nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2019‒04‒15
forty-six papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. Optimal policies for electromobility: Joint assessment of transport and electricity distribution costs in Norway By Brevik Wangsness, Paal; Proost, Stef; Løvold Rødseth , Kenneth
  2. Social-environmental-economic trade-offs associated with carbon-tax revenue recycling By Cyril Bourgeois; Louis-Gaëtan Giraudet; Philippe Quirion
  3. The Fossil Energy Interlude: Optimal Building, Maintaining and Scraping a Dedicated Capital, and the Hotelling Rule By Jean-Pierre Amigues; Michel Moreaux; Nguyen Manh-Hung
  4. Exploring Low-Carbon Energy Security Path for India: Role of Asia-Pacific Energy Cooperation. By Mukherjee, Sacchidananda
  5. Inexpensive Heating Reduces Winter Mortality By Chirakijja, Janjala; Jayachandran, Seema; Ong, Pinchuan
  6. North-South Convergence and the Allocation of CO2 Emissions By Humberto Llavador; John E. Roemer; Joaquim Silvestre
  7. Mineral Resources for Renewable Energy: Optimal Timing of Energy Production By Adrien Fabre; Mouez Fodha; Francesco Ricci
  8. CO2 embedded in trade: trends and fossil fuel drivers By Sylvain Weber; Reyer Gerlagh; Nicole A. Mathys; Daniel Moran
  9. Climate Friendly Goods and Technology Trade: Climate Mitigation Strategy of India By Dinda, Soumyananda
  10. The potential impact of oil sanctions on military spending and democracy in the Middle East By Dizaji, S.F.
  11. Strategic environmental policy and the mobility of firms By Philipp M. Richter; Marco Runkel; Robert C. Schmidt
  12. Deregulation and status quo bias: Evidence from stated and revealed switching behaviors in the electricity market in Japan By Kayo MURAKAMI; Takanori IDA
  13. Charging the Future: Challenges and Opportunities for Electric Vehicle Adoption By Lee, Henry; Clark, Alex
  14. Gesamtwirtschaftliche Effekte der Energiewende By Dr. Christian Lutz; Dr. Markus Flaute; Dr. Ulrike Lehr; Dr. Andreas Kemmler; Dr. Almut Kirchner; Alex auf der Maur; Inka Ziegenhagen; Marco Wünsch; Sylvie Koziel; Dr. Alexander Piégsa; Samuel Straßburg
  15. Construction of energy savings cost curves: An application for Denmark By Pasquali, Andrea; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik
  16. Fracking: viabilidad económica y ambiental en Colombia By Juan David Urquijo Vanegas; Carlos Mateo Perilla Castañeda; Fabián Ricardo Martínez Cruz
  17. Integrated Strategic Heating and Cooling Planning on Regional Level for the case of Brasov By Büchele, Richard; Kranzl, Lukas; Hummel, Marcus
  18. The impact of blackouts on the performance of micro and small enterprises: Evidence from Indonesia By Anna Falentina; Budy Resosudarmo
  19. How the design of retail prices, network charges, and levies affects profitability and operation of small-scale PV-Battery Storage Systems By Jessica Thomsen; Christoph Weber
  20. An analysis of the global oil market using SVARMA models By Raghavan, Mala
  21. Heterogeneous (Mis-) Perceptions of Energy Costs: Implications for Measurement and Policy Design By Sébastien Houde; Erica Myers
  22. Climate-Smart Agriculture, a Mitigation Framework, and the ETS By Shirley, James
  23. Stock Price Rewards to Climate Saints and Sinners: Evidence from the Trump Election By Stefano Ramelli; Alexander F. Wagner; Richard J. Zeckhauser; Alexandre Ziegler
  24. Application of the economic theory of self-control to model energy conservation behavioral change in households By Lundgren, Berndt; Schultzberg, Mårten
  25. What is the impact of the policy framework on the future of district heating in Eastern European countries? The case of Brasov By Büchele, Richard; Kranzl, Lukas; Hummel, Marcus
  26. A Forward Electricity Contract Price Projection: A Market Equilibrium Approach By Mateus A. Cavaliere; Sergio Granville; Gerson C. Oliveira; Mario V. F. Pereira
  27. Nudging as an Environmental Policy Instrument By Carlsson, Fredrik; Gravert, Christina; Johansson-Stenman, Olof; Kurz, Verena
  28. Public policy failures related to China´s Wind Power Development By Grafström, Jonas
  29. Understanding consumer demand for new transport technologies and services, and implications for the future of mobility By Akshay Vij
  30. Retour de la taxe carbone : les options en présence By Eloi Laurent
  31. Effects of Electrification on the Production and Distribution in the Coal Industry: Evidence from 1900s Japan By Morimoto, Mayo
  32. Erneuerbar beschäftigt in den Bundesländern – Bericht zur aktualisierten Abschätzung der Bruttobeschäftigung 2016 in den Bundesländern By Philip Ulrich; Dr. Ulrike Lehr
  33. Oil Price Shocks and Protest: Can Shadow Economy Mitigate? By Phoebe W. Ishak; Ulrich Fritsche
  34. Klimaschutz und Energiewende nach dem Sondierungspapier zur GroKo III – großer weiterer Handlungsbedarf By Dr. Christian Lutz; Dr. Ulrike Lehr
  35. Willingness to Pay for Mortality Risk Reduction from Air Quality Improvement: Evidence from Urban Bangladesh By Minhaj Mahmud; Yasuyuki Sawada; Eiji Yamada
  36. Energy endowments and the location of manufacturing firms By Edward J Manderson; Richard Kneller
  37. Ökonomische Indikatoren des Energiesystems – Methode, Abgrenzung und Ergebnisse für den Zeitraum 2000–2016 By Marlene O‘Sullivan; Dr. Dietmar Edler; Dr. Ulrike Lehr
  38. Allocating carbon responsibility: the role of spatial production fragmentation By Zengkai Zhang; ZhongXiang Zhang; Kunfu Zhu
  39. FIRM OWNERSHIP AND GREEN PATENTS. DOES FAMILY INVOLVEMENT IN BUSINESS MATTER? By Francesco Aiello; Paola Cardamone; Lidia Mannarino; Valeria Pupo
  40. Zur Berechnung der durch den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien und durch Energieeffizienz verminderten Importe fossiler Brenn- und Kraftstoffe – Methode und Ergebnisse für die Jahre 2000 bis 2015 By Dr. Ulrike Lehr; Dr. Christian Lutz; Lisa Becker
  41. Can a Green Tax Reform Entail Employment Double Dividend in European and non-European Countries? A Survey of the Empirical Evidence By Maxim, Maruf Rahman; Zander, Kerstin
  42. Inflation target and (a)symmetries in the oil price pass-through to inflation By Antonia Lòpez-Villavicencio; Marc Pourroy
  43. Optimal Prosocial Nudging By Carlsson, Fredrik; Johansson-Stenman, Olof
  44. Developments in Environmental-Economic Accounting By Tipper, Adam
  45. “Who pollutes more? Gender differences in consumptions patterns” By Montserrat Guillén; Mònica Serrano; Francisca Toro
  46. A power plant valuation under an asymmetric risk criterion taking into account maintenance costs By Clémence Alasseur; Emmanuel Gobet; Isaque Pimentel; Xavier Warin

  1. By: Brevik Wangsness, Paal (School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Proost, Stef (Department of Economics-KULeuven); Løvold Rødseth , Kenneth (Institute of Transport Economics)
    Abstract: We observe a rapidly rising share of the passenger car fleet becoming electric as policy makers keep making the purchase and use of electric vehicles (EVs) more favorable in the pursuit of reducing pollution. The electrification of transport will make the transport and energy systems more intertwined: EV-friendly transport policies increase the demand for power, thus challenging the distribution grid’s capacity, while electricity policies immediately impact on the generalized costs of driving EVs. This paper develops a stylized economic model for passenger transport in the greater Oslo area where the agents’ endogenous choice of car ownership, transport pattern and EV home charging is determined jointly in equilibrium. If enough EV-owning agents charge during power peak hours, costly grid expansions may be needed. We examine how the distribution grid company can respond in order to mitigate these costs with different pricing schemes and how this in turn affects the transport equilibrium. We find that applying peak tariffs for the grid will help strike a better balance between investment costs and EV-owners’ disutility of charging during off-peak hours.
