nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2022‒05‒09
47 papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. Role of Policy Interventions in Limiting Emissions from Vehicles in Delhi, 2020–2030 By Pohit, Sanjib; Singh, Rishabh; Chowdhury, Soumi Roy
  2. Infrastructure killed the electric car By Bakker, Gerben
  3. Net energy and feasible economic growth: a developing country perspective from India By Ravi Prakash
  4. Why a Transition to Renewable Energy On Its Own is Not a Solution to the Climate Emergency. By Blaber, Richard Michael
  5. Energy Efficiency and Directed Technical Change: Implications for Climate Change Mitigation By Gregory P. Casey
  7. The impact of Electric Vehicle fleets on the European Electricity Markets : Evidences from the German Passenger Car Fleet and Power Generation Sector By Maria Juliana Suarrez Foréro; Frédéric Lantz; Pierre Nicolas; Pierre Geoffron
  8. Environmental, Redistributive and Revenue Effects of Policies Promoting Fuel Efficient and Electric Vehicles By Patrick Bigler; Doina Maria Radulescu
  9. Investigating Hydrogen Station Use and Station Access in California Using a Survey of Fuel Cell Vehicle Drivers By Hardman, Scott PhD; Davis, Adam PhD; Tal, Gil PhD
  10. Refueling Behavior of California Fuel Cell Vehicle Drivers By Hardman, Scott; Davis, Adam; Tal, Gil
  11. Unlocking CO2 Infrastructure Deployment The Impact of Carbon Removal Accounting By Emma Jagu; Olivier Massol
  12. From point forecasts to multivariate probabilistic forecasts: The Schaake shuffle for day-ahead electricity price forecasting By Oliver Grothe; Fabian K\"achele; Fabian Kr\"uger
  13. Which Households Respond to Electricity Peak Pricing Amid High Levels of Electrification? By Cloé Garnache; Øystein Hernæs; Anders Gravir Imenes
  14. Potential Bottleneck in the Energy Transition: the Case of Cobalt in an Accelerating Electro-Mobility World By Gondia Sokhna Seck; Emmanuel Hache; Charlène Barnet
  15. Integrating Distributed Energy Resources: Optimal Prosumer Decisions and Impacts of Net Metering Tariffs By Ahmed S. Alahmed; Lang Tong
  16. Designing a Transactive Electric Vehicle Agent with Customer's Participation Preference By Ankit Singhal; Sarmad Hanif; Bishnu Bhattarai; Fernando B. dos Reis; Hayden Reeve; Robert Pratt
  17. Economic Geography and the Efficiency of Environmental Regulation By Alex Hollingworth; Taylor Jaworski; Carl Kitchens; Ivan Rudik
  18. Pricing Carbon By Moritz A. Drupp; Frikk Nesje; Robert C. Schmidt
  19. Household Energy Consumption Behaviors during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Mongolia By Azhgaliyeva, Dina; Mishra, Ranjeeta; Karymshakov, Kamalbek
  20. Are you Puffing your Children's Future Away? Energy Poverty and Childhood Exposure to Passive Smoking By Prakash, Kushneel; Churchill, Sefa Awaworyi; Smyth, Russell
  21. Circular solar industry supply chain through product technological design changes By Tadas Radavičius; Arvid van der Heide; Wolfram Palitzsch; Tom Rommens; Julius Denafas; Manuela Tvaronavičienė
  22. Macroeconomic Responses of Emerging Market Economies to Oil Price Shocks: An Analysis by Region and Resource Profile By Sophio Togonidze; Evžen Kočenda
  23. Pollution from Freight Trucks in the Contiguous United States: Public Health Damages and Implications for Environmental Justice By Priyank Lathwal; Parth Vaishnav; M. Granger Morgan
  24. Trade Corridors in the Caspian Region: Present and Future By Kalyuzhnova, Yelena; Pomfret, Richard
  25. The Requirements, Costs, and Benefits of Providing Charging Infrastructure for Heavy-Duty Electric Trucks at California’s Rest Areas By Burke, Andrew
  26. Strategies to Reduce Congestion and Increase Access to Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at Workplaces By Sutton, Katrina; Hardman, Scott; Tal, Gil
  27. Electricity Price Forecasting: The Dawn of Machine Learning By Arkadiusz J\k{e}drzejewski; Jesus Lago; Grzegorz Marcjasz; Rafa{\l} Weron
  29. Predictive Accuracy of a Hybrid Generalized Long Memory Model for Short Term Electricity Price Forecasting By Souhir Ben Amor; Heni Boubaker; Lotfi Belkacem
  30. Fueling Organized Crime: The Mexican War on Drugs and Oil Thefts By Giacomo Battiston; Gianmarco Daniele; Marco Le Moglie; Paolo Pinotti
  31. Environmental and social implications of incorporating carpooling service on a customized bus system By Mohammad Asghari; Seyed Mohammad Javad Mirzapour Al-E-Hashem; Yacine Rekik
  32. Calibration window selection based on change-point detection for forecasting electricity prices By Julia Nasiadka; Weronika Nitka; Rafa{\l} Weron
  33. The Political Consequences of Green Policies: Evidence from Italy By Italo Colantone; Livio Di Lonardo; Yotam Margalit; Marco Percoco
  34. Ecologically unequal exchange and disparate death rates attributable to air pollution: A comparative study of 169 countries from 1991 to 2017 By Hekmatpour, Peyman; Leslie, Carrie McLachlin
  35. The effects of natural resource extraction on household expenditure patterns: Evidence from Mongolia By Narantungalag, Odmaa
  36. The Irreversible Pollution Game By Raouf Bouccekine; Weihua Ruan; Benteng Zou
  37. Same environment, stratified impacts? Air pollution, extreme temperatures, and birth weight in south China By Xiaoying Liu; Jere R. Behrman; Emily Hannum; Fan Wang; Qingguo Zhao
  38. Placer l’environnement au cœur de la politique économique By Frédéric Reynès; Meriem Hamdi‑cherif; Gissela Landa; Paul Malliet; Alexandre Tourbah
  39. Evaluating Climate Policies by the Pareto Principle: Efficiency When Future Identities Are Unobservable By Geir B. Asheim; Kohei Kamaga; Stéphane Zuber
  40. L'industrie gazière : un secteur stratégique pour la Russie By Catherine Locatelli
  41. Les enseignements de quelques modèles macroéconomiques écologiques des économistes keynésiens By Nicolas Piluso
  42. Macroeconomic Dynamics in a finite world: the Thermodynamic Potential Approach By \'Eric Herbert; Gael Giraud; Aur\'elie Louis-Napol\'eon; Christophe Goupil
  43. The Psychology of Mineral Wealth: Empirical Evidence from Kazakhstan By Elissaios Pappyrakis; Osiris Jorge Parcero
  44. Women’s leadership in environmental action By Sigita Strumskyte; Sara Ramos Magaña; Helene Bendig
  45. Investor strategies in the green bond market: The influence of liquidity risks, economic factors and clientele effects By Mohamed Boutabba; Yves Rannou
  46. Fiscal support and monetary vigilance: Economic policy implications of the Russia-Ukraine war for the European Union By Olivier J Blanchard; Jean Pisani-Ferry
  47. Escrevendo a história do pensamento econômico-ecológico: desafios e perspectivas By Marco P. Vianna Franco; Antoine Missemer

  1. By: Pohit, Sanjib (Asian Development Bank Institute); Singh, Rishabh (Asian Development Bank Institute); Chowdhury, Soumi Roy (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Urban India, particularly metros, is a major hotspot of air pollution with a PM2.5 concentration level ranging above the permissible limits defined by the WHO for most of the year. Unsurprisingly, special efforts have been made by the Government of India in recent years to improve air quality. Since the transport sector is a major source of air pollution in urban India, the Government of India adopted BS-VI emission standards in 2016 in principle for all major on-road vehicle categories. The rollout of Euro 6 in India began with the capital city Delhi. Furthermore, India’s policy makers have been proactive in introducing clean fuel such as CNG, as well as electric vehicle and hydrogen fuel vehicles for urban transport. We analyze the interplay between the policy shifts on transport and the level of emissions for Delhi for the next 10 years. We devised three scenarios, starting with the optimistic scenario (OPS), which assumes that all of the set policy targets of the Government of India will be realized as planned. A pessimistic scenario (PES) assumes implementation of the optimistic scenario with a delay of 3 years, and finally, the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) assumes no policy interventions in the transport sector and a status quo to be in operation for the coming decade. We predict a significant decline in the emissions of particulate matter, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides in the OPS/PES scenarios due to the proposed introduction of BS-VI and battery electric fuel vehicles. We find a 20.67% decrease in the overall PM emissions level in the city by 2030. By contrast, our BAU scenario predicts that emissions will increase significantly if no policy intervention is undertaken. In sum, policy interventions may lead to a substantial reduction in emissions in Delhi and thereby a longer life for Delhi inhabitants.
