nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2020‒04‒27
thirty papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. Cost of CO2 Emission Mitigation and its Decomposition: Evidence from Coal-fired Thermal Power Sector in India By Surender Kumar; Rakesh Kumar Jain
  2. Exiting the fossil world: The effects of fuel taxation in the UK By Lucas Bretschger; Elise Grieg
  3. Utilizing Highway Rest Areas for Electric Vehicle Charging: Economics and Impacts on Renewable Energy Penetration in California By Kiani, Behdad; Ogden, Joan; Sheldon, F. Alex; Cordano, Lauren
  4. What drives the premium for energy-efficient apartments - green awareness or purchasing power? By Pommeranz, Carolin; Steininger, Bertram
  5. Low-carbon options for the French power sector: What role for renewables, nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage? By Behrang Shirizadeh; Philippe Quirion
  6. Stated Willingness to Pay for Residential Renewable Electricity and Green Jobs in Aguascalientes, Mexico By Martinez-Cruz, Adan L.; Nuñez, Hector
  7. The Effect of Blackouts on Households’ Electrification Status: evidence from Kenya By Raúl Bajo-Buenestado
  8. The Role of CETA on Carbon Dioxide, F-Gasses, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide By Qirjo, Dhimitri; Pascalau, Razvan; Krichevskiy, Dmitriy
  9. Do habitual energy saving behaviors of household heads impact energy consumption in their own dwelling? An exploration in the French residential sector By Charlier, Dorothée; Martinez-Cruz, Adan L.
  10. Recycling under environmental, climate and resource constraints By Gilles Lafforgue; Etienne Lorang
  11. Recycling under environmental, climate and resource constraints By Gilles Lafforgue; Etienne Lorang
  12. Male-biased demand shocks and women's labour force participation: evidence from large oil field discoveries By Maurer, Stephan; Potlogea, Andrei V.
  13. A Regime Switching Analysis of the Income-Pollution Path with time Varying- Elasticities in a Heterogeneous Panel of Countries By Amos, Sanday; Zoundi, Zakaria
  14. Exploring the Inflationary Effect of Oil Price Volatility in Africa's Oil Exporting Countries By Sina J. Ogede; Emmanuel O. George; Ibrahim A. Adekunle
  15. A Vector Autoregressive Model of Forecast Electricity Consumption in France By Stéphane AURAY; Vincent CAPONI
  16. How to make the European Green Deal work By Grégory Claeys; Simone Tagliapietra; Georg Zachmann
  17. Competition in the German Electricity Retail Business: Innovation and Growth Strategies By Amelung, Torsten
  18. The redistributive effects of carbon taxation in France By Thomas Douenne
  20. A small volume reduction that melts down the market: Auctions with endogenous rationing By Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Hanke, Ann-Katrin; Ott, Marion
  21. Wind of change: Small-scale electricity production and distribution grid efficiency in Sweden By Vesterberg, Mattias; Zhou, Wenchao; Lundgren, Tommy
  22. Mujeres y energía By -
  23. Stated benefits from urban afforestation in an arid city: A contingent valuation in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico By Muñoz-Pizza, Dalia M.; Villada-Canela, Mariana; Rivera-Castañeda, Patricia; Reyna-Carranza, Marco A.; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Martínez-Cruz, Adan L.