    Keywords: electric vehicles; climate policy; urban transport policy; transport modeling; electricity distribution costs
    JEL: H71 Q41 Q48 Q54 Q58 R41 R48
    Date: 2019–04–09
  2. By: Cyril Bourgeois (UMR CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Louis-Gaëtan Giraudet (ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech, UMR CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Philippe Quirion (UMR CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: As carbon taxes gain traction and grow tighter in OECD countries, the question of their recycling becomes crucial for political acceptance. Considering the impact of the French carbon tax in the residential sector, we examine the trade-offs between fuel poverty alleviation, energy savings and economic leverage for two revenue-recycling options-as a lump-sum payment or as a subsidy for energy efficiency improvement, each restricted to low-income households-defined as those belonging to the first two quantiles of the income distribution. We do so using Res-IRF, a highly detailed energy-economy model that interacts housing features (single vs. multi-family, energy efficiency, heating fuel) with key household characteristics (tenancy status, income of both owners and occupants). We find that the energy efficiency subsidy recycling is superior to the lump-sum payment in all respects; it even fully offsets the regressive effect of the carbon tax from 2025 onwards. No recycling, however, effectively addresses fuel poverty in private, rented housing.
    Keywords: carbon tax,revenue-recycling,building sector,fuel poverty,energy efficiency subsidies JEL codes: D63,H23,Q47
    Date: 2019–03–20
  3. By: Jean-Pierre Amigues (TSE (INRA, IDEI)); Michel Moreaux (TSE (Université de Toulouse Capitole)); Nguyen Manh-Hung (TSE(INRA))
    Abstract: It is well known that the price and consumption paths of most nonrenewable resources, including the fossil primary energies, do not follow the paths predicted by the standard Hotelling rule (Krautkraemer,1998, Gaudet, 2007). We develop a model in which a dedicated capital together with the fossil fuel are both required to produce useful energy. Starting from a state of the economy in which the fossil fuel is not yet exploited, we characterize the optimal path of the double transition: The first transition from the initial renewable energy regime to a mixed or full fossil fuel regime and later the second transition from the fossil fuel regime back to a renewable energy regime when the available stock of the fossil fuel becomes more and more rare. We show that, absent any technical progress, the useful energy price must first decrease, next be constant during the phase of maximum expansion of the fossil fuel energy consumption before entering the phase of decreasing use of the fossil energy. Only this third phase of decreasing fossil fuel consumption looks like a standard Hotelling path.
    Keywords: exhaustible resources, renewables, energy transition, Hotelling rule
    JEL: Q00 Q32 Q43 Q54
    Date: 2019–03
  4. By: Mukherjee, Sacchidananda (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy)
    Abstract: In World Energy Outlook 2018, India's total primary energy demand (TPED) is ex-pected to grow from 898 million tonne of oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2017 to 1465 Mtoe in 2030. India's growth in TPED during 2017 to 2030 is expected to be the single largest source of global growth in TPED. India's share in world's TPED will go up from 6.4 percent in 2017 to 9.1 percent in 2030. With rising demand for energy, India's contribution in world's energy-related total CO2 emission is expected to go up from 6.7 percent in 2017 to 10.6 percent in 2030. Though India's per capita CO2 emission is one-third of world's average, the rising contribution in CO2 emission is mostly attributable to high emission intensity of India's GDP. It is expected that India will be the single largest driver of global growth in total energy-related CO2 emission during 2017-2030. Achieving energy security is important for India to sustain high economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing of Indian populace. However, it would be important for India to reduce emission intensity of GDP and explore low carbon energy security path through inter-regional energy cooperation. Coal is the single largest source of India's total primary energy demand and it is expected to be so in 2030. Coal is predominantly used in India's power sector and it con-tributes 71 percent in India's total energy-related CO2 emission. Reducing dependence on coal in power sector could be the foremost priority in achieving low carbon energy secu-rity for India. Power sector contributes 53 percent of India's total energy-related CO2 emission in 2017 and it is expected to fall to 46 percent in 2030. India needs to explore options for electricity trade rather than high value primary energy sources for power gen-eration to reduce dependence on energy imports as well as greening up the power sector. Being net importer, 58 percent of India's trade imbalance is attributed to import of energy sources. Given the vast potential exists in non-hydro renewable power generation in In-dia, it would be important for India to explore electricity trade in the Asia-Pacific region by mobilizing finance to invest in inter-regional electricity generation and transmission infrastructure. India's objectives to achieve energy security and environment sustainability need to be integrated. This paper explores challenges in achieving India's low-carbon energy secu-rity and possible scope for Asia-Pacific energy cooperation thereof.
    Keywords: Energy security ; CO2 emission ; inter-regional energy cooperation ; India
    Date: 2019–04
  5. By: Chirakijja, Janjala (Monash University); Jayachandran, Seema (Northwestern University); Ong, Pinchuan (Northwestern University)
    Abstract: This paper examines how the price of home heating affects mortality in the US. Exposure to cold is one reason that mortality peaks in winter, and a higher heating price increases exposure to cold by reducing heating use. It also raises energy bills, which could affect health by decreasing other health-promoting spending. Our empirical approach combines spatial variation in the energy source used for home heating and temporal variation in the national prices of natural gas versus electricity. We find that a lower heating price reduces winter mortality, driven mostly by cardiovascular and respiratory causes.
    Keywords: weather-related mortality, winter mortality, energy prices, energy poverty, fuel poverty
    JEL: I1 J14 Q41
    Date: 2019–03
  6. By: Humberto Llavador (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); John E. Roemer (Dept. of Political Science, Yale University); Joaquim Silvestre (University of California, Davis)
    Abstract: Carbon budgets are a useful way to frame the climate mitigation challenge and much easier to agree upon than the allocation of emissions. We propose a mechanism with countries agreeing on the global carbon budget, while the decision to emit is decentralized at the country level. The revenue is collected in a global fund and allocated according to endogenously defined weights proportional to the marginal cost of climate change. The proposal features a unanimous agreement of the national citizenries of the world and global Pareto e?iciency. We run a simulation in the spirit of the Paris Agreement, with zero emissions after 2055. At the Global Unanimity Equilibrium, permits are priced at 90$/tC, yielding 1.3 trillion dollars annually. Africa, India and the less developed countries in Asia are the only net recipients, while the US and China are the largest net contributors.