    Keywords: air pollution; transport policy; auto industry; emissions; particulate matter; India
    JEL: F64 H23 I18
    Date: 2021–12
  2. By: Bakker, Gerben
    Abstract: When prices are adjusted for quality, electric vehicles stood their ground to petrol cars in the early twentieth century United States. If the electricity grid had developed twenty years earlier, they might have reached a 68–79% market share and CO2 emissions per car could have declined by 60%, a new study finds.
    JEL: N71 N72
    Date: 2021–10–07
  3. By: Ravi Prakash (MNNIT Allahabad - Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad)
    Abstract: The objective of this article is to highlight the significance of net energy consideration in economic policymaking, which has received less or no attention from the stakeholders particularly in the context of developing economies like India. With the rapid growth in the renewable energy sector, in this period of the low-carbon energy transition, there appears to be a growth in gross energy output. However, the net energy outputs reaching the demand sector of the economy may still be low due to the large feedback energy requirements for such rapid growth in energy supply. Such reduced energy availability may lead to reduced gross domestic product (GDP) growth unlike what is envisaged by policymakers. This is in contrast to the conventional standpoint, where assumed economic growth scenarios are used for energy planning. Since electricity use and economic development are found to be strongly correlated for developing economies like India, it is expected that a reduction in net energy available from the power sector will impose constraints on the GDP growth. Hence, a very ambitious electricity supply programme such as the one based on solar electricity may be counterproductive to GDP growth.
    Keywords: net energy,developing economy,feasible GDP,electricity,energy planning
    Date: 2021–09–30
  4. By: Blaber, Richard Michael
    Abstract: It is often argued, by both climate scientists and activists, that there are straightforward solutions to the climate emergency, which only require the political will to implement them from governments beholden to the fossil fuel industry; namely, a transition from fossil fuels to energy entirely produced by renewable means, improving energy efficiency, and ending deforestation and the destruction of wetlands. We shall show that more than this is required, but that this ‘more’ may very well be more than the climate scientists and activists themselves can stomach.
    Date: 2022–04–11
  5. By: Gregory P. Casey
    Abstract: I build a quantitative model of economic growth that can be used to evaluate the impact of environmental policy interventions on final-use energy consumption, an important driver of carbon emissions. In the model, energy demand is driven by directed technical change. Energy supply is subject to increasing extraction costs. The model is consistent with aggregate evidence on energy use, efficiency, and prices in the United States, as well as the standard balanced growth facts. I use the model to conduct several policy analyses. First, I examine the impact of energy taxes and compare the results to the standard Cobb-Douglas approach used in the environmental macroeconomics literature. Second, I investigate how the government can use energy taxes and R&D policy to implement the least-cost path that achieves an environmental target. Finally, I study the dynamic impacts of exogenous improvements in energy efficiency and R&D subsidies for energy efficiency, focusing on the role of rebound. All analyses highlight the importance of transition dynamics.
    Keywords: energy, climate change, directed technical change, growth
    JEL: H23 O33 O44 Q43 Q55
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Mercy T. Musakwa; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
    Abstract: This study investigated the impact of energy consumption on human development in South Africa, using annual data from 1990 to 2019. The study used disaggregated data on energy measures namely: oil products consumption; electricity consumption; renewable energy consumption; natural gas; coal and lignite; and total energy consumption at an aggregate level. Human Development Index (HDI) was used as a measure of human development. By employing autoregressive distributed lag bounds test to cointegration and error correction model, the study found the impact of energy consumption on human development to be positive in the short run when renewable energy was used as a proxy, but insignificant in the long run. When oil products, natural gas and total energy were used as proxies for energy, a negative impact was confirmed in the short run, while an insignificant impact was confirmed in the long run. When electricity, coal and lignite were used as proxies for energy, an insignificant impact was confirmed, irrespective of the time frame considered. The results revealed that the positive impact of renewable energy on human development is not big enough to offset the negative impact of other energy sources. This suggests that South Africa has to continue to expand renewable energy if a positive impact of energy on human development is to be realised.
  7. By: Maria Juliana Suarrez Foréro (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles, IFP School, RENAULT, Chaire EEM - Chaire European Electricity Markets - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres); Frédéric Lantz (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles, IFP School); Pierre Nicolas (RENAULT); Pierre Geoffron (Chaire EEM - Chaire European Electricity Markets - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres)
    Abstract: The rapidly increasing participation of renewable energies (REn) into the electric mix, clearly traces the trends for the decarbonization goals in the European Union. Under the priority sale conditions established by governments, the commercialization of REn plays an important role in the consolidation of market prices, which are on a decreasing trend with large fluctuations that reduce the profit in the power sector and therefore, the interest of potential investors. The incorporation of small power capacities, available with a considerable fleet of electric vehicles (EV) disposed to support the bulk power system through an intelligent, and possibly bidirectional recharging system (the vehicle grid integration VGI), could have a positive impact on the electricity market as well as in CO2 emissions. In this context, our purpose is to simulate the impact of a large development of EV on the electricity market and the economic surplus of the power sector. Through a VGI tool that includes an algorithm of smart charging, we simulate the behavior of a fleet composed by some millions of EV as follows: a decentralized VGI algorithm of smart charging included in each EV estimates the energy consumption in time of the EV fleet. For a specific number of EV, we simulate the aggregated charge on the power grid, and anticipate the total expected load curve for one day. We use the estimated load curve as input in an electricity market model for calculating the producer's surplus over one year. We show that the increasing EV fleet significantly decreases the fluctuation of the residual electricity demand as well as the electricity price. Consequently, this has a positive impact on the surplus of the sector.
    Keywords: Energy transition,Electricity markets,Merit order effect,Vehicle grid integration.
