función de razones históricas y prácticas, atendiendo a la urgente necesidad de fortalecer la economía argentina.
    Keywords: Recursos Energéticos; Volatilidad; Macroeconomía; Argentina;
    Date: 2022–02–27
  33. By: Francesca Borgonovi (OECD); Ottavia Brussino (OECD); Helke Seitz (OECD); Alice Bertoletti (European Commission); Federico Biagi (European Commission); Abdelfeteh Bitat (European Commission); Zbigniew Karpinski (European Commission); Marco Montanari (European Commission)
    Abstract: The paper is the second in a series of two papers mapping young people’s environmental sustainability competence in EU and OECD countries that were prepared as background for the forthcoming OECD Skills Outlook 2023 publication. The papers are the results of a collaboration between the OECD Centre for Skills and the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (Unit B4) on students’ environmental sustainability competence. The first paper is titled ‘Young people’s environmental sustainability competence: Emotional, cognitive, behavioural and attitudinal dimensions in EU and OECD countries.
    JEL: I20 J24 J31 Q50
    Date: 2022–09–06
  34. By: Francesca Borgonovi (OECD); Ottavia Brussino (OECD); Helke Seitz (OECD); Alice Bertoletti (European Commission); Federico Biagi (European Commission); Abdelfeteh Bitat (European Commission); Zbigniew Karpinski (European Commission); Marco Montanari (European Commission)
    Abstract: The paper is the first in a series of two papers mapping young people’s environmental sustainability competence in EU and OECD countries that were prepared as background for the forthcoming OECD Skills Outlook 2023 publication. The papers are the results of a collaboration between the OECD Centre for Skills and the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (Unit B4) on students’ environmental sustainability competence. The second paper is titled: ‘The environmental sustainability competence toolbox: From leaving a better planet to our children to leaving better children for our planet’.
    JEL: I20 J24 J31 Q50
    Date: 2022–09–06
  35. By: Siebert, Jonathan
    Abstract: Der Verkehrssektor steht mit Blick auf die Klimaziele und angesichts seiner bislang ausgebliebenen Erfolge bei der Treibhausgasreduktion vor großen Herausforderungen. Getrieben wird der hohe Ausstoß auch durch eine Infrastrukturpolitik, die den Straßenverkehr stark begünstigt. Diese Veröffentlichung untersucht daher die Vermutung, dass der aktuell geltende Bundesverkehrswegeplan (BVWP 2030) nicht mit den Klimaschutzzielen des Pariser Übereinkommens übereinstimmt. Nach einer kurzen Erinnerung an die Relevanz des Verkehrs für die Klimaziele werden das Planungsverfahren sowie das Pariser Übereinkommen vorgestellt und anschließend die Methoden, Ergebnisse und relevanten Rahmenbedingungen des BVWP auf ihre Klimawirkungen untersucht. Dabei wird deutlich, dass die Realisierung der im Plan enthaltenen Projekte den Zielen zur Treibhausgasreduktion sowie den abgeleiteten Minderungspfaden im Verkehrssektor substanziell entgegensteht. Hauptgründe dafür sind die große Anzahl Straßenprojekte, eine unterstellte Steigerung des Verkehrsbedarfs, eine durch den BVWP induzierte Verkehrszunahme, der Verzicht auf echte Alternativenprüfungen sowie der über alle Planungsebenen geringe Stellenwert von Klima- und Umweltzielen. Abschließend werden verschiedene Reformansätze und -maßnahmen zur Weiterentwicklung der Infrastrukturplanung mit dem BVWP vorgestellt. Trotz aller Komplexität zeigt sich dabei, dass klimarelevante Änderungen der Planung jederzeit möglich sind, denn der Bund verfügt über alle notwendigen Instrumente und Handlungsspielräume und es gibt zahlreiche geeignete Ansatzpunkte. Hierzu zählen die Erweiterung der Nutzen-Kosten-Analyse um neue Kriterien, die methodische Reform der Verkehrsprognosen, die vollständige Berücksichtigung von Ergebnissen der Umweltprüfungen, die Priorisierung der Schiene und die gesetzliche Festschreibung des Ziels einer nachhaltigen Mobilität. Auch die Rechtsprechung setzt an vielen Stellen wichtige Impulse. Insgesamt zeigt die Veröffentlichung, dass die Infrastrukturplanung mit dem BVWP ein wichtiger Baustein ist, um die dringend erforderliche Emissionsminderung im Verkehr langfristig zu sichern. Diese Veröffentlichung basiert auf einer gekürzten und aktualisierten Version der Masterarbeit des Autors zum selben Thema von August 2021.
    Date: 2022
  36. By: OCDE
    Abstract: Les enseignants jouent un rôle déterminant dans notre réponse à la crise climatique mondiale. Comment peuvent-ils, dès lors, aider tous les apprenants à développer les connaissances, compétences, valeurs et attitudes qui leur permettront de prendre activement part à l’action climatique, tant au niveau individuel que collectif ? De juillet 2021 à décembre 2021, l’OCDE, l’UNESCO et l’Internationale de l’Éducation ont mené une initiative conjointe autour de l’éducation à l’action climatique. Cette note se propose d’en présenter les points forts.
    Date: 2022–09–14

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