    Keywords: Unanimity equilibrium, Climate change, Carbon pricing, Integrated assessment models
    JEL: Q5 D5 D6 H0
    Date: 2019–03
  7. By: Adrien Fabre (Paris School of Economics and University Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne); Mouez Fodha (Paris School of Economics and University Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne); Francesco Ricci (CEE-M, Univervité de Montpellier, CNRS, INRA, SupAgro, Montpellier, France)
    Abstract: The production of energy from renewable sources is much more intensive in minerals than that from fossil resources. The scarcity of certain minerals limits the potential for substituting renewable energy for scarce fossil resources. However, minerals can be recycled, while fossils cannot. We develop an intertemporal model to study the dynamics of the optimal energy mix in the presence of mineral intensive renewable energy and fossil energy. We analyze energy production when both mineral and fossil resources are scarce, but minerals are recyclable. We show that the greater the recycling rate of minerals, the more the energy mix should rely on renewable energy, and the sooner should investment in renewable capacity take place. We confirm these results even in the presence of other better known factors that affect the optimal schedule of resource use: growth in the productivity in the renewable sector, imperfect substitution between the two sources of energy, convex extraction costs for mineral resources and pollution from the use of fossil resources.
    Keywords: Renewable and Non-Renewable Natural Resources, Mineral Resources, Recycling, Energy Transition
    JEL: Q3 Q2 Q42 Q54
    Date: 2019–02
  8. By: Sylvain Weber; Reyer Gerlagh; Nicole A. Mathys; Daniel Moran
    Abstract: The amount of CO2 embedded in trade has substantially increased over the last decades. We study the trends and some drivers of the carbon content of trade over the period 1995-2009. Our main findings are the following. First, the mix of traded goods tends to have higher emission intensity than the average mix of final demand. Second, dirty countries tend to specialize in emission-intensive sectors. This finding suggests that trade liberalization may increase global emissions. Third, the share of goods produced in emission-intensive countries is rising, consequently increasing global emissions. Finally, we find that coal abundance is an important driver of net CO2 exports, and abundance increases exports. These findings highlight the importance of considering trade when designing CO2 reduction strategies. They also suggest that, if left unattended, continued growth in global trade will increase – not decrease – global CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: international trade, embodied emissions, carbon leakage, multi-region input-output analysis, fossil fuels, Kyoto Protocol
    JEL: F18 Q43 Q54 C67
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Dinda, Soumyananda
    Abstract: This study focuses on India’s climate change mitigation strategy through trade and how India gradually moves forward towards the goal of sustainable development path. The paper highlights trade performances of climate friendly goods and technology (CFGT) in India during 2002-20017 and suggests possible solution through trade channels that might mitigate climate change through disseminating and exchanging the low carbon and clean technologies, which improve energy efficiency and minimizes environmental impacts. The products associated with clean technologies which have relatively less adverse impact on the environment. This paper attempts to realize India’s CFGT export and import, and quantify trade opportunities of CFGT in India. With these it also identifies constrains and helps to widen capacity and strengthen its capability in the advancement of capturing new opportunities in production and trade in CFGT. India should adopt few policies to improve and raise CFGT production while trade ensures availability of technologies
    Keywords: Climate Change, Climate Mitigation, Energy Efficiency, India, CFGT, Trade, Climate Friendly Goods and Technology, Export and Import
    JEL: C21 C51 C54 O3 O53 Q27 Q37 Q5 Q52 Q56
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Dizaji, S.F.
    Abstract: This study examines how negative oil shocks (due to the oil boycotts) could affect the military expenditure and the quality of democracy in the oil rentier states of Middle East by applying the annual date from 1990 to 2017. I use both economic and political variables in a panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) model of oil boycotts. The estimated PVAR models show significant impacts of oil boycotts both on key economic factors (government revenues, defence and non-defence expenditures) and on the different indicators of the political system. Using panel impulse response functions (PIRFs) and a panel variance decomposition analysis (PVDC) based on the estimated PVAR model, the findings indicate that the responses of political institutions and different indexes of democracy such as electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, and egalitarian democracy to decreases in oil rents are positive and statistically significant, whereas the response of military spending is negative and significant. Moreover according to the results of the variance decomposition analysis the variations in oil rents and political situation explain considerable parts of the variation of defence expenditures in the Middle Eastern countries implying that defence expenditures are considerably influenced by oil rents fluctuations and the quality of political system in the Middle East. These results are not sensitive to different proxies for oil abundance (such as fuel exports and amount of oil production) and different indicators of political institutions (V-DEM democracy indexes and polity2), as well as different orderings of variables in the panel VAR system.
    Keywords: Middle East, oil rents, democracy, sanctions, military expenditures, Panel-Vector Autoregressive model
    JEL: F51 F13 F14
    Date: 2019–04–05
  11. By: Philipp M. Richter; Marco Runkel; Robert C. Schmidt
    Abstract: The loss of international competitiveness of domestic industries remains a key obstacle to the implementation of effective carbon prices in a world without harmonized climate policies. We analyze countries’ non-cooperative choices of emissions taxes under imperfect competition and mobile polluting firms. In our general equilibrium setup with trade, wage effects prevent all firms from locating in the same country. While under local or no pollution countries achieve the first-best, under transboundary pollution taxes are inefficiently low and lower than under autarky where only the ‘standard’ free-riding incentive distorts emissions taxes. This effect is more pronounced when polluting firms are mobile.
    Keywords: strategic environmental policy, firm location, carbon leakage, general equilibrium
    JEL: F12 F18 H23
    Date: 2019
  12. By: Kayo MURAKAMI; Takanori IDA
    Abstract: This study investigates consumers’ status quo bias against new alternatives after deregulation in the residential electricity market in Japan. We conducted two choice experiments using online surveys before and after deregulation, and analyzed the relationship between consumers’ stated preferences and their revealed switching behaviors. The results indicate that the average Japanese consumer experiences status quo bias in electricity plan choice; consumers preferred to remain with their default provider despite the obvious 5% bill savings that could be gained from switching to a new provider. Moreover, respondents who did not switch in the real market became twice as attached to their default plan after their actual decision. In addition, respondents who switched soon after deregulation had a higher stated preference for renewable energy sources. This implies that new electricity plans that enhance clean energy have more potential to moderate consumer status quo bias in electricity plan choice. By simulating the potential share of new providers in the liberalized market, we found that a 50% renewable-energy plan has a larger potential market share than a plan that offers a 7% bill reduction under price competition.
    Date: 2019–04
  13. By: Lee, Henry (Harvard Kennedy School); Clark, Alex (Climate Policy Initiative)
    Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) have advanced significantly this decade, owing in part to decreasing battery costs. Yet EVs remain more costly than gasoline fueled vehicles over their useful life. This paper analyzes the additional advances that will be needed, if electric vehicles are to significantly penetrate the passenger vehicle fleet.
    Date: 2018–09
  14. By: Dr. Christian Lutz (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Dr. Markus Flaute (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Dr. Ulrike Lehr (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Dr. Andreas Kemmler (Prognos AG); Dr. Almut Kirchner (Prognos AG); Alex auf der Maur (Prognos AG); Inka Ziegenhagen (Prognos AG); Marco Wünsch (Prognos AG); Sylvie Koziel (Prognos AG); Dr. Alexander Piégsa (Prognos AG); Samuel Straßburg (Prognos AG)
    Abstract: Für die Transformation des Energiesystems zu einem klimafreundlichen System und dem gleichzeitigen Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie bis zum Jahr 2022 bei Gewährleistung einer sicheren, wirtschaftlichen und umweltverträglichen Energieversorgung sind technologische Entwicklungen und Investitionen notwendig. Da die Energiewende mit gesamtwirtschaftlichen Effekten und vielfältigen Verteilungswirkungen verbunden ist, ist es für die Akzeptanz der Energiewende entscheidend, dass sie gesamtwirtschaftliche Vorteile bzw. keine inakzeptablen Nachteile mit sich bringt und negative Verteilungswirkungen frühzeitig erkannt, begrenzt und – wenn möglich – ausgeglichen werden. In diesem Teilbericht zum gesamten Forschungsvorhaben 21/15 „Makroökonomische Wirkungen und Verteilungsfragen der Energiewende“ werden die Ergebnisse der makroökonomischen Analyse aus Arbeitspaket 3 vorgestellt. Zur Ermittlung der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Wirkungen der Energiewende in der Vergangenheit und zu zukünftigen Wirkungen werden modellgestützt zwei Szenarien einander gegenübergestellt. Das Energiewende-Szenario EWS bildet eine Welt ab, in der die Energiewende seit dem Jahr 2000 so abläuft, wie sie auch faktisch stattgefunden hat und in der in der Zukunft die Ziele der Energiewende erreicht werden. Das Kontrafaktische Szenario KFS bildet eine in sich konsistente alternative Entwicklung ab, die wie folgt beschrieben werden kann: Ab dem Jahr 2000 fand keine Förderung von erneuerbaren Energien und Energieeffizienz statt und wird auch in Zukunft nicht stattfinden. Zur Energieumwandlung werden ab dem Jahr 2000 nur diejenigen Technologien eingesetzt, die sich marktgetrieben durchsetzen. Der Vergleich ökonomischer Kenngrößen unter den jeweiligen Szenarioannahmen lässt Rückschlüsse auf die gesamtwirtschaftliche Vorteilhaftigkeit eines Szenarios gegenüber dem anderen zu. Im Anschluss an die Ausgestaltung der beiden Szenarien sowie die ihnen zugrunde liegenden Annahmen und Rahmendaten für die Entwicklung von 2000 bis heute wird die Entwicklung von Primär- und Endenergieverbrauch sowie der energiebedingten THG-Emissionen in den beiden Szenarien ausführlich beschrieben. Diese Szenarien werden in das umweltökonomische makroökonometrische Modell PANTA RHEI eingestellt. Die damit ermittelten gesamtwirtschaftlichen Ergebnisse werden umfänglich dargestellt und anschließend verschiedene Sensitivitätsrechnungen durchgeführt. Zum einen werden die Effekte des Szenarienvergleichs aufgespalten in Wirkungen auf dem Strommarkt und Effekte, die durch höhere Energieeffizienz und erneuerbare Energien in den verschiedenen Verbrauchssektoren ausgelöst werden. Zum zweiten werden Analysen für die EU-Kommission nachvollzogen, die den Einfluss unterschiedlicher Restriktionen auf Märkten und ihre Umsetzung in konkreten Modellen betrachten. Es folgt eine Einordnung der Ergebnisse, sowohl durch den Vergleich mit nationalen und internationalen Ergebnissen als auch durch Aufzeigen der Grenzen der Modellrechnungen. Außerdem bietet der Report einen kurzen Überblick darüber, wie und wo weitergehende Effekte quantifiziert werden (können). Er schließt mit einer kurzen Zusammenfassung sowie einem Ausblick.
    Keywords: Gesamtwirtschaft, Energiewende
    JEL: Q43 Q48
    Date: 2018
  15. By: Pasquali, Andrea; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik
    Abstract: This paper investigate the construction and use of energy saving cost curves. We discuss the various methodologies for calculating costs of savings measures and whether these can be compared across different sectors, end-uses and over time. The costs are fundamentally different if estimated as full cost of a measure, including installation, financing, transaction costs etc. or just the marginal cost of a more energy efficient component, for example type of glass or appliance model. We also highlight the difference in gross measures considered when examing option for residential building or industrial process equipment. Finally we introduce a few examples from Danish cost curves constructed and illustrate how different aggregation would be depending of which categories of costs are used in the construction of the curves.
    Keywords: Energy savings; cost curve, conservation
    JEL: Q2 Q28 Q41
    Date: 2019–03
  16. By: Juan David Urquijo Vanegas; Carlos Mateo Perilla Castañeda; Fabián Ricardo Martínez Cruz
    Abstract: Conocer el valor del desarrollo de la explotación de hidrocarburos para el sostenimiento de las finanzas de la economía colombiana es de vital importancia para entender cómo las técnicas de extracción no convencionales, como el fracking, pueden ser una alternativa para el crecimiento y complemento de la matriz energética del país. En este sentido, es conveniente evaluar en detalle las múltiples consecuencias económicas y ambientales que trae consigo la aplicación de tales técnicas, que pueden verse magnificadas en un contexto como el colombiano. Este documento se encarga de hacer una revisión histórica sobre la extracción de petróleo en Colombia en las últimas dos décadas enfocada, principalmente, en cómo el desarrollo se vería afectado por la implementación de las técnicas de fracturación hidráulica para la explotación de yacimientos no convencionales. El objetivo principal del artículo es dar a conocer cómo funciona esta técnica y los argumentos a favor y en contra de su implementación; se revisa la experiencia de Estados Unidos y se pretende predecir qué efectos se tendrán en materia social, económica y ambiental para el país. *** Knowing the value of the development of the hydrocarbons exploitation to sustain the finances of the Colombian economy is of vital importance to understand how non-conventional extraction techniques, such as Fracking, can be an alternative for growth and a complement the country's energy matrix. In this sense, it is convenient to evaluate in detail the multiple economic and environmental consequences brought about by the application of such techniques, which can be magnified in a context such as the Colombian one. This document reviews the history of oil extraction in Colombia over the last two decades, focusing mainly on how development would be affected by the implementation of hydraulic fracturing techniques for the exploitation of non-conventional oil deposits. The main objective of the article is to show how this technique works and the arguments for and against its implementation; it reviews the experience of the United States and aims to predict what effects will have in social, economic and environmental matters for the country.
    Keywords: fracking, fracturación hidráulica, petróleo, sostenibilidad, medio ambiente
    JEL: E23 E32 F20 L71 Q48
    Date: 2019–04–02
  17. By: Büchele, Richard; Kranzl, Lukas; Hummel, Marcus
    Abstract: In this work a method for integrated strategic heating and cooling planning on regional level is presented and applied for the case study city of Brasov. The overall methodology comprises the calculation of the cost-optimal combination of heat savings with either district heating or individual supply technologies for different building groups located in different areas according to the availability of a current district heating network. This optimal combination is calculated for different scenarios and framework conditions, and different indicators like total system costs, total CO2 emissions, share of renewables etc. are calculated and compared to analyse the economic efficiency as well as the CO2 reduction potentials of various options to save heat and supply heat in the buildings. The results of the assessment show that at least a certain amount of heat savings is cheaper than all assessed heat supply options for all building groups but that renewable supply options are not the most economical alternatives per se in the assessed case study under stated conditions. The presented integrated planning process reveals that a long term planning is essential to reach decarbonisation goals and that current framework conditions should be adapted to generate more favourable conditions for renewable heating systems.
    Keywords: District heating; Heat savings and supply; Heating and cooling planning; Regional level
    JEL: C60
    Date: 2018–09
  18. By: Anna Falentina; Budy Resosudarmo
    Abstract: Reliability of electricity supply is one of pressing challenges to many micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in developing countries. MSEs play a pivotal role in employment generation in these countries, but productivity of MSEs is relatively low. Little is known about how blackouts affect performance of MSEs. This paper is the first study to estimate the impact of power blackouts on productivity of manufacturing MSEs and to discuss the role of the government in addressing problem. We employ a pseudo-panel dataset covering six firm cohorts within 21 Indonesian national electricity company working areas from 2010 to 2015. Our identification strategy involves first examining blackouts determinants and then using these determinants as instruments in an IV dynamic panel fixed effects estimation while controlling for factors potentially affect productivity and correlated with blackouts. We find that electricity blackouts reduce the average labor productivity and the resultant loss amounts to approximately IDR 71.5 billion (USD 4.91 million) per year in Indonesia. Therefore, it is crucial to improve electricity supply reliability in developing countries. We find that introducing a captive generator as a way to cope with power outages, is positively associated with productivity, and MSEs that have captive generators benefit more when the power supply is poor. Our findings will assist policy makers to prioritize addressing power blackouts relative to other constraints MSEs face.
    Keywords: micro and small enterprises, power blackouts, productivity, captive generators, pseudo-panel data analysis
    JEL: H54 L53 L94
    Date: 2019
  19. By: Jessica Thomsen (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE); Christoph Weber (Chair for Management Sciences and Energy Economics, University of Duisburg-Essen (Campus Essen))
    Abstract: We assess how the design of retail prices, network charges and levies for household prosumers affect the attractiveness and resulting operation of small-scale photovoltaic battery storage systems (PVBSS), using a detailed modeling approach applied to a case study of six households in Germany. The selected pricing schemes and reform proposals are evaluated regarding the investment attractiveness for the prosumer and the impact on system-oriented operation, considering both market and grid integration. We show that currently the business case for PV as well as PVBSS only exists since it allows avoiding grid offtake and thus avoiding paying taxes and levies on consumed electricity. Introducing time-variable pricing schemes or price components increases the value of PVBSS for the customer and the market, but leads to less grid-friendly operation. It is shown that the term “system-oriented operation†should be defined carefully since market value and grid-friendly operation do not necessarily go hand in hand so that one incentive cannot inherently contribute to both objectives at the same time. The tariff design, as well as the design of single tariff components have a considerable impact on the attractiveness and the resulting system integration of PVBSS and should be evaluated thoroughly to avoid unintended outcomes.
    Keywords: photovoltaic battery storage systems, tariff design, system integration, grid integration
  20. By: Raghavan, Mala (Tasmanian School of Business & Economics, University of Tasmania)
    Abstract: The paper analyses the importance of supply versus demand shocks on the global oil market from 1974 to 2017, using a parsimonious structural vector autoregressive mov- ing average (SVARMA) model. The superior out-of-sample forecasting performance of the reduced form VARMA compared to VAR alternatives advocates the suitabil- ity of this framework. We specifically account for the changes in the oil market over three distinctive sub-periods - pre moderation, great moderation and post moderation periods, to provide a means of identifying the changing nature of shock transmission mechanism across times. The findings shed some light on the effects of supply versus demand related oil shocks under different economic environment. Oil supply shocks explain large fraction of the movements in the global oil market in the pre and post moderation periods, i.e. during the slower economic growth periods. The importance of global activity shock on oil price movements is obvious during the 2003-2008 boom period. The oil specific shock has an interesting transmission path on the global eco- nomic activity, where the global activity responded positively and negatively during the global economic expansion and contraction respectively, emphasising the precautionary nature of the shock.
    Keywords: VARMA models, oil price shocks, global oil market, impulse responses, forecasting
    JEL: C32 E32 Q43
    Date: 2019
  21. By: Sébastien Houde; Erica Myers
    Abstract: Quantifying heterogeneity in consumers’ misperceptions of product costs is crucial for policy design. We illustrate this point in the energy context and the design of Pigouvian policies. We estimate non-parametric distributions of perceptions of energy costs in the U.S. appliance market using a revealed preference approach. We show that the average degree of misperception is misleading— while the largest share of consumers correctly perceives energy costs, a significant share undervalues them, and smaller shares either significantly overvalues or completely ignores them. We show that setting a tax based on mean misperception deviates substantially from the optimal tax that accounts for heterogeneous misperceptions. While correctly characterizing misperception is crucial for setting optimal Pigouvian taxes for externalities, it is less important for setting optimal standards. We find that standards can largely outperform taxes. Standards’ advantage is they reduce variance in energy operating costs relative to taxes, which internalizes distortionary effects from misperceptions.
    JEL: D12 D83 L15 Q41 Q50
    Date: 2019–04
  22. By: Shirley, James
    Abstract: This paper explores the potential contribution to climate change mitigation resulting from the adoption of the Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) mitigation scheme methodologies. CSA is an internationally recognized approach that helps guide the actions needed to transform and reorient agricultural systems, to effectively support sustainable development and ensure food security in a changing climate. CSA is based on principles developed in conjunction with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), so its Mitigation Scheme framework of differentiated incentivization is readily transferable across IPCC regions, without the need for radical new policy initiatives. This methodology links with an emissions trading scheme (ETS), as an incentive compatible mechanism to improve environmental outcomes. In this case the NZETS trades carbon certificates based on farm systems that effectively measure, report and ultimately verify the land user’s contribution towards the country’s nationally determined contributions (NDCs).
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–08–31
  23. By: Stefano Ramelli (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance); Alexander F. Wagner (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI); Swiss Finance Institute); Richard J. Zeckhauser (Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS); National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)); Alexandre Ziegler (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance)
    Abstract: Donald Trump's 2016 election and the subsequent nomination of Scott Pruitt, a climate skeptic, to lead the Environmental Protection Agency drastically downshifted expectations on US climate change policy. Firms' stock-price reactions to these events reveal whether their climate strategies affected their valuations. As widely reported, firms in industries with high carbon intensity benefited, at least briefly. It might be expected that companies with "responsible" strategies on climate change would also have lost value, since they were paying for actions that seemed less urgent. In fact, investors actually rewarded such firms. The analysis shows that this observed climate responsibility premium results, at least in part, from the strategic behavior of long-horizon investors who looked into the future to assess the valuation of corporations.
    Keywords: Climate change, CSR, election surprise, ESG, event study, stock returns
    JEL: G14 G38
    Date: 2018–09
  24. By: Lundgren, Berndt (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology); Schultzberg, Mårten (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Smart meters and in-house displays hold a promise of energy conservation for those who invest in such technology. Research has shown that households only have a limited interest in such technology and information is thus often neglected, with rather limited energy savings. Surprisingly few empirical investigations have a theoretical foundation that may explain what is going on from a behavioral perspective. In this study the economic theory of self-control is used to model energy-efficient behavior in middle-income households in Sweden. Our results show that different levels of energy-efficient behavior do not really have any impact on the actual consumption levels of electricity. Instead, different beliefs exist of being energy-efficient, but the households do not act accordingly. Our results suggest that the payment time period should be changed to stimulate the monitoring of bills and to introduce a gaming strategy to change incentives for energy conservation.
    Keywords: Energy use; Energy efficient; In-house displays; mediation model; smart meters; two-level time series
    JEL: C11 C81 D12 R22
    Date: 2019–03–28
  25. By: Büchele, Richard; Kranzl, Lukas; Hummel, Marcus
    Abstract: District heating in general is seen as an important opportunity to decarbonise the heating sector especially in urban areas and therefore important to reach European and global climate goals. In this case study we analyse possible future scenarios for the city of Brasov, Romania. Like in many other cities in Eastern Europe a district heating system exists in the city, however, facing severe challenges like old and inefficient infrastructure and loss of consumers due to unreliability of supply over the last decades. This work assesses the impact of different policies on the feasibility of renewable and efficient heating under various conditions and suggests favourable policy frameworks to ensure an economically and ecologically viable future heating system for the city.
    Keywords: District heating; heat savings and supply; policy assessment; Eastern Europe; Romania
    JEL: C60
    Date: 2017–07
  26. By: Mateus A. Cavaliere; Sergio Granville; Gerson C. Oliveira; Mario V. F. Pereira
    Abstract: This work presents a methodology for forward electricity contract price projection based on market equilibrium and social welfare optimization. In the methodology supply and demand for forward contracts are produced in such a way that each agent (generator/load/trader) optimizes a risk adjusted expected value of its revenue/cost. When uncertainties are represented by a discrete number of scenarios, a key result in the paper is that contract price corresponds to the dual variable of the equilibrium constraints in the linear programming problem associated to the optimization of total agents' welfare. Besides computing an equilibrium contract price for a given year, the methodology can also be used to compute the evolution of the probability distribution associated to a contract price with a future delivery period; this an import issue in quantifying forward contract risks. Examples of the methodology application are presented and discussed
    Date: 2019–04
  27. By: Carlsson, Fredrik (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Gravert, Christina (University of Copenhagen, Department of Economics); Johansson-Stenman, Olof (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Kurz, Verena
    Abstract: We discuss the use of green nudges – nudges intended to reduce negative externalities – as an environmental policy instrument. A review of empirical studies reveals that green nudges can have a sizeable impact on behavior and the environment, but that the effects are context dependent. In the policy discussion, drawing on both the empirical overview and basic welfare-economic models, it is emphasized that while green nudges seem to have a large potential, they offer no panacea for solving environmental problems. Instead, they should be seen as a policy instrument among others in the regulator’s toolbox. In particular, we discuss the potential role of nudging when environmental externalities can be dealt with using optimal Pigovian taxes, and when they cannot. Nudging has a greater potential when such taxes are not available or feasible.
    Keywords: nudge; environmental policy; behavior
    JEL: D90 H21 H23
    Date: 2019–04
  28. By: Grafström, Jonas (The Ratio Institute)
    Abstract: An anecdote about the failure of the Soviet economic system tells about a factory which were evaluated based on tons of nails produced – unsurprisingly the nails became heavy. China is currently hailed as the worlds primer wind power producer; however, a closer examination reveals a string of policy failure making the Chinese wind power development resemble the infamous Soviet nail example. From a technological transition perspective, policy failures in China's wind power program from 1980-2016 is documented and analysed. Five overarching topics are analysed including: Conflicting policies, quality problems, underwhelming technological development, lacking technological standards and insufficient grid transmission system. One conclusion is that when the Chinese government set a command and control target of how much new installed capacity that was going to be constructed the state utilities delivered to target but with an abundance of power plants without grid connectivity, severe quality problems and low technological development.
    Keywords: China; Wind power; Economic Planning; Soviet; Technology; Energy
    JEL: E61 O32 Q28 Q58
    Date: 2019–04–02
  29. By: Akshay Vij
    Abstract: The transport sector is witnessing unprecedented levels of disruption. Privately owned cars that operate on internal combustion engines have been the dominant modes of passenger transport for much of the last century. However, recent advances in transport technologies and services, such as the development of autonomous vehicles, the emergence of shared mobility services, and the commercialization of alternative fuel vehicle technologies, promise to revolutionise how humans travel. The implications are profound: some have predicted the end of private car dependent Western societies, others have portended greater suburbanization than has ever been observed before. If transport systems are to fulfil current and future needs of different subpopulations, and satisfy short and long-term societal objectives, it is imperative that we comprehend the many factors that shape individual behaviour. This chapter introduces the technologies and services most likely to disrupt prevailing practices in the transport sector. We review past studies that have examined current and future demand for these new technologies and services, and their likely short and long-term impacts on extant mobility patterns. We conclude with a summary of what these new technologies and services might mean for the future of mobility.
    Date: 2019–04
  30. By: Eloi Laurent (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: Le « grand débat national », décidé et organisé par le pouvoir exécutif, va connaître son épilogue dans les prochaines semaines. Engendré par la révolte des « gilets jaunes » contre l’iniquité fiscale, il était logique qu’il suscite une réflexion sur la réforme de la fiscalité carbone, suspendue en décembre 2018, qui se trouve au point d’intersection exact entre les deux thèmes les plus débattus en ligne par les Français : « la transition écologique » et « la fiscalité et les dépenses publiques ». Nous ajoutons aujourd’hui une dimension supplémentaire à ce débat en proposant d’instituer pour 2020 une contribution climat anti-précarité énergétique. C’est l’occasion d’éclairer pour les citoyens et les décideurs certaines des options de réforme en présence, avant, éventuellement, de trancher. Le Tableau 1 présente les caractéristiques des quatre propositions les plus abouties et détaillées présentées ces dernières semaines, dont la nôtre (il en existe bien d’autres).
    Keywords: Environnement; Fiscalité ; Justice sociale; Réchauffement climatique; Taxe carbone
    JEL: H23 Q52 Q58
    Date: 2019–04
  31. By: Morimoto, Mayo (Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: This paper studies how electrification affected the economic performance and industrial relations of the Japanese coal mining industry in the 1900s. We find that electrification considerably improved productivity and increased the number of workers, but had statistically zero effects on miners’ wages and significantly declined the labor income share, using difference-in-differences estimation. We explain this phenomenon by using the “superstar firm†hypothesis, which provides a consistent explanation of the recent declines in labor income share in the US economy.
    Keywords: Electrification, labor income share, productivity, industrial revolution, technological change, coal mining.
    JEL: D24 L94 O13 O14 Q40
    Date: 2019–03–22
  32. By: Philip Ulrich (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Dr. Ulrike Lehr (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research)
    Abstract: Der Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien (EE) ist von einem umfangreichen Monitoringprozess begleitet, bei dem jährlich technisch-ökonomische Daten ermittelt, aufbereitet und veröffentlicht werden. Die Berichterstattung dient dem Aufzeigen von Fortschritten wie Fehlstellen, welche bei der Zielerreichung wichtige Korrekturen oder Verstärkungen ermöglichen. Seit dem Jahr 2006 ist die Ermittlung der mit dem EE-Ausbau verbundenen Beschäftigung Teil des Monitorings. Ausgangspunkt der Berechnungen sind die Investitionen in erneuerbare Energien des jeweiligen Jahres. Der Ausbau und der Betrieb von EE-Anlagen löst zusätzliche Nachfrage nach Anlagen und nach Leistungen für den Betrieb und die Wartung von Anlagen aus. Durch die zusätzliche Nachfrage wird zunächst die direkte Beschäftigung für die Produktion und die Bereitstellung von Biomasse sowie die direkte Beschäftigung in Betrieb und Wartung der Anlagen benötigt. Über eine Input-Output-Analyse werden aus der Produktion von Vorleistungen indirekt Beschäftigte abgeleitet. Die Strukturinformationen der EE-Branchen wurden in einer Reihe von Unternehmensbefragungen (2005, 2007, 2012) erhoben und seither fortgeschrieben. Seit dem Beschluss der Bundesregierung zum Energiekonzept (2010), spätestens aber seit den Beschlüssen zur Energiewende im Jahr 2011 umfasst der Monitoringprozess alle Energiewendebereiche und enthält die komplette Energiewirtschaft und die Energieeffizienz. So hat die jüngste Veröffentlichung von O’Sullivan et al. (2018) die Beschäftigung durch die Energiewende insgesamt im Blick. Sie wurde erstmals um eine Zeitreihe ergänzt, welche die Entwicklung der Bruttobeschäftigung durch erneuerbare Energien basierend auf einer konsolidierten Zeitreihe zum Ausbau, dem Bestand und den jährlichen Investitionen konsistent abschätzt. Die Bruttobeschäftigung durch den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien in Deutschland dient im Folgenden als Ausgangspunkt für die Berechnung der EE-Beschäftigung in den Bundesländern. Dazu wird zunächst kurz auf die Veröffentlichungsreihe zur regionalen Abschätzung eingegangen. Kapitel 2 gibt einen Überblick über die Verteilung der Bruttobeschäftigung in den Bundesländern insgesamt und beleuchtet unterschiedliche Strukturen. Zusätzlich werden der Status und die Entwicklung für drei Energieträger gesondert dargestellt. Kapitel 3 geht auf die einzelnen Entwicklungen in den Bundesländern ein und Kapitel 4 fasst anhand der Gesamtdynamik zusammen und schließt mit einem zusammenfassenden Fazit.
    Keywords: Erneuerbare Energien, Bruttobeschäftigung
    JEL: Q42 Q43 Q48
    Date: 2018
  33. By: Phoebe W. Ishak (Universität Hamburg (University of Hamburg)); Ulrich Fritsche (Universität Hamburg (University of Hamburg))
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the impact of oil price shocks on the incidence of protest over the period 1991-2015. Our results indicate that negative oil price shocks are followed by an uptick in the number of protests and that a higher initial size of the shadow economy allows to mitigate the negative consequences of low oil prices on the likelihood of protest. To explain these results, we show that negative oil price shocks lead to a significant increase in the size of the shadow economy in highly oil dependent countries and that this countercyclical behavior is largely due to oil-price-driven income shocks. In our estimations, a decrease in the GDP per capita by one percentage point increases the shadow economy by 0.54 percentage points. This suggest that the shadow economy’s capacity to absorb persistent oil price fluctuations without provoking political unrest, should regard it as a mitigation tool rather than an economic burden.
    Keywords: Oil Price Shocks, Protest, Shadow Economy, Income
    Date: 2019–04
  34. By: Dr. Christian Lutz (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Dr. Ulrike Lehr (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research)
    Abstract: Für 2020 war festgelegt, dass die THG-Emissionen 40 % unter dem Wert des Jahres 1990 liegen. Angesichts eines nur leichten weiteren Rückgangs bis 2016 auf 27,7 % gegenüber dem Basisjahr und einem von den AG Energiebilanzen (2017) prognostizierten Anstieg im Jahr 2017 im Vergleich zum Vorjahr erwartet u. a. die Experten-Kommission zum Monitoring-Prozess der Energiewende (EWK 2017) nicht, dass das Klimaziel für das Jahr 2020 noch erreicht wird. Die Ursachen für die Zielverfehlung liefert die Experten-Kommission gleich mit. Der Bereich der Wärmeerzeugung und insbesondere der Verkehr sind weit von den Zielen des Energiekonzepts der Bundesregierung entfernt. Dies gilt sowohl für den Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien als auch für die Energieeffizienz. Dagegen wirkt der viel diskutierte und kritisierte Strombereich trotz schleppenden Netzausbaus wie ein Musterknabe. Was ist in der laufenden Legislaturperiode zu tun, um das Klimaschutzziel von 40 % im Jahr 2020 nicht allzu weit zu verfehlen und zumindest noch eine realistische Chance zu erhalten, im Jahr 2030 mit einer THG-Minderung von 55 % gegenüber 1990 wieder den Zielpfad zu erreichen? Das Discussion Paper fokussiert entsprechende Maßnahmen, indem es einerseits erklärt, welchen Effekt ein nationaler Mindestpreis auf alle THG-Emissionen hätte und andererseits, weshalb auch die Energieeffizienz in allen Bereichen massiv und messbar vorangetrieben werden sollte.
    Keywords: Klimaschutz, Energiewende, Koalitionsvertrag
    JEL: Q43 Q48 Q54
    Date: 2018
  35. By: Minhaj Mahmud; Yasuyuki Sawada; Eiji Yamada
    Abstract: This paper reports on the first attempt to measure the value of statistical life (VSL) in the context of mortality risk from air pollution in urban Bangladesh, using the contingent valuation (CV) method. The CV survey was conducted in 2013 in Dhaka and Chittagong, the two most densely populated cities in the country. We asked individuals willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reduction from air quality improvement program and found that willingness to pay is correlated with the socio-economic characteristics, health status, and risk perception of the respondents, consistently with existing studies. The bootstrapped mean of VSL is ranged from 17,480-22,463 USD in purchasing power parity terms, which is equivalent to 9.78-12.57 times of GDP per capita of Bangladesh. Considering our study setting, the results we obtained may be regarded as a lower bound of VSL estimates in the context of environmental risk reductions in Bangladesh.
    Keywords: value of statistical life, willingness to pay, contingent valuation, air pollution, Bangladesh
    Date: 2019–03
  36. By: Edward J Manderson; Richard Kneller
    Date: 2019
  37. By: Marlene O‘Sullivan (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.); Dr. Dietmar Edler (Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung e.V.); Dr. Ulrike Lehr (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research)
    Abstract: Die Energiewende in Deutschland hat das Ziel, langfristig eine umweltverträgliche, ressourcenschonende und kostengünstige Energieversorgung zu gewährleisten. Um den Fortschritt dieser Transformation adäquat und zuverlässig beurteilen zu können, bedarf es geeigneter Indikatoren. Neben physischen Indikatoren zu Energieeinsatz und Emissionen werden auch Indikatoren benötigt, die die ökonomische Dimension der Transformation der Energiewirtschaft beschreiben. Die hier vorliegende Untersuchung ermittelt und dokumentiert relevante ökonomische Indikatoren. Da die Transformation des Energiesystems ein langfristiger Prozess ist, wird angestrebt, die Indikatoren in einer langen Zeitreihe seit dem Jahr 2000 bis zum aktuellen Rand vorzulegen. Bei genauerer Betrachtung, welche Wirtschaftsbereiche dem Energiesystem zuzurechnen sind, wird deutlich, dass eine Klärung und Abgrenzung erforderlich sind. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Untersuchung wird auf die Bereitstellung von Endenergie gelegt, es werden jedoch auch erste Ansätze zur Erfassung der Entwicklung von Maßnahmen zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz und zu effizienten Verbrauchern vorgestellt. Der Report stellt dar, welche Daten in den relevanten ökonomischen Indikatorenbereichen vorliegen und welche Daten aus welchem Grund für die hier dokumentierten Indikatoren genutzt wurden. Bei der Auswahl der verwendeten Daten wird angestrebt, immer dann, wenn es methodisch vertretbar erscheint, vorliegende amtliche oder andere öffentlich verfügbare Daten zu nutzen. Wo dies nicht möglich oder sinnvoll erscheint, sind Methoden entwickelt worden, anhand derer die erforderlichen Indikatoren abgeleitet werden können. Die dabei angewendeten Vorgehensweisen und die jeweils getroffenen Annahmen werden ausführlich dargestellt. Die Untersuchung ist daher wie folgt aufgebaut. Zunächst wird die Beschäftigung in den verschiedenen Bereichen der Energiewirtschaft ausgeführt. Wie in allen Bereichen der Wirtschaftstätigkeit lösen diese Aktivitäten die Nachfrage nach weiteren Gütern aus und führen auch indirekt zu Beschäftigung in den vorgelagerten Wirtschaftszweigen. Daher sind die indirekten Effekte unabdingbar, um den gesamten ökonomischen Effekt der Energiewirtschaft abzuschätzen. Das folgende Kapitel geht ausführlich auf die Investitionstätigkeit in der Energiewirtschaft ein und stellt erstmals in der Literatur umfassend Investitionen in allen Bereichen zusammen. Anschließend wird der Bogen zurück zur Beschäftigung geschlagen. Hier wird die zur Bereitstellung der entsprechenden Güter notwendige Bruttoproduktion abgeleitet, auf deren Basis die Beschäftigungsermittlung fußt. Die hierzu notwendigen Überlegungen zum Außenhandel mit den jeweiligen Gütern werden ebenfalls angestellt. Der Bericht schließt mit verschiedenen konzeptionellen Ansätzen in der Literatur zum Thema Energieeffizienz und gibt Beispiele für eine entsprechende Umsetzung.
    Keywords: Energiewende, Ökonomische Indikatoren, Energieeffizienz
    JEL: Q42 Q43 Q48
    Date: 2018
  38. By: Zengkai Zhang (College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, China China Academy of Energy, Environmental and Industrial Economics, China); ZhongXiang Zhang (Ma Yinchu School of Economics, Tianjin University, China China Academy of Energy, Environmental and Industrial Economics, China); Kunfu Zhu (University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China)
    Abstract: A number of studies have compared national carbon abatement responsibility under different carbon accounting schemes. However, the difficulty of the shift among different national carbon accounting schemes has rarely been quantitatively evaluated in the literature. Spatial production fragmentation over the recent decades has led to geographical separation among the primary inputs supplying regions, carbon emitting regions, and final consuming regions. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects of spatial production fragmentation on the shift from production-based to consumption-based and income-based national carbon accounting. Based on both demand- and supply-driven input-output analytical frameworks, this paper analyses the allocation of carbon responsibility for embodied and enabled emissions along production chains over the period 1995-2009. It was found that as much as 25% of embodied emissions and 20% of enabled emissions crossed national borders more than once in 2009. The shift among different carbon accounting schemes is not only related to the magnitude of trade related emissions but also related to border-crossing frequency associated with emissions embodied in or enabled by international trade. The increasingly fragmented production networks complicate the shift from production-based to consumption-based or income-based accounting and weaken the effectiveness of consumption-based or income-based accounting.
    Date: 2019–02
  39. By: Francesco Aiello (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria); Paola Cardamone (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria); Lidia Mannarino (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria); Valeria Pupo (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how family and non-family firms differ in terms of their capability to introduce environmental innovation, which is measured by green patents. The analysis is carried out using a large patenting data set related to the inventions produced by about 4200 Italian manufacturing firms over the period 2009–2017. The results show that family firms are less likely than non-family firms to implement innovations in green technologies. Moreover, the role played by the stock of knowledge and the environmental management system certification differs across firm type.
    Keywords: eco-innovation, green patent, family firms
    JEL: O31 C23 G34
    Date: 2019–03
  40. By: Dr. Ulrike Lehr (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Dr. Christian Lutz (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Lisa Becker (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research)
    Abstract: Die Energiewende beschreibt den Weg des umfassenden Umbaus des Energiesystems von einem System, das durch den Einsatz fossiler Brennstoffe gekennzeichnet ist, hin zu einem System auf Basis erneuerbarer Energien, in dem Energie sehr viel effizienter genutzt wird. In Deutschland als ressourcenarmem Land ist dies gleichbedeutend mit einem Rückgang fossiler Brennstoffimporte. Der Rückgang von Importen ist wiederum per se gleichbedeutend mit einem Anstieg des Handelsbilanzsaldos. Gleichzeitig lässt sich möglicherweise die Energiesicherheit steigern, denn die importierten fossilen Brennstoffe kommen zum Teil aus politisch wenig stabilen Ländern und sind erheblichen Preisschwankungen unterworfen. Weniger aufwendig als eine detaillierte Modellierung einer kontrafaktischen Entwicklung, die anschließend einem Energiewendeszenario gegenübergestellt wird, und zudem sehr transparent ist es, die Energieimporte aus den entsprechenden Statistiken des Statistischen Bundesamts den notwendigen Energieimporten ohne EE und Effizienz direkt gegenüberzustellen. Auf Basis der vom UBA bereitgestellten Minderung des fossilen Primärenergieeinsatzes in den Bereichen Strom, Wärme und Verkehr wurden für das Monitoring zum Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien in der Begleitforschung jährlich die durch den EE-Ausbau eingesparten Emissionen sowie die Importrückgänge abgeschätzt. Das UBA vergleicht zur Ermittlung der Substitutionsfaktoren zwei Szenarien für das jeweils aktuelle Jahr mittels derer sich ein neuer virtueller Mix ausrechnen lässt, der zu bestimmten Anteilen Energieträger enthält (Steinkohle, Erdgas, Mineralölprodukte), welche zum Teil importiert werden. Mit Importpreisen bewertet lässt sich so eine Abschätzung der Importminderung geben. Diesem Ansatz auch für die Energieeffizienz folgend wird in diesem Bericht ein vereinfachter Schätzansatz vorgeschlagen, der auf dem Vergleich statistischer Daten mit einem transparent konstruierten kontrafaktischen Verbrauch basiert. Ein derartiger Indikator lässt sich leicht fortschreiben und vermittelt als Zeitreihe anschaulich die Entwicklung der Importeinsparung durch die Veränderungen im Energieträgermix und im Energiebedarf insgesamt. Dabei gilt es immer zu berücksichtigen, dass Energieeffizienz nicht ausschließlich durch die Energiewende und die damit verbundenen Maßnahmen ausgelöst wird, sondern auch autonom stattfindet. Zunächst wird hierfür die Konstruktion dieses Indikators ausführlicher beschrieben. Das anschließende Kapitel zeigt die Anwendung der Berechnungsmethode am Beispiel von 2015, wobei sowohl eine gesamtwirtschaftliche Perspektive eingenommen wird als auch die Importeinsparungen in den einzelnen Endenergieverbrauchssektoren berechnet werden. Im Folgenden wird die Importminderung für die Zeit zwischen den Jahren 2000 und 2015 mittels der vorgeschlagenen Methode berechnet und die Ergebnisse werden diskutiert und eingeordnet. Der Bericht schließt mit einer Zusammenfassung und einem Ausblick.
    Keywords: Verminderte Energieimporte, Energiewende
    JEL: C8 Q43
    Date: 2018
  41. By: Maxim, Maruf Rahman; Zander, Kerstin
    Abstract: This paper synthesises the simulation studies concerning green tax reform (GTR) and employment double dividend (EDD) in European and non-European countries. The studies included investigate the effect of GTR on employment. We compared the simulation results between European and non-European countries to understand the impact of study region and our findings are fivefold. First, the simulation results suggest that GTR-driven EDD is observed in both European and non-European countries, but the average effect on employment in European countries (0.67%) is significantly greater than in non-European countries (0.18%). Second, optimal tax and tax revenue recycling policies in European and non-European countries for EDD are not identical. Reducing employers’ social security contributions (SSC) has the potential to generate EDD in both countries. However, a reduction in value added tax has the highest average effect on employment in European countries (1.62%), which negatively affects employment in non-European countries (−0.02%). Third, a reduction in personal income tax as a tax recycling method creates a marginally average employment dividend in non-European countries (0.16%) but is counterproductive in European countries (−0.15%). Fourth, other taxes, which predominantly represent mixed taxes, exhibit the highest EDD potential in both European (1.01%) and non-European (0.46%) countries. Finally, employment dividend diminishes over time, but a weak quadratic pattern has been observed that reveals an accelerating effect on employment in the long term. These reflections should be considered before employing GTR in non-European countries in order to yield EDD.
    Keywords: Green Tax Reform, Double Dividend, Employment
    JEL: E24 H21 H23
    Date: 2019–04–08
  42. By: Antonia Lòpez-Villavicencio (UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2, GATE - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Ecole Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marc Pourroy (CRIEF - Centre de Recherche sur l'Intégration Economique et Financière - Université de Poitiers, Faculté de Sciences Economiques - Université de Poitiers - Université de Poitiers)
    Abstract: In this paper we employ state-space models to estimate the pass-through of oil price changes to consumer prices for a large sample of countries from 1970 to 2017. By controlling for self-selection bias and endogeneity and allowing for different responses to positive and negative price changes, we asses the differences between explicit inflation targeting (IT) countries and a control group. