nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2020‒01‒13
twenty-six papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. The criticality of growth, urbanization, electricity and fossil fuel consumption to environment sustainability in Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Mary Oluwatoyin Agboola; Andrew Adewale Alola; Festus Victor Bekun
  2. Analysis of the nexus between Environmental quality and Economic growth By Ilu, Ahmad Ibraheem
  3. OPEC, Unconventional Oil and Climate Change - On the importance of the order of extraction By Hassan Benchekroun; Gerard van der Meijden; Cees Withagen
  4. economic growth; CO2 emissions; population growth; energy consumption; Environmental Kuznets Curve, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia By Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Murad, Wahid; Noman, Abu Hanifa Md.; Ozturk, Ilhan
  5. The green transition: public policy, finance and the role of the State By Francesco Lamperti; Mariana Mazzucato; Andrea Roventini; Gregor Semieniuk
  7. Cross-border effects of capacity remuneration mechanisms: The Swiss case By Zimmermann, Florian; Bublitz, Andreas; Keles, Dogan; Fichtner, Wolf
  8. Carbon tax and sustainable facility location: The role of production technology By Carl Gaigné; Vincent Hovelaque; Y. Mechouar
  9. The Carbon Footprint of Material Production Rises to 23% of Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Hertwich, Edgar
  10. Financial Dependencies, Environmental Regulation, and Pollution Intensity: Evidence From China By Mathilde Maurel; Thomas Pernet; Zhao Ruili
  11. Climate Policy and Inequality in Two-Dimensional Political Competition By Waldemar Marz
  12. Energy Scenario Exploration with Modeling to Generate Alternatives (MGA) By Joseph F. DeCarolis; Samaneh Babaee; Binghui Li; Suyash Kanungo
  13. Optimal climate policy when damages are unknown By Rudik, Ivan
  14. Energy Cost Pass-Through in U.S. Manufacturing: Estimates and Implications for Carbon Taxes By Shapiro, Joseph S.
  15. Sanction or Financial Crisis? An Artificial Neural Network-Based Approach to model the impact of oil price volatility on Stock and industry indices By Somayeh Kokabisaghi; Mohammadesmaeil Ezazi; Reza Tehrani; Nourmohammad Yaghoubi
  16. Tourism and environmental quality nexus: Further evidence from Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand By Azam, Muhammad; Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Hafeez, Muhammad Haroon
  17. L'énergie et les fonctions de production agrégées : perspectives historique et méthodologique By Quentin Couix
  18. Hysteresis and the Welfare Effect of Corrective Policies: Theory and Evidence from an Energy Saving Program By Costa, Francisco J M; Gerard, François
  19. Dynamics of Japan’s Industrial Production and CO2 Emissions: Causality, Long-Run Trend and Implication By Murad, Wahid; Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Islam, Mazharul
  20. The Effect of Scale, Technique, Composition and Trade Openness on Energy Demand: Fresh Evidence from Malaysia By Shahbaz, Muhammad; Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Uddin, Gazi Salah; Nanthakumar, Loganathan
  21. The effect of fuel prices on food prices in Kenya By Ngare, Lucy W.; Derek, Okova W.
  22. Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung der Durchtrittbeständigkeit von Pferdebox-Ausfachungsbohlen sowie Entwicklung von Alternativen zu derzeit verwendeten Ausfachungsmaterialien für den Bau von Pferdeboxen By Benthien, Jan; Gäckler, Susanne; Ohlmeyer, Martin
  23. School electrification and academic outcomes in rural Kenya By Koima, Josephat
  24. A study on free-floating carsharing in Europe: Impacts of car2go and DriveNow on modal shift, vehicle ownership, vehicle kilometers traveled, and CO2 emissions in 11 European cities By Fromm, Hansjörg; Ewald, Lukas; Frankenhauser, Dominik; Ensslen, Axel; Jochem, Patrick
  25. Consumer Information and Price Transmission: Empirical Evidence By Jens-Peter Loy; Dieter Pennerstorfer; Daniela Rroshi; Christoph Weiss; Biliana Yontcheva
  26. O grande impulso (big push) energético do Uruguai By Gramkow, Camila; Simoes, Pedro Brandao da Silva; Kreimerman, Roberto

  1. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroon); Mary Oluwatoyin Agboola (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia); Andrew Adewale Alola (Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey); Festus Victor Bekun (Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey)
    Abstract: While most African economies are primarily sandwiched with the seemingly unsurmountable task of attaining consistent economic growth and unhindered energy supply, the enormous threat posed by environmental degradation has further complicated the economic and environmental sustainability drive. In this context, the present study examines the effect of economic growth, urbanization, electricity consumption, fossil fuel energy consumption, and total natural resources rent on pollutant emissions in Africa over the period 1980-2014. By employing selected African countries, the current study relies on the Kao and Pedroni cointegration tests to cointegration analysis, the Pesaran’s Panel Pooled Mean Group-Autoregressive distributive lag methodology (ARDL-PMG) for long run regression while Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) is employed for the detection of causality direction among the outlined variables. The study traces long run equilibrium relationships b-etween examined indicators. The ARDL-PMG results suggest a statistical positive relationship between pollutant emissions and urbanization, electricity consumption and non-renewable energy consumption. Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) Granger causality test lends support to the long-run regression results. Bi-directional causality is observed between pollutant emissions, electricity consumption, economic growth and pollutant emissions while a unidirectional causality is apparent between total natural resources rent and pollutant emissions. Based on these results, several policy implications for the African continent were suggested. (a) The need for a paradigm shift from fossil fuel sources to renewables is encouraged in the region (b) The need to embrace carbon storage and capturing techniques to decouple pollutant emissions from economic growth on the continent’s growth trajectory. Further policy insights are elucidated.
    Keywords: non- renewable energy consumption; electricity consumption; economic growth; panel econometrics; Africa
    JEL: C32 Q40
    Date: 2019–01
  2. By: Ilu, Ahmad Ibraheem
    Abstract: This Paper inquiries into analysis of the nexus between environmental quality and economic growth for the period 1990-2018. In an attempt to realize the major objectives of the study various researcher’s’ works on relevant studies were exhaustively reviewed. The study utilizes annual time series data for its analysis and data on Carbon emissions metric tons per capita, GDP, Energy use and Access to electricity as a percentage of total population were collected for the period under review. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model approach was applied to estimate long run and short run relationship among the aforementioned variables. Both the short run and long run levels result fairly distinct with each other that GDP is positively and insignificantly related to carbon emissions both in the short run and long run which implies that Kuznet’s Curve was not found in Nigeria, access to electricity was found to be negatively and significantly related to carbon emissions in the short run, ite in the short run.
    Keywords: Carbon Emissions, GDP, Environmental Kuznet Curve, IPAT, ARDL
    JEL: Q47 Q5 Q56
    Date: 2019–12–01
  3. By: Hassan Benchekroun (McGill University); Gerard van der Meijden (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Cees Withagen (IPAG Business School (Paris))
    Abstract: We show that OPEC’s market power contributes to climate change by enabling producers of relatively expensive and dirty oil to start producing before OPEC reserves are depleted. We examine the importance of this extraction sequence effect by calibrating and simulating a cartel-fringe model of the global oil market. While welfare net of climate damage under the cartel-fringe equilibrium can be significantly lower than under a first-best outcome, almost the entire welfare loss is due to the sequence effect of OPEC’s market power. In our benchmark calibration, the cost of the sequence effect amounts to 15 trillion US$, which corresponds to 97 percent of the welfare loss. Moreover, we find that an increase in non-OPEC oil reserves decreases global welfare. In a counterfactual world without non-OPEC oil, global welfare would be 13 trillion US$ higher, 10 trillion US$ of which is due to lower climate damages.
    Keywords: cartel-fringe, climate policy, non-renewable resource, Her?ndahl rule
    JEL: Q31 Q42 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2020–01–06
  4. By: Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Murad, Wahid; Noman, Abu Hanifa Md.; Ozturk, Ilhan
    Abstract: This study examines the impacts of income, energy consumption and population growth on CO2 emissions by employing an annual time series data for the period 1970-2012 for India, Indonesia, China, and Brazil. The study used the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds test approach considering both the linear and non-linear assumptions for related time series data for the top CO2 emitter emerging countries in both the short run and long run. The results show that CO2 emissions have increased statistically significantly with increases in income and energy consumption in all four countries. While the relationship between CO2 emissions and population growth was found to be statistically significant for India and Brazil, it has been statistically insignificant for China and Indonesia in both the short run and long run. Also, empirical observations from the testing of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis imply that in the cases of Brazil, China and Indonesia, CO2 emissions will decrease over the time when income increases. So based on the EKC findings, it can be argued that these three countries should not take any actions or policies, which might have conservative impacts on income, in order to reduce their CO2 emissions. But in the case of India, where CO2 emissions and income were found to have a positive relationship, an increase in income over the time will not reduce CO2 emissions in the country.
    Date: 2019–06–13
  5. By: Francesco Lamperti; Mariana Mazzucato; Andrea Roventini; Gregor Semieniuk
    Abstract: While investments into renewable energy technologies are growing almost everywhere, the chances to meet ambitious emission and climate targets, as those envisaged in the Paris Agreement, are scant. To speed up the transition, policy makers need to design and implement a policy mix that could affect not just the quantity of green finance, but its quality as well. In this paper, we argue that a mission-oriented approach to the transition from an economy with high, to one with low greenhouse gas emissions, coupled with the state taking on the role of an entrepreneurial state, could provide an effective win-win strategy to address climate change concerns (embodied in emissions reduction and adaptation boosting) and build the basis for the next phase of growth and technological progress. In practice, this amounts to (i) abandoning the view that cost-internalization of environmental externalities would suffice to induce an effective transition (ii) developing a multi-level and cross-sectoral governance of the transition, with a clear direction in terms of the technological trajectory to favour, and (iii) designing a policy mix encompassing: fiscal instruments, targets and standards; public-private co-funding schemes; financial regulation; and disclosure practices. Social scientists should support such ambitious policy-design processes through adequate model development, where a combination of policies, and a directive role of the state, can be accommodated and examined in detail.
    Keywords: market-shaping; mission-oriented; green finance; renewable energies; transition; entrepreneurial state.
    Date: 2019–12–30
  6. By: Murad, Wahid; Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Noman, Abu Hanifa Md.; OZTURK, Ilhan
    Abstract: This study investigates the dynamic relationships between technological innovation, consumption of energy, energy price and economic growth in Denmark during the period from 1970 until 2012, using multivariate setting to examine time-series data. The analysis employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to co-integration in order to examine both the short and long run dynamics among the variables. Furthermore, the study uses the Granger procedure within the VAR framework to identify causality among the variables. The model used in this study is found to be sound, a diagnosis of the reliability of the model reached by testing normality, functional form, serial correlation, and heteroscedasticity, with stability of the model tested using a cumulative sum and cumulative sum square test, based on recursive regression residuals. The ARDL approach to co-integration reveals that real GDP growth positively influences energy consumption as well as significantly in both the short run and long run, while energy prices and technological innovation influence energy consumption negatively and significantly. The results ascertain that energy consumption and economic growth are independent of each other, and thus they support a neutral hypothesis for Denmark. Besides, both the technological innovation and energy prices are found to be Granger cause energy consumption. Therefore, the study suggests that Denmark should adopt conservative energy policy using technological innovation and energy prices as instruments to achieve energy security and protect the environment from pollution.
    Date: 2019–06–15
  7. By: Zimmermann, Florian; Bublitz, Andreas; Keles, Dogan; Fichtner, Wolf
    Abstract: In this article, cross-border effects of different market design options are analyzed using Switzerland as a case study, which is strongly interconnected to larger neighboring markets. An investigation is conducted with an agentbased model where in one scenario all market designs are represented according to the current legislation, and in another, energy-only markets (EOM) are assumed in all considered countries. The results show that wholesale electricity prices are highly dependent on the chosen market design and in the annual average up to 27% higher in the EOM scenario. Due to expected larger interconnector capacities, this increase is evident in all simulated markets. Further, the results indicate that the planned market design changes in the neighboring countries decrease investments in Switzerland. However, generation adequacy is still guaranteed due to the high Swiss hydropower storage capacity. Our results suggest that, under the current circumstances, a domestic mechanism in Switzerland is not required.
    Keywords: Capacity remuneration mechanisms,Cross-border effects,Electricity market coupling,Generation adequacy,Switzerland,Agent-based modeling
    Date: 2019
  8. By: Carl Gaigné (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AGROCAMPUS OUEST); Vincent Hovelaque (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Y. Mechouar (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Recent studies on facility location highlight that increasing the carbon price can ensure meaningful reductions in transport-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). In this paper, we propose to revisit the Production-Location Problem considering transport-related carbon emission mitigation due to carbon taxation and production technologies that allow complementarity or substitution among input quantities. We first show that cost-minimizing location may differ from carbon emission minimizing location, regardless of the production technology type. We also find that gradual changes in carbon tax affect the relative delivered prices of inputs such that the firm has an incentive to relocate its facility and substitute among input quantities, leading to new shipping patterns that do not necessarily cause a lower pollution.
    Keywords: Sustainability,Production technology,Location,Transport-related carbon emissions,Carbon tax
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Hertwich, Edgar (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: The production of materials is widely recognized to be an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a range of policy processes now aim at enhancing material efficiency and the circular flow of materials, but our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of material-related greenhouse gas emissions is limited. Current analyses do not cover all materials or all sources of emissions, and neither address the use of the materials in the economy nor their contribution to final consumption. Here I use hypothetical extraction to quantify the GHG emissions from material production in a newly constructed time-series multiregional input-output description of the global economy, and trace the carbon footprint of materials from production through manufacturing to final consumption. GHG emission from material production increased by 120% in the period 1995-2015 to 11 Gt CO2e; rising from 15% to 23% of global emissions. China accounted for 75% of the absolute increase. Two fifths of materials in terms of GHGs are used in construction, and two fifths are used in the manufacturing of machinery, vehicles and other durable products. Policies affecting the rapidly growing capital stocks in emerging economies hence offer the highest potential emission reductions from material efficiency.
    Date: 2019–08–30
  10. By: Mathilde Maurel (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne;; Thomas Pernet (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne;; Zhao Ruili (Shangai University of International Business and Economics - Chine)
    Abstract: We study how a bank's involvement in a firm's financing may be in line with environmental policies pursued by the Chinese central government. Specifically, we evaluate the effectiveness of credit reallocation away from polluting projects when the government imposes stringent environmental policies. We combine the industries' financial dependencies with time, including cross-cities variation in policy intensity to identify the causal effect on the sulfur dioxide (SO2)emission. We find that SO2 emissions are lower in industries with high reliance on credits and stricter environmental regulations. Furthermore, our results suggest that locations with strong environmental policies lead firms to seek funding in less regulated areas, which confirms the pollution haven hypothesis
    Keywords: Banks; Financial Dependency; Environmental regulation; China
    JEL: F36 G20 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2019–12
  11. By: Waldemar Marz
    Abstract: This paper examines how income inequality can affect the polarization of heterogeneous party platforms on climate policy (here: carbon tax). The implied consequences for the uncertainty of climate policy can be relevant for risk-averse investors in "green" technologies. Households are heterogeneous with respect to income and preferences for environmentalism and preferred redistribution. A static gametheoretic model of two-dimensional political competition on a carbon tax (with distributional implications) and an income tax is combined with a model of a carbonintensive economy. For a higher inequality of pre-tax income and/or a higher salience of the issue of redistribution, polarization of the parties’ carbon tax proposals in the equilibrium can increase - even if the income tax is used to counteract the increase in income inequality. This result does not depend on the progressivity of the carbon-tax revenue recycling mechanism.
    Keywords: Climate policy, inequality, political economy, multidimensional political competition
    JEL: H23 P16 Q52 Q54
    Date: 2019
  12. By: Joseph F. DeCarolis; Samaneh Babaee; Binghui Li; Suyash Kanungo
    Abstract: Energy system optimization models (ESOMs) should be used in an interactive way to uncover knife-edge solutions, explore alternative system configurations, and suggest different ways to achieve policy objectives under conditions of deep uncertainty. In this paper, we do so by employing an existing optimization technique called modeling to generate alternatives (MGA), which involves a change in the model structure in order to systematically explore the near-optimal decision space. The MGA capability is incorporated into Tools for Energy Model Optimization and Analysis (Temoa), an open source framework that also includes a technology rich, bottom up ESOM. In this analysis, Temoa is used to explore alternative energy futures in a simplified single region energy system that represents the U.S. electric sector and a portion of the light duty transport sector. Given the dataset limitations, we place greater emphasis on the methodological approach rather than specific results.
    Date: 2019–12
  13. By: Rudik, Ivan (Cornell University)
    Abstract: Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are economists’ primary tool for analyzing the optimal carbon tax. Damage functions, which link temperature to economic impacts, have come under fire because of their assumptions that may be incorrect in significant, but a priori unknowable ways. Here I develop recursive IAM frameworks to model uncertainty, learning, and concern for misspecification about damages. I decompose the carbon tax into channels capturing state uncertainty, insurance motives, and precautionary saving. Damage learning improves ex ante welfare by $750 billion. If damage functions are misspecified and omit the potential for catastrophic damages, robust control may be beneficial ex post.
    Date: 2019–10–01
  14. By: Shapiro, Joseph S.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2020–01–08
  15. By: Somayeh Kokabisaghi; Mohammadesmaeil Ezazi; Reza Tehrani; Nourmohammad Yaghoubi
    Abstract: Financial market in oil-dependent countries has been always influenced by any changes in international energy market, In particular, oil price.It is therefore of considerable interest to investigate the impact of oil price on financial markets. The aim of this paper is to model the impact of oil price volatility on stock and industry indices by considering gas and gold price,exchange rate and trading volume as explanatory variables. We also propose Feed-forward networks as an accurate method to model non-linearity. we use data from 2009 to 2018 that is split in two periods during international energy sanction and post-sanction. The results show that Feed-forward networks perform well in predicting variables and oil price volatility has a significant impact on stock and industry market indices. The result is more robust in the post-sanction period and global financial crisis in 2014. Herein, it is important for financial market analysts and policy makers to note which factors and when influence the financial market, especially in an oil-dependent country such as Iran with uncertainty in the international politics. This research analyses the results in two different periods, which is important in the terms of oil price shock and international energy sanction. Also, using neural networks in methodology gives more accurate and reliable results. Keywords: Feed-forward networks,Industry index,International energy sanction,Oil price volatility
    Date: 2019–12
  16. By: Azam, Muhammad; Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Hafeez, Muhammad Haroon
    Abstract: The central aim of this study is to contribute to the encroachment of knowledge on impact of tourism on environmental pollution by CO2 emissions ASEAN-3 namely Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore during 1990-2014. The FMOLS results reveal that the impact of tourism variable on environmental pollution is significantly positive, while for Thailand and Singapore, it is found negative and statistically significant. Empirical findings suggest that sustainable economic development should be ensured by implementing prudent public policy, where tourism industry needs to be expanded further but fulfilment of its responsibility towards maintaining green and sustainable environment must be top most priority.
    Date: 2019–06–15
  17. By: Quentin Couix (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne;
    Abstract: From a historical and methodological perspective, this paper focuses on empirical work on energy based on the aggregate production function, from the early 1970s to the late 2000s. It starts with the standard neoclassical approach, and in particular the controversy over the substitutability between capital and energy. Then it tackles the thermodynamic approach, which focuses on the explanation of the long-term growth. It shows continuity in the methodological issues raised by this work. At the theoretical level, the aggregate production function offers little conceptual insight into the physical aspects of the production process. At the empirical level, the results of estimates of energy production functions raise questions. In the neoclassical framework, the estimation is done indirectly through the cost function, so that the result is overdetermined by the marginal productivity pricing assumption. The thermodynamic approach proceeds in the opposite direction to a direct estimate, which encounters statistical problems no less important. If these difficulties relate more generally to the aggregate production function, energy issues reveal them in a very striking way
    Keywords: energy; aggregate production function; growth accounting; thermodynamics
    JEL: B23 B41 O47 Q01 Q43
    Date: 2019–11
  18. By: Costa, Francisco J M (FGV EPGE Brazilian School of Economics and Finance); Gerard, François
    Abstract: This paper provides stark evidence of hysteresis -- the failure of an effect to reverse itself as its underlying cause is reversed -- in energy demand. We estimate that half of the 23%-reduction in residential electricity use caused by a 9-month-long policy that was imposed on millions of Brazilians has persisted for at least 12 years. We examine the implications of our finding by extending the traditional welfare analysis of corrective policies to allow for hysteresis. Our estimate highlights that failing to take hysteresis into account could severely bias the welfare evaluation of policies aimed at reducing (long-run) energy demand.
    Date: 2019–08–23
  19. By: Murad, Wahid; Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Islam, Mazharul
    Abstract: While CO2 emissions from the residential and commercial sectors of Japan have increased significantly since 1990 the country‟s industrial emissions make up the largest share of those emissions. The historical CO2 emission performance data also indicate that the iron and steel, chemical, paper and pulp and cement were the top four largest industrial emitters, and these top four emitting industries contributed nearly two-third of the industrial sector‟s total CO2 emission amount during 1990-2015. Evidently, any appropriate efforts or strategies guided by an empirical investigation like this are expected to help Japan‟s industrial emitters move toward a more tolerable and less polluted carbon footprint, which is well-matched with the country‟s commitment to Kyoto Protocol. This study is thus an effort to empirically investigate the causality and long-run trend/relationship between Japan‟s industrial production and CO2 emissions and to propose some corporate environmental strategies using the econometric techniques of Vector Error Correction (VEC) and Granger causality. It found that there exists no Granger causality between Japan‟s industrial production and CO2 emissions in any direction. But the VEC estimation reveals that an increase in Japan‟s industrial production by 1% is associated with a 0.08% increase in the country‟s CO2 emissions. It also reveals that any disequilibrium between Japan‟s industrial production and CO2 emissions could take about 0.7 quarters for half of the error to be corrected for. The adjustment rate for Japan‟s industrial production is found to be positive but quite slow at the rate of 0.08% per year. Since Japan‟s CO2 emissions vis-à-vis its industrial production is found to have reached above the long-run equilibrium level, its industrial sector is expected to encounter with stricter government regulations requiring reduction of CO2 emissions to the targeted/equilibrium level in the future.
    Date: 2019–06–14
  20. By: Shahbaz, Muhammad; Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Uddin, Gazi Salah; Nanthakumar, Loganathan
    Abstract: The aim of this paper utilizes an energy demand model to investigate the impact of trade openness on energy consumption by incorporating scale and technique, composition and urbanization effects in the case of Malaysia. The study covers the sample period of 1970-2011 using quarter frequency data. We applied the bounds testing approach in the presence of structural breaks to examine the long run relationship between the variables. The VECM Granger causality is used to detect the direction of causality between the variables. Our findings indicate that growth effect (scale and technique effect) has a positive (negative) impact on energy consumption whereas composition effect stimulates energy demand in Malaysia.. Energy consumption is positively influenced by both from openness and urbanization. This study opens new policy insights for policy making authorities to articulate a comprehensive energy and trade policy to sustain economic growth and improve the environmental quality of Malaysia.
    Date: 2019–06–14
  21. By: Ngare, Lucy W.; Derek, Okova W.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2019–09
  22. By: Benthien, Jan; Gäckler, Susanne; Ohlmeyer, Martin
    Abstract: Pferde werden in Deutschland überwiegend in Einzelboxen gehalten. Die Umstände der Haltung haben den Anforderungen des Tierschutzgesetzes (TierSchG) zu entsprechen. Wie diese Anforderungen zu verstehen sind, ist in den 'Leitlinien zur Beurteilung von Pferdehaltungen unter Tierschutzgesichtspunkten' präzisiert. Hiernach müssen Boxenabtrennungen u. a. so ausgeführt werden, dass keinesfalls ein Einklemmen der Hufe möglich ist; Trennwände müssen durchtrittfest sein. Diese Forderungen sind grundsätzlich opportun und in der Sache als richtig zu bewerten, jedoch zu unkonkret, als dass sie in der Praxis direkt umgesetzt werden könnten. Grund für das Fehlen konkreter Gestaltungsempfehlungen sind fehlende Informationen über die Energie, die beim Auskeilen von Pferden wirkt, sowie fehlende Methoden, mit denen die Durchtrittbeständigkeit und Einklemmsicherheit von Stallbohlen berechnet und praktisch überprüft werden kann. In der Praxis reagieren die Stallbauer auf diese Unsicherheiten, indem sie Bambusbohlen mit hohen Phenolharzanteilen oder traditionell bewährte Tropenhölzer aus Übersee verwenden. Dies ist jedoch keine nachhaltige Lösung, da die öffentliche Meinung zur Verwendung von Tropenholz kontrovers ist und der kurzfristige Bezug von Bambusbohlen in verlässlicher Qualität eine Herausforderung darstellt. Eine Erprobung aussichtsreicher, regionalverfügbarer Alternativmaterialien in situ verbietet sich aufgrund des Verletzungsrisikos der Tiere. Ziel des Vorhabens war es daher, die beim Auskeilen von Pferden wirksam werdenden Energie zu bestimmen, eine Methode zur Berechnung von Durchtrittbeständigkeit und Einklemmsicherheit von Stallbohlen zu entwickeln und heimische Hölzer sowie verschiedene Werkstoffe auf ihre Tauglichkeit für den Stallbau zu untersuchen. In einem ersten Schritt wurde die beim Auskeilen von Pferden wirksam werde Energie bestimmt. So wurde die Grundlage für die Entwicklung einer Methode zur Berechnung der Durchtrittbeständigkeit und Einklemmsicherheit geschaffen. Für die Validierung der Berechnungsergebnisse wurde ein Pendelschlagwerk gestaltet und entsprechend dimensionierte Stallbohlen getestet. Neben Stallbohlen aus etablierten Materialien wurden auch solche aus heimischen Hölzern sowie aussichtsreich erscheinenden Holzwerkstoffen (Furnierschichtholz und Scrimber) untersucht. Im Rahmen der Trittversuche im Gestüt Samarra in Rotenburg an der Fulda wurde ein statistisch abgesicherter Wert von 70,4 Joule als typische Trittenergie bestimmt. Unter Berücksichtigung eines Sicherheitszuschlages (Faktor 1,5) ist für die Bemessung somit ein Wert von 106 Joule zu veranschlagen. Mit Hilfe der entwickelten Berechnungsmethode wurde festgestellt, dass ein Pferd in einer herkömmlich gestalteten Box aus Eiche, Bongossi oder Bambus sicher untergebracht ist. Aber auch die heimische Buche erfüllt die erforderlichen Festigkeitseigenschaften. Auf Basis der erzielten Projektergebnisse lassen sich die Abmessungen von Stallbohlen so festlegen, dass sie für den Bau sicherer Pferdeboxen geeignet sind. Weiterhin ist es nun möglich, neuartige Holzwerkstoffbohlen für den Stallbau zu entwickeln und die Abmessungen von Stallbohlen ressourcenschonend zu optimieren.
    Keywords: Pferdebox,Trittenergie,Durchtrittbeständig,Einklemmsicher,internal horse stables,kick energy,kick-resistance,entrapment-sayfety
    Date: 2019
  23. By: Koima, Josephat
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2019–09
  24. By: Fromm, Hansjörg; Ewald, Lukas; Frankenhauser, Dominik; Ensslen, Axel; Jochem, Patrick
    Abstract: Free-floating carsharing, i.e., carsharing that allows pick-up and return of a car anywhere within a specified area in a city, has now been available in European cities for more than 10 years. As an important example of the sharing economy, carsharing strives for a more efficient use of resources with positive economic, social, and environmental impacts. After a decade of operation and user experience, an evaluation seems appropriate. car2go and DriveNow, who merged into SHARE NOW in 2019, are the largest carsharing operators in the world. They commissioned this study to identify the impact of carsharing on vehicle holdings, modal shift, vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), and greenhouse gas emissions. The study was conducted in 2018 and 2019. It is based on a survey among car2go and DriveNow customers in 11 European cities. A previous study was performed by the University of California, Berkeley, for 5 North American cities in 2016 [7]. [...]
    Date: 2019
  25. By: Jens-Peter Loy; Dieter Pennerstorfer; Daniela Rroshi; Christoph Weiss; Biliana Yontcheva
    Abstract: We investigate how consumer information affects price adjustment in the Austrian retail gasoline market. Our measure of consumer information is obtained from detailed census data on commuting behavior, as commuters can freely sample prices on their commuting route and are thus better informed about prices. A threshold error-correction model suggests that prices adjust more quickly if cost shocks exceed certain thresholds. Parametric and semiparametric regressions show that a larger share of informed consumers increases both transmission speed and pass-through elasticity. Better informed consumers reduce the asymmetry in thresholds, but have no effect on the asymmetry in the speed of adjustment.
    Keywords: Price Transmission, Consumer Information, Commuters, Gasoline Market, Threshold Error-Correction Model
    JEL: D43 D83 L13
    Date: 2019–12
  26. By: Gramkow, Camila; Simoes, Pedro Brandao da Silva; Kreimerman, Roberto
    Abstract: O objetivo desse estudo é analisar o caso da Política Energética 2005-2030 (PE2005-2030) do Uruguai, no marco da abordagem “Big Push para a Sustentabilidade”, desenvolvida pela CEPAL. Caracterizada por diretrizes estratégicas, metas (de curto, médio e longo prazos) e linhas de ação, a PE2005-2030 forneceu um arcabouço para medidas que levaram à transformação da matriz energética do país. Em pouco mais de uma década, a participação de fontes renováveis no abastecimento energético uruguaio duplicou (passando de menos de 30% em 2006 para mais de 60% em 2017).
    Date: 2020–01–08

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