  24. Consumers struggle to choose new types of electricity tariffs, but comparison tools can help By Belton, Cameron; Lunn, Pete
  25. Notas sobre la historia y el impacto de las leyes de servicios públicos de 1994 By Armando Montenegro
  26. Environmental taxation: Pigouvian or Leviathan? By Isabelle Cadoret; Emma Galli; Fabio Padovano
  27. Zu den Verbraucherpreiseffekten des Klimapakets By Fiedler, Salomon
  28. La responsabilité sociale de l’entreprise (RSE) : la « vieille » RSE d’avant les Accords de Paris de 2015 et de la pandémie covid-19 de 2020 By Yvon Pesqueux
  29. The European Union-Russia-China energy triangle By Georg Zachmann
  30. Les effets redistributifs de la fiscalité carbone en France By Thomas Douenne

  1. By: Surender Kumar (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics); Rakesh Kumar Jain (Indian Railways, New Delhi, India)
    Abstract: We estimate Carbon Mitigation Cost (CMC), and the factors determining change in CMC using environmental production function. The CMC index is defined as the ratio of maximum production of electricity under unregulated and regulated production technology. Change in CMC index is decomposed into technical change, scale change and change in the level of CO2 emissions. The production function is estimated for 45 coal-fired thermal power plants over the period of 2008 – 2012 using Data Envelopment Analysis. Decomposition of CMC change reveals that impacts of changes in scale of operation and CO2 emissions were more than the reduced costs realized due to technical changes. We find that the sample plants in Indian coal-fired thermal power sector had to sacrifice about 3.5 percent of electricity production amounting to 2005US$ 1702 million of revenue loss over the 5 years due to regulation of CO2 emissions.
    JEL: C61 D24 Q22 Q54
    Date: 2020–03
  2. By: Lucas Bretschger (Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH), ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Elise Grieg (Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH), ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Carbon taxes remain economists favoured policy tool to curb emissions, but are unpopular among segments of the populations. Theoretical and numerical work tends to show the effectiveness of carbon taxes, but ex-post empirical analyses are still rare. In this paper we attempt to bridge this gap. We construct a theoretical general equilibrium model with dirty and clean transportation to show the static and dynamic effects of a fuel tax on transportation and consumption by deriving closed-form solutions. We take the predictions of the model to data on the UK Fuel Tax Escalator, and estimate the impact of the tax on CO2 emissions, GDP, and transport behaviour. With a potential control pool of OECD countries, we use the synthetic control method to estimate the difference between the observed outcome in the UK and a synthetic counterfactual UK. We find that the tax has a large and significant impact on CO2 emissions from trafic, while there is no discernable impact on GDP or growth. We do not find large changes in driving behaviours, but the available evidence points to a possible switch to rail travel from road travel.
    Keywords: fuel tax, synthetic control method, climate policy, transport, level and growth effects
    JEL: Q43 O47 Q56 O41
    Date: 2020–04
  3. By: Kiani, Behdad; Ogden, Joan; Sheldon, F. Alex; Cordano, Lauren
    Abstract: California policy is incentivizing rapid adoption of zero emission electric vehicles for light-duty and freight applications. This project explored how locating charging facilities at California’s highway rest stops might impact electricity demand, grid operation, and integration of renewables like solar and wind into California’s energy mix. Assuming a growing population of electric vehicles to meet state goals, state-wide growth of electricity demand was estimated, and the most attractive rest stop locations for siting chargers identified. Using a California-specific electricity dispatch model developed at UC Davis, the project estimated how charging vehicles at these stations would impact renewable energy curtailment in California. It estimated the impacts of charging infrastructures on California’s electricity system and how they can be utilized to decrease the duck curve effect resulting from a large amount of solar energy penetration by 2050. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Highway Rest Areas, Electric Vehicle Charging, Energy System, Renewable Energy, Long-distance Travel
    Date: 2020–04–01
  4. By: Pommeranz, Carolin (Munich, Germany); Steininger, Bertram (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: We analyze whether lower rents for energy-inefficient apartments reflect tenants’ willingness to pay due to a higher green awareness, purchasing power, or energy consumption costs. Based on a German rental apartment dataset from Q1 2007 to Q1 2019, we use interaction terms for socioeconomic characteristics in a hedonic regression model. We find that rents are lower for apartments with higher energy consumption, even in neighborhoods with lower levels of green awareness. This relationship is stronger in neighborhoods with higher purchasing power, such that communities with low levels of green awareness and high purchasing power show the steepest negative slope for increasing energy consumption (-8.6% from the highest to lowest rating). Thus, the rent-decreasing effect of purchasing power is higher than that of green awareness. Splitting the entire period into smaller windows, we find that the interaction effect of green awareness has emerged in the most recent years (2017-2019). This may be driven by changes in regulation, which have made it easier for tenants to assess the energy consumption before they rent, or by a general increase in green awareness over this period.
    Keywords: energy efficiency; energy performance certificates; price differentiation; consumer behavior
    JEL: D49 D82 Q43 Q48 Q51 R31
    Date: 2020–04–14
  5. By: Behrang Shirizadeh (CIRED / TOTAL S.A.); Philippe Quirion (CIRED)
    Abstract: In the wake of the Paris agreement, France has set a zero net greenhouse gas emission target by 2050. This target can only be achieved by rapidly decreasing the share of fossil fuels and accelerating the deployment of low-carbon technologies. We develop a detailed model of the power sector to investigate the role of different low emission and negative emission technologies in the French electricity mix and we identify the impact of the relative cost of these technologies for various values of the social cost of carbon (SCC). We show that for a wide range of SCC values (from 0 to 500€/tCO2), the optimal power mix consists of roughly 75% of renewable power. For a SCC value of 100€/tCO2, the power sector becomes nearly carbon neutral while for 200€/tCO2 and more, it provides negative emissions. The availability of negative emission technologies can decrease the system cost by up to 18% and can create up to 20MtCO2/year of negative emissions, while the availability of new nuclear is much less important. This study demonstrates the importance of an effective SCC value (as a tax for positive emissions and remuneration for negative emissions) to reach carbon neutrality for moderate costs. Negative emissions may represent an important carbon market which can attract investments if supported by public policies.
    Keywords: Power system modelling, Variable renewables, Negative emissions, Social cost of carbon, Nuclear energy
    JEL: Q47 Q48 H23 Q21
    Date: 2020–04
  6. By: Martinez-Cruz, Adan L. (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics); Nuñez, Hector (Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas (CIDE), Aguascalientes, Mexico)
    Abstract: Via a discrete choice experiment, this paper documents that residential electricity consumers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, are willing to pay a premium for renewable energies as well as for the creation of green jobs. These results are particularly timely because the current Federal administration has redirected priorities from an energy transition that was expected to boost renewable energies to the pursuing of energy sovereignty. Concerns regarding this prioritization have been raised by national and international stakeholders due to its potential economic ineffciency and its implications for the achievement of climate change goals. These concerns have only intensied as discussions begin on how Mexico should face the post-coronavirus recession. This paper's findings open the door to discuss whether a combination of a just energy transition together with the boosting of renewable energies should be part of a strategy to reach energy sovereignty at the same time that Mexico deals with a post-coronavirus world.
    Keywords: Residential renewable electricity demand; just energy transition; post-coronavirus policy; energy sovereignty; Mexico; discrete choice experiment
    JEL: Q42 Q48 Q51
    Date: 2020–04–15
  7. By: Raúl Bajo-Buenestado
    Abstract: A number of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have recently deployed billions of dollars to improve their electricity infrastructure. However, aggregate data shows that the relative number of households with an electricity connection at home has barely increased. In this paper we study the role of blackouts to partially explain why there have been relatively few additional households with electricity access despite the increase in electrification expenditure. Using geo-localized survey data from Kenya, we find that households that live in neighborhoods in which power outages are relatively more frequent are (at least) about 6%-9% less likely to have electricity at home. We also find that households that have electricity access but which experience frequent power outages are also less likely to purchase electrical appliances.
    Keywords: Energy poverty, Electricity access, Electrification rates, Sub-Saharan Africa.
    JEL: L94 O13 Q41 Q48
    Date: 2020–02
  8. By: Qirjo, Dhimitri; Pascalau, Razvan; Krichevskiy, Dmitriy
    Abstract: This study empirically investigates how the presence of CETA (Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement) may affect per capita emissions of four air pollutants. It follows closely the empirical work of (Qirjo et al., 2019), but it focuses in each category of GHGs. It finds statistically significant evidence suggesting that trade openness between the EU and Canada could help reduce per capita emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O in a typical CETA member, respectively. In the case of CO2, the presence of CETA may help reduce per capita emissions in almost all CETA members. However, there is empirical evidence that suggests that per capita emissions of CH4 could move from the EU towards Canada due to the implementation of CETA. There is also empirical evidence implying that there could be a shift of emissions per capita of N2O from Canada towards 8 former EU members due to the implementation of CETA. There is mainly statistically insignificant evidence of a positive relationship between the trade intensity of each EU member and Canada and per capita emissions of HFCs/PFCs/SF6. Furthermore, the study reports unambiguous empirical evidence in support of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis originating from national population density variations (PHH2) for Canada, in the case of CH4. Moreover, there is also clear evidence consistent with the Pollution Haven Hypothesis due to national income differences (PHH1) for 8 former Communist EU members, in the cases of N2O and HFCs/PFCs/SF6.
    Keywords: Free Trade, Environmental Economics, CETA.
    JEL: F11 F53 Q27 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2020–04–14
  9. By: Charlier, Dorothée (Institut de Management, Université Savoie Mont-Blanc, France); Martinez-Cruz, Adan L. (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether habitual energy saving behaviors of a household head impact actual energy consumption in his/her own dwelling. In doing so, this paper compares actual energy consumption across French households that, with exception of household heads’ energy saving behaviors, are similar in observables –including household composition and dwellings’ energy efficiency. Comparisons are carried out within three subsets of households, based on renovation status of dwellings –i) no renovation; ii) with renovations tackling health- and/or energy-related issues; and iii) with renovations aiming to increase thermal comfort. No differences in actual energy consumption are documented across the three subsamples. We interpret this result as suggesting that habitual energy saving behaviors of household heads may not compensate energy intensive behaviors of other household members and, consequently, may produce no discernible impact on their own dwelling’s energy consumption. This result highlights the potential for misleading conclusions when imputing the energy saving behaviors of the household head to the entire household –a conventional practice in a number of literatures. The French residential sector is taken as study case due to the uniqueness and richness of data collected by PHEBUS –the Performances of Housing, Energy Equipment, Needs and Uses of Energy Survey.
    Keywords: Habitual energy saving behaviors; household head’s preferences; energy performance gap; French residential sector; propensity score matching
    JEL: Q41 Q49
    Date: 2020–04–15
  10. By: Gilles Lafforgue (Toulouse Business School); Etienne Lorang (BETA-INRAE and Climate Economics Chair)
    Abstract: We study the recycling opportunity of an industrial sector constrained by climate, resource and waste capacities. A final good is produced from virgin and recycled materials, and its consumption releases both waste and GHG emissions. We identify the optimal trajectories of resources use, mainly depending on the emission rates of each resource and on the relative scarcity of their stocks. Recycling is sometimes an opportunity to reduce the impact of consumption on primary resources and waste but can still affect the environment. We characterize the optimal recycling strategy and we show that, in some cases, the time pace of the recycling rate is inverted U-shaped. Last, we discuss the policy implications of our model by identifying and analyzing the set of optimal tax-subsidy schemes.
    Keywords: Recycling, Resource extraction, Waste, GHG emissions
    JEL: Q32 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2020–04
  11. By: Gilles Lafforgue; Etienne Lorang
    Abstract: We study the recycling opportunity of an industrial sector constrained by climate, resource and waste capacities. A final good is produced from virgin and recycled materials, and its consumption releases both waste and GHG emissions. We identify the optimal trajectories of resources use, mainly depending on the emission rates of each resource and on the relative scarcity of their stocks. Recycling is sometimes an opportunity to reduce the impact of consumption on primary resources and waste but can still affect the environment. We characterize the optimal recycling strategy and we show that, in some cases, the time pace of the recycling rate is inverted U-shaped. Last, we discuss the policy implications of our model by identifying and analyzing the set of optimal tax-subsidy schemes.
    Keywords: Recycling, Waste, GHG emissions, Resource extraction
    JEL: Q32 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Maurer, Stephan; Potlogea, Andrei V.
    Abstract: Do male-biased labour demand shocks affect women's labour market outcomes? To study this question, we examine large oil field discoveries in the southern USA from 1900 to 1940. We find that oil wealth has an overall positive effect on female labour force participation that is driven by single women. While oil discoveries increase demand for male labour and raise male wages, they do not drive women out of the tradable goods sector or the labour force. Our findings suggest that the absence of any crowding out effects of oil wealth can be explained by compensating forces such as demand effects within the tradable sector, or by income effects that lead to growth in the non-tradable sector.
    Keywords: PhD Studentship
    JEL: R14 J01 J1
    Date: 2020–03–27
  13. By: Amos, Sanday; Zoundi, Zakaria
    Abstract: We analyze the threshold effects of income changes on CO2 emissions in a large sample of 95 countries, over the period 1980-2017. Our estimation uses a Panel Smooth Transition Regression (PSTR) and controls for urbanization, energy consumption and population. Results of the point estimates show that income-pollution relation is captured by three continuums of regimes, and smooth transitions from one regime to another. In the first transition, the income-pollution elasticity is positive, meaning that a rise in income leads to more pollution. In the second transition, the coefficient tends to zero and is insignificant. This second transition represents an intermediate stage matching with the peak of EKC U-inverted curve, where the rise in income does not necessarily lead to more pollution. The third transition corresponds to the highest living standard and is characterized by a negative parameter. Any additional income leads to lesser pollution. For low-income countries, the turning point occurs at 1017$, for middle income at 1890$ and for high income at 12397$. These suggestive values, estimated inside the model, rather than pre-determined provide evidence that low and middle-income countries will not reach developed countries’ living standards to have their depollution at a sustainable level. Also, there is neither a single income threshold nor income-pollution path through which all countries should go through. Besides, developed countries’ income-pollution path appears to be more stable and resilient to external shocks as opposed to low- and middle-income countries. The major undermining factor for the atmosphere among the control variables is primary energy consumption. The impact of primary energy consumption remains high at all stages, with an average impact rate on CO2 emissions of 0.65% for any additional consumption. Population growth has a more positive impact on CO2, on average, than urbanization.
    Keywords: Energy consumption, GDP Growth, Panel Smooth Transition
    JEL: C13 C50 F63 O44
    Date: 2019–11
  14. By: Sina J. Ogede (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria); Emmanuel O. George (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria); Ibrahim A. Adekunle (Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria)
    Abstract: A range of explanations had been offered for the apparent change in oil price-inflation relationship outcomes ranging from the possible use of alternate energy sources, change in the structure of output regarding fewer oil intensive sectors and the role of fiscal and monetary in the affected oil-exporting countries. These changes had drawn the attention of stakeholders, government and the society at large to the anecdotal relationship among oil price volatility, inflation, and output in Africa oil-exporting countries. This study leans empirical credence to the impact of oil price volatility on inflation and economic performance in the Africa oil-exporting countries from 1995 through 2017. We employed the Pool Mean Group estimation procedure with the inference drawn at a 5% level of significance. We found that oil price volatility had a negative and significant effect on inflation in Africa oil-exporting countries. The study concluded that oil price volatility had a substantial impact on inflation in the Africa oil-exporting countries. The study, therefore, recommended that Africa oil-exporting countries should adopt precautionary measures to monitor inflation potentials due to different responses of inflation to positive and negative oil price shocks.
    Keywords: Oil Price Volatility; Inflation; Growth Outcomes; Pool Mean Group; Africa.
    JEL: C33 O55 Q41
    Date: 2020–01
  15. By: Stéphane AURAY (CREST-ENSAI and ULCO); Vincent CAPONI (CREST-ENSAI and IZA)
    Abstract: This provides a VARX approach for the estimation of electricity demand in metropolitan France. Our methodology takes into account the complex relation- ship between weather variables and electricity demand, especially in the short and medium run, and the correlation in the longer run, between electricity and macroeconomic variables. We are able to provide a reliable conditional forecasting that, within the VAR framework, takes into account the common dependency of electricity consumption and other variables. While the VAR approach is not novel within this literature, our main contributions lie on the use of exible functions that capture the role of weather to explain electricity consumption together with macroeconomic trend and cycle variables, and on the use of very detailed and comprehensive data on actual metered consumption of electricity in France. In- sample and out-sample forecasts provide evidence that our method is reliable for predicting future scenarios conditional on exogenous variables.
    Keywords: Electricity Forecast.
    JEL: Q43 Q47
    Date: 2020–02–12
  16. By: Grégory Claeys; Simone Tagliapietra; Georg Zachmann
    Abstract: European Commission president-designate Ursula von der Leyen has made climate change a top priority, promising to propose a European Green Deal that would make Europe climate neutral by 2050. The European Green Deal should be conceived as a reallocation mechanism, fostering investment shifts and labour substitution in key economic sectors, while supporting the most vulnerable segments of society throughout the decarbonisation process. The deal’s four pillars would be carbon pricing,...
    Date: 2019–11
  17. By: Amelung, Torsten
    Abstract: In Europe and especially in Germany short-term price adjustments by retail companies are led by behavioral patterns that follow the logic of the prisoner’s dilemma. In order to escape this short-term competitive pressure, an increasing number of retail companies focus on the diversification of their activities by offering new product lines such as distributed energy solutions. Moreover, there is a trend towards investing in the development of a brand to increase customer loyalty.
    Keywords: short term price competition,second-mover-advantage,product versioning,diversification,distributed energy solutions,brand strategy,digitalization,affiliate marketing
    Date: 2020
  18. By: Thomas Douenne (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IPP - Institut des politiques publiques)
    Abstract: Although widely endorsed by economists, carbon tax is struggling to establish itself on the agendas of public decision-makers. One of the reasons for its slow development is the fear that it might generate major redistributive effects, and in particular discriminate against the lowest-income households. This policy brief presents the findings of an ex ante assessment of the redistributive effects on households of the environmental taxation reforms in France in 2018. Carbon tax is intrinsically regressive, but it generates additional revenue. By transferring this revenue neutrally to all households, a progressive reform would be obtained. However, even in such a situation, the reform would generate considerable redistributive effects within the income groups. Such horizontal transfers, which are more difficult to correct, suggest that other tools are necessary for reducing the impact of the reform on the most vulnerable. Looking to the long term, it appears essential to invest in improving the energy performance of housing and of transport. Such policies meet not only environmental requirements, but also the need to reduce the vulnerability of the lowest-income households to future energy price rises.
    Date: 2018–07
  19. By: Mitravinda, Kakarla Sai; R, Pavithra
    Abstract: This paper focuses on finding the extent of relationship between gold and crude oil prices and predicting the futuristic trend values.
    Date: 2020–04–17
  20. By: Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Hanke, Ann-Katrin; Ott, Marion
    Abstract: Auctions with endogenous rationing have been introduced to stimulate competition. Such (procurement) auctions reduce the volume put out to tender when competition is low. This paper finds a strong negative effect of endogenous rationing on participation when bid-preparation is costly, counteracting the aim to stimulate competition. For multiple auctioneer's objectives mentioned in directives, we derive optimal mechanisms, which differ due to different evaluation of the tradeoff between participation and bid-preparation costs. Thus, the auctioneer needs to decide on an objective. However, reducing bid-preparation costs improves the optimal values of multiple objective functions.
    Keywords: auction,participation,market design,optimal mechanism,renewable energy support
    JEL: D82 Q48 D47 D44
    Date: 2020
  21. By: Vesterberg, Mattias (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics); Zhou, Wenchao (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics); Lundgren, Tommy (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper, we measure the technical efficiency for local electricity distribution firms in Sweden, and in particular how small- and micro-scale generation affects efficiency scores. Using two-stage data envelope analysis to model the technical efficiency and a double bootstrap approach to estimate the determinants of inefficiencies, we show that firms are heterogenous in terms of inefficiency, but that a large share of small- and micro-scale generation is not associated with more inefficient operations.
    Keywords: Data Envelope Analysis; Bootstrap; Efficiency
    JEL: C14 D42 Q41
    Date: 2020–04–15
  22. By: -
    Abstract: En septiembre de 2015, los gobiernos del mundo acordaron la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible, dentro de la que se incluye un objetivo de igualdad de género, mismo que es necesario para el cumplimiento de los otros 16 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y sus 169 metas. En la región, las mujeres destinan una gran parte de su tiempo al trabajo no remunerado, más concretamente a quehaceres domésticos, recolección de leña y agua, sobre todo en áreas rurales, y al cuidado de los hijos, adultos mayores, enfermos y personas con discapacidad. Esto implica que las mujeres dispongan de menos tiempo para realizar actividades económicas remuneradas. Los estereotipos y los roles socialmente asignados a hombres y a mujeres están directamente vinculados con el acceso y uso que cada uno de los géneros le da a la energía. Para el sector energético se identifican dos dimensiones necesidades básicas, por una parte, y participación económica, por otra. En la primera, la recolección de leña recae principalmente en la mujer Para la segunda, existe baja participación de las niñas y mujeres en ciencia, tecnología, ingeniería y matemáticas (STEM, por sus siglas en inglés), al igual que en el sector energético profesional, debido principalmente a temas de índole sociocultural, así como la falta de modelos femeninos a seguir, y la enseñanza que aún está impregnada de estereotipos. La formación de grupos de mujeres tanto para la dimensión de necesidades básicas como de participación económica y académica ha ido en aumento en los últimos años. Este trabajo resume algunas iniciativas de las mujeres para formar asociaciones, cooperativas y redes, entre otros, con el fin de apoyarse mutuamente e incentivar que más mujeres se unan para incrementar su bienestar y desarrollo.
    Date: 2020–04–13
  23. By: Muñoz-Pizza, Dalia M. (Oceanographic Research Institute. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Baja California, México); Villada-Canela, Mariana (Oceanographic Research Institute. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Baja California, México); Rivera-Castañeda, Patricia (Department of Urban and Environmental Studies, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Baja California, México); Reyna-Carranza, Marco A. (Oceanographic Research Institute. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Baja California, México); Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro (Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada); Martínez-Cruz, Adan L. (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics)
    Abstract: The pervasiveness of particulate matter in arid cities has yet to be discussed and tackled. Given that urban trees have been documented to provide air-filtering and dry deposition services, this study documents the stated benefits from an urban afforestation scenario in Mexicali –an arid city located northwest Mexico at the US-Mexico border. Our double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation protocol yields an estimated average annual willingness to pay (WTP) of USD 88 per household. Variations in the WTP are associated with perception of air quality and presence of respiratory symptoms in the respondent’s household. The smallest WTP (USD 75) is reported by respondents perceiving poor air quality in their neighborhood and with no household members affected by respiratory symptoms. In contrast, respondents perceiving good air quality and with at least one household member facing respiratory symptoms reported a WTP of USD 99. The average stated benefits represent around 0.8% of the annual household income.
    Keywords: Air quality; PM10; urban afforestation; contingent valuation; arid cities; Mexicali.
    JEL: Q51 Q53 Q58 Q59
    Date: 2020–04–16
  24. By: Belton, Cameron; Lunn, Pete
    Date: 2020
  25. By: Armando Montenegro
    Abstract: Este documento describe los antecedentes y la historia de la concepción, discusión y aprobación por parte del Congreso colombiano de las leyes de servicios públicos (leyes 142 y 143 de 1994). Existe un amplio consenso de que estas leyes crearon las condiciones institucionales y económicas para avanzar en la solución de la aguda carencia de acceso a agua potable, electricidad, gas y telefonía en los hogares colombianos que existía antes de la década de los años noventa. De hecho, el notable aumento de la cobertura de los servicios públicos a lo largo de los últimos veinticinco años es un testimonio del beneficio de las reformas promulgadas en 1994. Es también un ejemplo de cómo, con pragmatismo, el país pudo resolver un problema social serio dentro del marco de los procedimientos democráticos y una amplia deliberación.
    Keywords: Servicios Públicos, Leyes 142 y 143 de 1994, Asamblea Constituyente
    JEL: H44 I31 I32
    Date: 2020–03–27
  26. By: Isabelle Cadoret (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Emma Galli (Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" [Rome]); Fabio Padovano (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines which type of fiscal levies are environmental taxes, by analyzing how governments actually use them. The theoretical literature is polarized between two alternative interpretations of environmental taxes: the Pigouvian and the Leviathan hypotheses, each leading to alternative testable hypotheses. We test them on a sample where the analysts' discretionary evaluations are minimal, the EU-28 countries that committed themselves to correcting a negative environmental externality, the greenhouse gas emissions, by 2020. The estimates lend support to the strict Pigouvian hypothesis, while the Leviathan hypothesis appears less consistent with the data.
    Keywords: Arellano–Bond GMM,GHG reduction,Leviathan government,Pigouvian taxation,Environmental taxes
    Date: 2020
  27. By: Fiedler, Salomon
    Abstract: Nach der Einigung im Vermittlungsausschuss beschlossen Bundestag und Bundesrat im Dezember 2019 das sogenannte Klimapaket, welches eine Reihe von Maßnahmen umfasst, die den CO2-Ausstoß in Deutschland reduzieren sollen. Im Folgenden soll abgeschätzt werden, wie stark die Konsumentenpreise - gemessen am Verbraucherpreisindex (VPI) - durch dieses Paket steigen werden.
    Date: 2020
  28. By: Yvon Pesqueux (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM], CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM])
    Date: 2020–04–15
  29. By: Georg Zachmann
    Abstract: This Policy Contribution is a version of a paper prepared for the seminar ‘Trade relations between the EU, China and Russia’, co-organised by the Delegation of the European Union to Russia and Bruegel with the support of the EU Russia Expert Network on Foreign Policy (EUREN). The seminar was funded by the European Union. The content of this paper is the sole responsibility of the author and does not represent...
    Date: 2019–12
  30. By: Thomas Douenne (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics, IPP - Institut des politiques publiques)
    Abstract: Bien que plébiscitée par les économistes, la taxe carbone peine à se faire une place dans l'agenda des décideurs publics. Une des raisons de son lent développement est la crainte qu'elle puisse générer d'importants effets redistributifs, et en particulier pénaliser les ménages les plus modestes. Cette note présente les résultats d'une évaluation ex ante des effets redistributifs sur les ménages des réformes de la fiscalité environnementale en France en 2018. La taxe carbone est en elle-même régressive, mais génère des recettes supplémentaires. En transférant de manière neutre ce revenu à tous les ménages, on obtiendrait une réforme progressive. Toutefois, même dans cette situation la réforme génèrerait d'importants effets redistributifs au sein des groupes de revenu. Ces transferts horizontaux, plus difficiles à corriger, suggèrent que d'autres outils sont nécessaires pour réduire l'impact de la réforme sur les plus vulnérables. Dans une perspective de long terme, il apparaît comme essentiel d'investir dans l'amélioration des performances énergétiques des logements et des transports. Ces politiques répondent non seulement à des exigences environnementales, mais aussi au besoin de réduire la vulnérabilité des ménages les plus modestes à l'augmentation future des prix de l'énergie.
    Date: 2018–07

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