    Date: 2022–01
  8. By: Patrick Bigler; Doina Maria Radulescu
    Abstract: We analyze welfare implications of policies promoting environmentally friendly vehicles employing rich Swiss micro-data on 23,000 newly purchased cars and their buyers. Our estimates reveal substantial income heterogeneity in price elasticity and electric vehicle (EV) adoption. While CO2 levies secure road financing revenue, emissions of the new car fleet only slightly decrease. In contrast, subsidies support EV uptake, and lead to a more pronounced emission reduction. Both instruments have redistributive implications. We compute optimal subsidy - fuel tax combinations subject to a pre-specified EV target and to securing road financing in the presence or absence of equity concerns.
    Keywords: electric vehicles, mixed logit, welfare, fuel tax, subsidies, CO2 emissions
    JEL: C25 D12 H23 L62 Q48
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Hardman, Scott PhD; Davis, Adam PhD; Tal, Gil PhD
    Abstract: California has set a goal of reaching 100% zero emission vehicle (ZEV) sales by 2035. Most ZEV sales to date have been battery electric vehicles (BEVs) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), while fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) make up only a small portion of ZEV sales. The market for FCEVs may be partially constrained because, unlike BEVs and PHEVs, they cannot use any existing infrastructure. This research investigates FCEV drivers use of hydrogen stations in California (of which there are 47 in operation) with the goal of informing the development of hydrogen infrastructure. Hydrogen station use was studied using results from a 2017 survey of 395 fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) owners and a 2018 survey of 328 FCEV owners. The results show FCEV drivers use on average 2.4 hydrogen stations. The average shortest distance FCEV owners would need to travel from home, work, or their commute to a hydrogen refueling station was 10 miles. Those whose most-used station was not the closest station available were more likely than those whose most-used station was the closest to use renewable hydrogen, suggesting that some drivers may prefer renewable hydrogen. Currently the percentage of California census block groups with one, two, and three hydrogen stations within 10 miles of households are 52.4%, 25.6%, and 22.5%; these census block groups are concentrated primarily in large metropolitan areas. Finally, 70% of FCEV owners said they would not have purchased the vehicle if their primary station had not been available, pointing the importance of station availability to FCEV adoption.
    Keywords: Engineering, Zero emission vehicles, electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, hydrogen fuels, service stations, vehicle range, surveys, travel behavior
    Date: 2022–04–01
  10. By: Hardman, Scott; Davis, Adam; Tal, Gil
    Abstract: California has a goal of reaching 100% zero emission vehicle (ZEV) sales by 2035. Most ZEV sales to date have been plug-in electric vehicles, with fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) making up only around 1% of ZEV sales. The market for FCEVs may be constrained because, unlike plugin electric vehicles, FCEVs need an entirely new refueling infrastructure network. To date, only 48 hydrogen refueling stations are operational in California. This number will need to increase substantially for FCEVs to become a viable option for consumers. Researchers at the University of California, Davis surveyed more than 700 FCEV drivers about their use of hydrogen fueling stations in California to understand consumer preferences and inform the development of future hydrogen infrastructure.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2022–04–01
  11. By: Emma Jagu (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles, IFP School, CentraleSupélec); Olivier Massol (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles, IFP School, CentraleSupélec, University of London [London], CEC - Chaire Economie du Climat - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres)
    Abstract: Carbon removal certification may become a powerful instrument to accelerate decarbonization efforts. In Europe, its implementation is expected to foster the deployment of Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS). Yet, the large-scale adoption of BECCS is also limited by the availability of a costly CO2 transportation infrastructure shared with fossil-fueled emitters. In this paper, we examine the interactions between carbon removal accounting (which determines financial incentives for BECCS) and optimal CO2 infrastructure deployment by asking how certification affects the feasibility of BECCS projects. We propose an original economic framework to explore this question and apply it to a real case study in Sweden. We show that, although a carbon removal accounting framework based on a lifecycle methodology discourages investment in inefficient BECCS processes, it may lead to locking out BECCS from CO2 infrastructures. Our results suggest that a trade-off must be found between accurately evaluating carbon removal and avoiding BECCS lock-out. We formulate two policy recommendations to overcome this trade-off: (i) deploying sustainable biomass certification to incentivize more carbonefficient BECCS process, and (ii) stimulating public and private demand for carbon removal credits to induce a higher price for sustainable carbon removal than for carbon mitigation.
    Keywords: Carbon removal accounting,Carbon removal certification,Negative Emissions,Bioenergy Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage,CO2 infrastructures
    Date: 2022–02
  12. By: Oliver Grothe; Fabian K\"achele; Fabian Kr\"uger
    Abstract: Modeling price risks is crucial for economic decision making in energy markets. Besides the risk of a single price, the dependence structure of multiple prices is often relevant. We therefore propose a generic and easy-to-implement method for creating multivariate probabilistic forecasts based on univariate point forecasts of day-ahead electricity prices. While each univariate point forecast refers to one of the day's 24 hours, the multivariate forecast distribution models dependencies across hours. The proposed method is based on simple copula techniques and an optional time series component. We illustrate the method for five benchmark data sets recently provided by Lago et al. (2020). Furthermore, we demonstrate an example for constructing realistic prediction intervals for the weighted sum of consecutive electricity prices, as, e.g., needed for pricing individual load profiles.
    Date: 2022–04
  13. By: Cloé Garnache; Øystein Hernæs; Anders Gravir Imenes
    Abstract: We examine heterogeneity in Norwegian households’ price responses to critical peak pricing (CPP) on electricity consumption, using a large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT), high-frequency electricity data, and default enrollment. Increasing the grid transmission charge by 4,067% (corresponding to an increase in the electricity price by 1,242%) leads to a 12.5% reduction in consumption, and virtually eliminates the consumption “peak”. In contrast to prior studies from less electrified countries, the effect is broad-based, and similar across income groups. These findings provide a unique lens into the effectiveness of demand-based policies, and their impact across household groups, in a more electrified future.
    Keywords: critical peak pricing, grid transmission charge, peak demand, household heterogeneity, RCT, default enrollment, electrification
    JEL: C93 D12 L94 Q41
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Gondia Sokhna Seck (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles); Emmanuel Hache (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles, The French Institute for International and Strategic Affairs, (IRIS), EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Charlène Barnet (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles)
    Abstract: Within the context of the energy transition, decarbonization of the transport sector is the cornerstone of many public policies. As a key component in the cathodes of lithium-ion batteries and nickel metal hydride batteries used in electric or hybrid vehicles, cobalt is expected to face a dynamic demand in the coming decades. Numerous questions are arising regarding the criticality risks of this key metal of the energy transition. In order to assess the availability of cobalt until 2050, we rely on our linear programming world energy-transport model, TIAM-IFPEN. Two climate scenarios were considered (2 °C and 4 °C), each with two different mobility scenarios (Business-as-Usual mobility and Sustainable mobility) and for each mobility scenario, three lithium-ion battery chemistry mix trajectories were considered (high, central and low cobalt content) by 2050. Results show that in the most stringent scenario 83,2% of cobalt resources identified in 2013 would be extracted from the ground by 2050 to satisfy global consumption. Two Thirds of world production is from Africa while China consumes 1/3 of the total demand by 2050. We identify several ways to meet the increasing demand for cobalt resources. Public policies must therefore focus on 3 complementary axes: promoting the development of sustainable mobility; prioritizing low cobalt content batteries in electric vehicles; and concentrating efforts on the implementation and the deployment of a system for recovering, sorting and recycling waste.
    Keywords: Bottom-up Modeling,Cobalt,EV Battery,Critical Raw Materials,Transport Sector,Energy Transition
    Date: 2022–03–01
  15. By: Ahmed S. Alahmed; Lang Tong
    Abstract: The rapid growth of the behind-the-meter (BTM) distributed generation has led to initiatives to reform the net energy metering (NEM) policies to address pressing concerns of rising electricity bills, fairness of cost allocation, and the long-term growth of distributed energy resources. This article presents an analytical framework for the optimal prosumer consumption decision using an inclusive NEM X tariff model that covers existing and proposed NEM tariff designs. The structure of the optimal consumption policy lends itself to near closed-form optimal solutions suitable for practical energy management systems that are responsive to stochastic BTM generation and dynamic pricing. The short and long-run performance of NEM and feed-in tariffs (FiT) are considered under a sequential rate-setting decision process. Also presented are numerical results that characterize social welfare distributions, cross-subsidies, and long-run solar adoption performance for selected NEM policy designs.
    Date: 2022–04
  16. By: Ankit Singhal; Sarmad Hanif; Bishnu Bhattarai; Fernando B. dos Reis; Hayden Reeve; Robert Pratt
    Abstract: The proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) and their inherent flexibility in charging timings make them an asset to improve grid performance. In contrast to direct control by a utility or autonomous price-based charging, the transactive control framework not only provides benefits to both grid and customers but also ensures customer autonomy. In this work, we design a transactive electric vehicle (TEV) agent that incorporates the EV owner's willingness to trade-off between savings and amenity in form of a slider, where the EV owner's amenity is characterized as vehicle readiness. Further, a privacy-preserving bidding formulation is proposed that also represents the customer's transactive preference. A transactive market mechanism is discussed that integrates the TEV Agents into the local retail market and reconciles with the current day-ahead and real-time market structure. It is demonstrated that the proposed slider is able to provide a preferred trade-off between savings and amenity to individual customers. At the same time, the market mechanism is shown to successfully reduce both peak prices and peak demand. A comparative investigation of V1G and V2G technologies with respect to the battery prices is also discussed.
    Date: 2022–03
  17. By: Alex Hollingworth; Taylor Jaworski; Carl Kitchens; Ivan Rudik
    Abstract: We develop a spatial equilibrium model to evaluate the efficiency and distributional impacts of the leading air quality regulation in the United States: the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We link our economic model to an integrated assessment model for air pollutants which allows us to capture endogenous changes in emissions, amenities, labor, and production. Our results show that the NAAQS generate over $23 billion of annual welfare gains. This is roughly 80 percent of welfare gains of the second-best NAAQS design, but only 25 percent of the first-best emission pricing policy. The NAAQS benefits are concentrated in a small set of cities, impose substantial costs on manufacturing workers, improve amenities in counties in compliance with the NAAQS, and reduce emissions in compliance counties through general equilibrium channels. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for geographic reallocation and equilibrium responses when quantifying the effects of environmental regulation.
    Keywords: Clean Air Act, environmental quality, economic geography
    JEL: F18 Q52 Q53
    Date: 2022
  18. By: Moritz A. Drupp; Frikk Nesje; Robert C. Schmidt
    Abstract: We study the variation of global and unilateral carbon price recommendations and their determinants. To this end, we provide survey evidence on carbon pricing from more than 400 experts across almost 40 countries. We quantify the extent of (dis-)agreement and reveal that a majority of experts can agree on some short- and medium-term global carbon price levels, and on unilateral carbon price levels in most countries. We find little evidence for free-riding. Indeed, experts’ unilateral carbon price recommendations with border carbon adjustment are, on average, higher than global recommendations. Furthermore, border carbon adjustment facilitates higher price recommendations and tends to foster agreement among experts on carbon price levels. We analyze how experts’ recommendations vary with additional survey data on key policy design issues, such as instrument choice, other likely determinants of carbon price recommendations as well as country characteristics and observable expert characteristics.
    Keywords: carbon pricing, expert survey, carbon tax, emission trading, border carbon adjustment, climate policy
    JEL: Q54 H43
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Azhgaliyeva, Dina (Asian Development Bank Institute); Mishra, Ranjeeta (Asian Development Bank Institute); Karymshakov, Kamalbek (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of COVID-19 on households in Mongolia, particularly the choice of fuel for heating and cooking and awareness about harmful effects of indoor pollution due to the combustion of solid fuels for heating and cooking. We use publicly available MICS Plus survey data from UNICEF. MICS Plus is a longitudinal household survey with a sample of 2,000 representative households that collects information through telephone interviews. We compare data from a pre-COVID period (2018) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (December 2020). Our results show that households where the decision maker is female are more likely to have a clean source of heating—a district heating system. The results also show that a larger proportion of households switched to cleaner heating in the COVID-19 period. First, the share of households using central heating increased in 2020 to 26% from 19% in 2018. Second, the share of households using improved fuel for their heating requirements increased in 2020 as compared to 2018. Third, in December 2020, after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, households were more likely to use district heating and manufactured space heaters than cooking stoves for heating compared with 2018.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Mongolia; household survey; district heating; fuel choice; space heater
    JEL: D14 G51 H12 H84 I10 I24 J60
    Date: 2021–12
  20. By: Prakash, Kushneel; Churchill, Sefa Awaworyi; Smyth, Russell
    Abstract: We examine whether having a parent who smoked during one's childhood or adolescence increases the probability of being in energy poverty in adulthood. We find that people who had a parent who smoked when they were young are 0.8 to 1.4 percentage points more likely to be in energy poverty later in life. Various checks suggest that this relationship can be regarded as being plausibly causal. We identify health, human capital, labour market outcomes and non-cognitive traits as channels through which early life exposure to passive smoking increases the likelihood of being in energy poverty. Our results have important implications for early life interventions to address the deficits caused by exposure to passive smoking.
    Keywords: energy poverty,fuel poverty,smoking,early life shocks,Australia
    JEL: Q41 I32
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Tadas Radavičius (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University); Arvid van der Heide (IMEC - Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre); Wolfram Palitzsch (LuxChemtech GmbH); Tom Rommens (VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research); Julius Denafas (Soli Tek R&D, JSC, KTU - Kaunas University of Technology); Manuela Tvaronavičienė (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University)
    Abstract: Climate change forces countries and organisations to transition towards renewable energies (RE). The transition requires a substantial amount of renewable energy installations, such as PV (photovoltaic) systems. EU solar cells (main PV panels component) manufacturing capacity in 2019 were only 0,2% compared to the world producers' capacity. It makes the European Union energy transition dependable on the foreign countries. In addition, the supply chain of the solar industry is facing issues of silicon solar panels having critical raw material (CRM) silver and toxic materials such as lead. The solar panels themselves are a complex combination of components making recovery of the materials a difficult process (Ha, 2020). These and further issues of the lack of circularity in the solar value chain endangers reliable access to solar energy in the long term. The goal of this research is to increase the circularity in the industry by designing technologically the product in a circular way. In order to achieve this goal, the authors blended information provided in the contemporary scientific literature with the shared expertise of producers and other stakeholders. Insights about the possible technological design changes of the solar panels, their issues, and their impact on the supply chain were gathered through an online workshop and EU Horizon 2020 * The authors acknowledge the valuable contribution of all project partners within CIRCUSOL (call: H2020-EU.3.5.4). This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 776680.
    Keywords: circular supply chain,the solar industry,circular economy,product circular technological design
    Date: 2021–09–30
  22. By: Sophio Togonidze; Evžen Kočenda
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of oil price shocks on the macroeconomic fundamentals in a panel of emerging economies from three regions and with different resource endowments. The existing literature on emerging economies remains inconclusive on how regional factors and resource characteristics affect the response of macroeconomic variables against oil price shocks. We show that (i) exports in Europe and Central Asia are more oil-driven than East Asia and the Pacific, and that (ii) policy-makers in East Asia and the Pacific should be concerned with real exchange appreciation following a positive oil shock to mitigate loss in non-oil export market. Analysis by resource-endowment further reveal that in less-resource-intensive economies oil price shock cause large variation consumption, and a negative and persistent impact on real GDP. In mineral-exporting economies, real GDP and interest rates are largely driven by oil price shocks. The response of real GDP in mineralexporting economies is short-lived. In oil exporting economies, it is only real GDP that has a large variation in response to oil price shock. For policy making, our findings underscores the need for customized policy responses to oil price shocks depending on resourceendowments as we confirm that a "uniform-policy cannot fit all" economies.
    JEL: C11 E32 E37 F44
    Date: 2022–04–25
  23. By: Priyank Lathwal; Parth Vaishnav; M. Granger Morgan
    Abstract: PM2.5 produced by freight trucking has significant adverse impacts on human health. Here we explore the spatial distribution of freight trucking emissions and demonstrate that public health impacts due to freight trucking disproportionately affect certain racial and ethnic groups. Based on the US federal government data, we build an emissions inventory to quantify heterogeneity of trucking emissions and find that ~10% of NOx and ~12% of CO2 emissions from all sources in the US come from freight trucks. The costs to human health and the environment due to NOx, PM2.5, SO2, and CO2 from freight trucking in the US are estimated respectively to be $11B, $5.5B, $100M, and $30B (social cost of carbon of $51 per ton). We demonstrate that more freight pollution occurs in counties and census tracts with a higher proportion of Black and Hispanic residents. Counties with a higher proportion of Black and Hispanic residents are also more likely to be net importers of pollution damages from other counties.
    Date: 2022–04
  24. By: Kalyuzhnova, Yelena (Asian Development Bank Institute); Pomfret, Richard (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The historical routes from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and India to the Middle East or Europe ran north of, south of, and across the Caspian Sea. Since 1500, maritime transport has dominated trade between Europe and East Asia. Central Asia became an economic backwater, incorporated into the Russian Empire and later forming part of the Soviet Union from 1917 to 1991. Practically all the trade links ran north to the Russian Federation. In the 21st century, with the increasing significance of Central Asia as an energy producer, countries have constructed several oil and gas pipelines. However, for trade in other goods, new transport corridors opened up more slowly until, in the 2010s, the PRC–EU rail links began operating through Kazakhstan. We examine the establishment of new trade corridors in the form of pipelines and railway lines, focusing on trans-Caspian links. We also discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on international trade. The disruption resulting from lockdowns and quarantine requirements has negatively affected maritime, air, and other types of transportation. The COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with substantially depressed energy prices, is putting additional financial pressure on the Caspian governments, which are struggling with the major medical challenges that the pandemic has created.
    Keywords: trade; Caspian region; Trans-Caspian International Transport Route; energy; oil
    JEL: F13 P25 P28 Q35
    Date: 2021–05
  25. By: Burke, Andrew
    Abstract: California’s Advanced Clean Trucks regulation requires sales of zero-emission tractor-trailer trucks starting in 2024, increasing to 30% by 2030. Since most of these trucks will travel predominantly on the state’s major highways, a robust network of battery charging infrastructure will be needed along these routes. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) maintains an extensive series of roadside rest areas throughout the state that are widely used by long-haul trucks. Providing charging at roadside rest areas, especially those along interstate highways, could help meet the needs of battery-electric tractortrailer trucks making multi-day trips. Thus, Caltrans should consider becoming involved with the establishment of battery charging facilities at its rest areas. Researchers at the University of California, Davis assessed the possibilities for and barriers to providing charging infrastructure for heavy-duty, long-haul trucks at rest areas in California. This policy brief summarizes the findings from that research and provides policy implications. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Benefit cost analysis, Electric trucks, Electric vehicle charging, Roadside rest areas
    Date: 2022–04–01
  26. By: Sutton, Katrina; Hardman, Scott; Tal, Gil
    Abstract: This paper investigates strategies to increase charging station utilization, reduce congestion, and increase access to chargers at workplaces. Interviews with plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) drivers across California revealed three styles of workplace charging management: authoritative (rules introduced by the employer), collective (rules introduced by employees), and unmanaged (no rules in place). Authoritative charging included digital queuing, time limits with pricing, pricing, and valet charging. Collective management included day restrictions, time restrictions, messaging groups, and spreadsheets with driver information. Charging management strategies can increase accessibility and utilization of stations by reducing congestion, increasing vehicle throughput and discouraging those that do not need to charge from doing so. Workplaces with charging management may need less charging infrastructure to support more PEVs. Interviewees reported positive experiences with the charging management strategies at their workplaces. Charging management strategies appear to be a user-friendly approach to reducing charge point congestion, vehicles overstaying, and increase utilization of workplace charging.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Traffic Congestion, Electric Vehicle Charging, Charging Behavior
    Date: 2022–04–01
  27. By: Arkadiusz J\k{e}drzejewski; Jesus Lago; Grzegorz Marcjasz; Rafa{\l} Weron
    Abstract: Electricity price forecasting (EPF) is a branch of forecasting on the interface of electrical engineering, statistics, computer science, and finance, which focuses on predicting prices in wholesale electricity markets for a whole spectrum of horizons. These range from a few minutes (real-time/intraday auctions and continuous trading), through days (day-ahead auctions), to weeks, months or even years (exchange and over-the-counter traded futures and forward contracts). Over the last 25 years, various methods and computational tools have been applied to intraday and day-ahead EPF. Until the early 2010s, the field was dominated by relatively small linear regression models and (artificial) neural networks, typically with no more than two dozen inputs. As time passed, more data and more computational power became available. The models grew larger to the extent where expert knowledge was no longer enough to manage the complex structures. This, in turn, led to the introduction of machine learning (ML) techniques in this rapidly developing and fascinating area. Here, we provide an overview of the main trends and EPF models as of 2022.
    Date: 2022–04
  28. By: Nicholas M. Odhiambo
    Abstract: In this paper, the causal relationship between trade openness and energy consumption in 20 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries during the period 1990-2019 is examined. Trade openness is derived from three components, namely total trade, total exports, and total imports, all expressed as a percentage of GDP. In order to account for the omission-of-variable bias, economic growth and urbanisation have been incorporated as intermittent variables between the various components of trade openness and energy consumption. The study first examines the presence of cross-sectional dependence among the countries employed using four cross-sectional dependence tests. Thereafter, both the first- and second-generation unit root tests are used to examine the order of integration. In addition, three panel cointegration tests are used to examine the cointegration among the variables included in the study. Using a multivariate ECM-based panel Granger-causality test, the study found that there is a unidirectional causal flow from trade openness to energy consumption, but only when the exports are used as a proxy for trade openness. When total trade and total imports are used as proxies, no causality is found to exist between trade openness and energy consumption in either direction, irrespective of whether the causality test is conducted in the short run or in the long run. This finding, though contrary to some of the previous studies, is not surprising given the disparity in trade balance and energy challenges facing many SSA countries.
  29. By: Souhir Ben Amor; Heni Boubaker; Lotfi Belkacem
    Abstract: Accurate electricity price forecasting is the main management goal for market participants since it represents the fundamental basis to maximize the profits for market players. However, electricity is a non-storable commodity and the electricity prices are affected by some social and natural factors that make the price forecasting a challenging task. This study investigates the predictive performance of a new hybrid model based on the Generalized long memory autoregressive model (k-factor GARMA), the Gegenbauer Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity(G-GARCH) process, Wavelet decomposition, and Local Linear Wavelet Neural Network (LLWNN) optimized using two different learning algorithms; the Backpropagation algorithm (BP) and the Particle Swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). The performance of the proposed model is evaluated using data from Nord Pool Electricity markets. Moreover, it is compared with some other parametric and non-parametric models in order to prove its robustness. The empirical results prove that the proposed method performs well than other competing techniques.
    Date: 2022–04
  30. By: Giacomo Battiston; Gianmarco Daniele; Marco Le Moglie; Paolo Pinotti
    Abstract: We show that the War on Drugs launched by the Mexican President Felipe Calderón in 2007 pushed drug cartels into large-scale oil thefts. Municipalities that the presidential candidate’s party barely won at the local elections in 2007-2009 exhibit a larger increase in illegal oil taps over the following years, compared to municipalities in which the presidential candidate’s party barely lost the elections. Challenger cartels in the drug market leapfrog incumbent drug cartels when entering the new illegal activity, analogous to what is typically observed in legal markets. Since challengers and incumbents specialize in different criminal sectors, the expansion of challengers does not increase violence in municipalities traversed by oil pipelines. At the same time, the municipalities traversed by a pipeline witness a decrease in schooling rates.
    Keywords: organized crime, War on Drugs, oil thefts, leapfrogging
    JEL: K42 L20
    Date: 2022
  31. By: Mohammad Asghari (emlyon business school); Seyed Mohammad Javad Mirzapour Al-E-Hashem; Yacine Rekik
    Abstract: This study addresses one of the most challenging issues in designing a sustainable and efficient ride-sharing service. This paper uses an extensive computational study to quantify the behavior of carpooling in customized bus routing problems. This mechanism allows organizations to draw on the potential of their employees' private cars to provide convenient alternative rides for other employees, thereby reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions as well as increasing overall satisfaction with the transportation system offered. The objective functions minimize: (i) total transportation costs and incentives paid to drivers of private cars, (ii) dissatisfaction as determined by staff walking distance, travel time, and delays in arriving at work, and (iii) total carbon emissions generated by commuting. We propose a resolution algorithm based on Pareto Strength Ant Colony Optimization (PSACO) as an effective meta-heuristic method for solving the multi-objective mathematical model and compare it with the results obtained by an exact method. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed problem have been evaluated by performing computational experiments on a real case study in Paris using a number of comparative metrics with appropriate assumptions. Different parameters affecting the performance of the algorithm are also investigated. The concluding section presents a comparison of the results achieved. The test outcomes confirm that the formulation and the solution methods can be useful references for practice. The insights obtained from the research could provide the basis for designing incentive schemes and information campaigns aimed at making ride-sharing systems more successful and improving their performance.
    Keywords: Ride-sharing system,Customized buses,vehicle routing problem,Sustainable transportation,Pareto strength ant colony optimization
    Date: 2022–01–17
  32. By: Julia Nasiadka; Weronika Nitka; Rafa{\l} Weron
    Abstract: We employ a recently proposed change-point detection algorithm, the Narrowest-Over-Threshold (NOT) method, to select subperiods of past observations that are similar to the currently recorded values. Then, contrarily to the traditional time series approach in which the most recent $\tau$ observations are taken as the calibration sample, we estimate autoregressive models only for data in these subperiods. We illustrate our approach using a challenging dataset - day-ahead electricity prices in the German EPEX SPOT market - and observe a significant improvement in forecasting accuracy compared to commonly used approaches, including the Autoregressive Hybrid Nearest Neighbors (ARHNN) method.
    Date: 2022–04
  33. By: Italo Colantone; Livio Di Lonardo; Yotam Margalit; Marco Percoco
    Abstract: For many governments enacting green policies is a priority, but these often entail substantial and uneven costs on citizens. How does the introduction of green policies affect voting? We study this question in the context of a major ban on polluting cars introduced in Milan. The policy was strongly opposed by the right-wing populist party Lega, portraying it as a “radical-chic-leftist” initiative penalizing common people. We show that owners of banned vehicles—who incurred a median loss of €3,750—were significantly more likely to vote for Lega in the subsequent elections. This electoral shift does not stem from increased environmental skepticism, but rather from the perceived unfairness of the policy and its pocketbook implications. In fact, recipients of compensation from the local government were not more likely to switch to Lega. The findings underscore that addressing the distributive consequences is key for advancing green policies that are politically sustainable.
    Keywords: environmental politics, green policies, distributional consequences, compensation mechanisms
    JEL: P10 D70 Q50
    Date: 2022
  34. By: Hekmatpour, Peyman; Leslie, Carrie McLachlin
    Abstract: Ambient air pollution is among the most pressing environmental problems in our contemporary world that poses significant risks to global ecological and public health. This study analyzes cross-national heterogeneities in trajectories of death rates attributable to ambient air pollution. Compiling panel data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, the Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS), and the World Development Indicators, we create a dataset that tracks 169 countries from 1991 to 2017. Using growth curve models (GCMs), we estimate country-specific trajectories of death rates attributable to air pollution, and condition them on time-invariant and time-varying independent variables. The results suggest that while the global death rate attributable to air pollution has been continuously decreasing, there are heterogeneities in countries’ death rate trajectories based on their geographic location and position in the world economy. High-income countries of the global North have perpetually witnessed lower death rates attributable to air pollution compared to middle- and low-income countries of the global South. Moreover, our results indicate that increased export to high-income countries, as a proxy for ecologically unequal exchange, leads to higher death rates from air pollution in middle- and low-income countries.
    Date: 2022–03–29
  35. By: Narantungalag, Odmaa
    Abstract: This paper investigates the economic impacts of the mining sector on household expenditures. Employing the difference-in-differences model and the Mongolia Household Socio-Economic Survey data from 2008 to 2016, I find that the mining activities benefited local residents. Specifically, mining activities increase household expenditures on food, health, and electricity, respectively, while households reduce their expenditures on education and other non-food items. Interestingly, illness did not increase in the resource-producing region, while educational attainment improved. The findings highlight that the positive impacts of the mining sector are likely to be higher than what is determined by traditional welfare measurements of income and consumption. I provide some anecdotal evidence that the changes in household expenditure patterns can be due to increased availability of health care services and educational facilities in the mining region.
    Keywords: Mining,Natural Resources,Regional Economy,Economic Development
    JEL: L72 O12 O13 Q32 R11
    Date: 2022
  36. By: Raouf Bouccekine (Rennes School of Business); Weihua Ruan (Purdue University Northwest); Benteng Zou (DEM, Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: We study a 2-country differential game with irreversible pollution. Irreversibil- ity is of a hard type: above a certain threshold level of pollution, the self-cleaning capacity of Nature drops to zero. Accordingly, the game includes a non-concave fea- ture, and we characterize both the cooperative and non-cooperative versions with this general non-LQ property. We deliver full analytical results for the existence of Markov Perfect Equilibria. We first demonstrate that when pollution costs are equal across players (symmetry), irreversible pollution regimes are more frequently reached than under cooperation. Second, we study the implications of asymmetry in the pollution cost. We find far nontrivial results on the reachability of the ir- reversible regime. However, we unambiguously prove that, for the same total cost of pollution, provided the irreversible regime is reached in both the symmetric and asymmetric cases, long-term pollution is larger in the symmetric case, reflecting more intensive free-riding under symmetry.
    Keywords: Differential games, Irreversible pollution, Non-concave pollution decay, Asymmetric pollution cost, Markov Perfect Equilibria.
    JEL: C72 C61 Q53
    Date: 2022
  37. By: Xiaoying Liu; Jere R. Behrman; Emily Hannum; Fan Wang; Qingguo Zhao
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether associations between birth weight and prenatal ambient environmental conditions--pollution and extreme temperatures--differ by 1) maternal education; 2) children's innate health; and 3) interactions between these two. We link birth records from Guangzhou, China, during a period of high pollution, to ambient air pollution (PM10 and a composite measure) and extreme temperature data. We first use mean regressions to test whether, overall, maternal education is an "effect modifier" in the relationships between ambient air pollution, extreme temperature, and birth weight. We then use conditional quantile regressions to test for effect heterogeneity according to the unobserved innate vulnerability of babies after conditioning on other confounders. Results show that 1) the negative association between ambient exposures and birth weight is twice as large at lower conditional quantiles of birth weights as at the median; 2) the protection associated with college-educated mothers with respect to pollution and extreme heat is heterogeneous and potentially substantial: between 0.02 and 0.34 standard deviations of birth weights, depending on the conditional quantiles; 3) this protection is amplified under more extreme ambient conditions and for infants with greater unobserved innate vulnerabilities.
    Date: 2022–04
  38. By: Frédéric Reynès (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po, NEO - Netherlands Economic Observatory); Meriem Hamdi‑cherif (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Gissela Landa (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Paul Malliet (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Alexandre Tourbah (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: L'objectif de ce Policy brief est de faire le diagnostic des politiques de lutte contre le changement climatique en France et de mettre en avant les grands chantiers nécessaires. Nous revenons d'abord sur les performances de la France en matière de baisse des émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Bien que des efforts soient engagés, les politiques mises en oeuvre sont en retard par rapport à l'objectif de la neutralité carbone à l'horizon 2050. Au rythme de baisse des émissions des 10 dernières années, cet objectif ne serait atteint qu'en 2130. Il est donc primordial dès le prochain quinquennat de relancer concrètement la politique environnementale de la France. Pour mettre la France sur une trajectoire de décarbonation ambitieuse et réaliste, deux stratégies sont souvent opposées. La première repose sur les évolutions technologiques tandis que la seconde s'appuie sur la sobriété énergétique. Nous montrons au contraire la complémentarité des deux approches qui ont chacune leurs incertitudes : pari technologique versus pari de la modification des comportements. Le point commun de toute stratégie compatible avec la neutralité carbone en 2050 est qu'un effort significatif à mettre en oeuvre sans délai est nécessaire. Un enjeu important de l'élection présidentielle est de trancher démocratiquement sur quoi doit porter cet effort et sur les instruments à privilégier : inciter à des modes de consommation plus sobres, investir massivement dans des modes de production d'énergie décarbonée, faire des choix technologiques, etc. Cela nous amène à discuter des avantages et des inconvénients des principaux instruments économiques (prix du carbone, subventions, investissements publics, normes, sensibilisations) dont disposent les décideurs politiques pour mettre en oeuvre la transition bas carbone. Nous en tirons plusieurs conclusions. Aucun instrument n'étant parfait, la politique environnementale nécessite de s'appuyer sur une combinaison d'instruments et donc d'être pensée dans sa globalité. Le manque de considération des questions d'acceptabilité et de justice sociale sont des éléments clé pour expliquer les blocages autour des politiques de lutte contre le changement climatique. Nous proposons deux pistes pour relancer les politiques environnementales :
    Date: 2022–02–09
  39. By: Geir B. Asheim; Kohei Kamaga; Stéphane Zuber
    Abstract: Climate change is an externality since those who emit greenhouse gases do not pay the long-term negative consequences of their emissions. In view of the resulting inefficiency, it has been claimed that climate policies can be evaluated by the Pareto principle. However, climate policies lead to different identities of future people, implying that the Pareto principle is not applicable. Assuming that there are infinitely many future people whose identities are not observable, we specify conditions under which their spatiotemporal positions do not matter. This implies that the Suppes-Sen principle whereby ranked streams are compared plays an important role and justifies that following dominance relation: A state a is said to dominate another state b if a Pareto dominates b for existing people and Suppes-Sen dominates b for future people, with at least one of the two being strict. We illustrate the consequences of this dominance definition for policy choice.
    Keywords: climate change, efficiency, intergenerational equity, population ethics, infinite streams
    JEL: D61 D63 D71 Q54
    Date: 2022
  40. By: Catherine Locatelli (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: L'industrie gazière russe a joué un rôle central dans la transition économique russe. Mais les évolutions structurelles du marché mondial du gaz obligent ce secteur se réformer.Progressivement ce modèle tant à évoluer pour tenter de répondre à des marchés gaziers plus concurrentiels et plus volatils notamment en termes de prix ainsi qu'aux enjeux induits par la contrainte climatique.
    Keywords: Russie,Industrie du gaz naturel
    Date: 2022–02
  41. By: Nicolas Piluso (CERTOP - Centre d'Etude et de Recherche Travail Organisation Pouvoir - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès)
    Abstract: Keynesian macroeconomics has known since the 2000s important developments on the theme of global warming and more broadly environmental constraints weighing on the economy. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the lessons learned from these main models which mostly start from a radical critique of the neoclassical approach on the ecological question. Post-Keynesians highlight the need for strong public intervention to modify our current growth model. The other Keynesians underline the modification of the effects of economic policies when they are coupled with a climate policy.
    Abstract: La macroéconomie keynésienne a connu depuis les années 2000 des développements importants sur la thématique du réchauffement climatique et des contraintes environnementales pesant sur l'économie. L'objet de cet article est de réaliser une synthèse des enseignements de ces principaux modèles qui partent pour la plupart d'une critique radicale de l'approche néoclassique sur la question écologique. Les post-keynésiens mettent en évidence la nécessité d'une intervention publique forte pour modifier notre modèle de croissance actuel. Les autres keynésiens soulignent la modification des effets des politiques économiques lorsqu'elles sont couplées à une politique climatique.
    Keywords: growth,keynesian modeling,global warming,economic policy,carbon tax,taxe carbone,modèle keynésien,réchauffement climatique,politique économique,croissance
    Date: 2022–02–02
  42. By: \'Eric Herbert; Gael Giraud; Aur\'elie Louis-Napol\'eon; Christophe Goupil
    Abstract: This paper presents a conceptual model describing the medium and long-term co-evolution of natural and socio-economic subsystems of Earth. An economy is viewed as an out-of-equilibrium dissipative structure that can only be maintained with a flow of energy and matter. The distinctive approach emphasized here consists in capturing the economic impact of natural ecosystems being depleted and destroyed by human activities via a pinch of thermodynamic potentials. This viewpoint allows: (i) the full-blown integration of a limited quantity of primary resources into a non-linear macrodynamics that is stock-flow consistent both in terms of matter-energy as well as economic transactions; (ii) the inclusion of natural and forced recycling; (iii) the inclusion of a friction term which reflects the impossibility of producing goods and services in high metabolising intensity without exuding energy and matter wastes; (iv) the computation of the anthropically produced entropy as a function of intensity and friction. Analysis and numerical computations confirm the role played by intensity and friction as key factors for sustainability. Our approach is flexible enough to allow for various economic models to be embedded into our thermodynamic framework.
    Date: 2022–04
  43. By: Elissaios Pappyrakis; Osiris Jorge Parcero
    Abstract: Despite rapidly-expanding academic and policy interest in the links between natural resource wealth and development failures (commonly referred to as the resource curse) little attention has been devoted to the psychology behind the phenomenon. Rent-seeking and excessive reliance on mineral revenues can be attributed largely to social psychology. Mineral booms (whether due to the discovery of mineral reserves or to the drastic rise in commodity prices) start as positive income shocks that can subsequently evolve into influential and expectation-changing public and media narratives; these lead consecutively to unrealistic demands that favor immediate consumption of accrued mineral revenues and to the postponement of productive investment. To our knowledge, this paper is the first empirical analysis that tests hypotheses regarding the psychological underpinnings of resource mismanagement in mineral-rich states. Our study relies on an extensive personal survey (of 1977 respondents) carried out in Almaty, Kazakhstan, between May and August 2018. We find empirical support for a positive link between exposure to news and inflated expectations regarding mineral availability, as well as evidence that the latter can generate preferences for excessive consumption, and hence, rent-seeking.
    Date: 2022–04
  44. By: Sigita Strumskyte (OECD); Sara Ramos Magaña (OECD); Helene Bendig (OECD)
    Abstract: Women’s participation in environmental decision-making is important for advancing both gender equality and environmental action. The presence of women in political decision-making is linked to more ambitious climate goals and policies. Women on corporate boards consistently prioritise environmental, social and governance issues, including climate and sustainability. In civil society, women around the world are creating powerful networks to combat environmental degradation and tackle climate-related inequalities. Despite these benefits, significant gender gaps in environmental leadership persist across countries and sectors, with some of the widest occurring in countries especially vulnerable to climate change and where its gender‑differentiated impacts are most acute. This paper reviews existing evidence on women’s environmental leadership in public governance, environmentally-sensitive industries, and civil society, and its impact on environmental outcomes in these sectors. It identifies potential policy actions as well as areas for further data collection and research. La participation des femmes au processus décisionnel en matière d'environnement est importante pour faire progresser l'égalité des sexes ainsi que l'action environnementale. La présence des femmes dans la prise de décision politique est liée à des objectifs et des politiques climatiques plus ambitieux. Les femmes au sein des conseils d'administration accordent systématiquement la priorité aux questions environnementales, sociales et de gouvernance, y compris celles du climat et de la durabilité. Dans la société civile, les femmes du monde entier créent des réseaux puissants pour lutter contre la dégradation de l'environnement et les inégalités liées au climat. Malgré ces avantages, des écarts importants entre les sexes en matière de leadership environnemental persistent dans les pays et les secteurs, avec les plus importants se produisant dans les pays particulièrement vulnérables au changement climatique et où ses impacts différentiels selon le sexe sont les plus aigus. Ce document examine des données existantes sur le leadership environnemental des femmes dans la gouvernance publique, les industries sensibles à l'environnement et la société civile, ainsi que son impact sur les résultats environnementaux dans ces secteurs. Il identifie des actions politiques potentielles ainsi que les domaines dans lesquels des données et des recherches supplémentaires sont nécessaires.
    Keywords: cclimate change, environmental action, environmental sustainability, gender environment nexus, gender equality, leadership, women's empowerment
    JEL: D71 J16 J18 M51 Q56
    Date: 2022–04–29
  45. By: Mohamed Boutabba (Université Paris-Saclay, EPEE - Centre d'Etudes des Politiques Economiques - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - Université Paris-Saclay); Yves Rannou (Groupe ESC Clermont, CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - ESC Clermont-Ferrand - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: The green bond market has dramatically expanded especially in Europe but severe liquidity issues may undermine its rapid development. If few studies have assessed the implied liquidity risks for investors in terms of liquidity premium, none of them have specifically analysed its behavior across bond maturities. To fill this gap, this paper studies the term structure of the liquidity premium of the green bond market. We find that the sizes of short-term and long-term premia are close to those estimated on the German government bond market. We show that those premia are affected by economic factors and by spillover effects between them, which contribute to the U-Shape of the liquidity premium. Finally, we detect a liquidity clientele effect on the ask side impacting the liquidity premium, which implies a maturity segmentation i.e., high-risk (resp. low-risk) investors buy short-term (resp. long-term) green bonds and hold them until maturity. Taken together, our results deliver valuable insights on investors' strategies in the green bond market. Quite importantly, green bond investors prefer to opt for buy and hold strategies because they are compensated for higher liquidity risks along the entire maturity spectrum.
    Keywords: Clientele effect,Spillover effects,Term structure,Liquidity Premium,Green Bond
    Date: 2022–02–15
  46. By: Olivier J Blanchard (Peterson Institute for International Economics); Jean Pisani-Ferry (Peterson Institute for International Economics)
    Abstract: The economic shock from the war in Ukraine is forcing Europe to face difficult policy choices, according to Olivier Blanchard and Jean Pisani-Ferry. Governments must decide how best to soften the blow of higher energy and food prices, and how much to rely on debt finance. The European Central Bank must decide how to balance the fight against inflation with the need to sustain aggregate demand, in the face of decreases in real income. The authors analyze the impact of the war on the European economy, discuss the pros and cons of policy options, and call for coherence in balancing sanctions, fiscal measures, and monetary policy. They argue for the use of transfers rather than across-the-board subsidies and point to the room for debt finance. They show the potential role of tripartite wage agreement and also argue that monetary policy can remain on its current trajectory but be ready to adjust.
    Date: 2022–04
  47. By: Marco P. Vianna Franco (Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research - Partenaires INRAE); Antoine Missemer (CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The history of ecological economic thought (EET) has been addressed in different ways and according to multifarious foundations, given the evolving character of conceptions of natural processes and economic phenomena. This article proposes a theoretical framework for understanding EET as the set of ideas bridging the social and the natural worlds by means of shared ontologies and epistemologies. These ideas stand against the human-nature divide which characterizes modern Western thought, contribute to thinking about contemporary sustainability challenges, and offer a more structured intellectual history of the roots of ecological economics. The article argues that writing the history of EET calls for an appraisal of historiographical challenges, in particular the risks posed by presentism and anachronism. It also reviews the literature engaging with the history of EET and, finally, identifies new lines of research, especially in terms of global narratives.
    Abstract: A história do pensamento econômico-ecológico (PEE) tem sido construída de diversas formas e de acordo com diferentes fundamentos, dado o caráter evolutivo de conceitos relacionados a processos naturais e econômicos. Este artigo propõe um arcabouço teórico para se entender o PEE como um conjunto de ideias interligando as esferas social e natural por meio de ontologias e epistemologias compartilhadas. Essas ideias se opõem a dicotomias entre o humano e o natural que caracterizam o pensamento ocidental moderno, contribuindo para a elucidação de desafios contemporâneos no contexto da sustentabilidade e oferecendo uma história intelectual estruturada das raízes da economia ecológica. O artigo defende que escrever a história do PEE requer o escrutínio dos desafios historiográficos, em particular dos riscos associados ao presentismo e ao anacronismo; além disso, ele traz uma revisão da literatura sobre PEE e, finalmente, identifica novas linhas de pesquisa com destaque para narrativas globais.
    Keywords: intellectual history,strong interdisciplinarity,historiography,ecological economics,longue durée,economia ecológica,história intelectual,interdisciplinaridade forte,historiografia
    Date: 2022

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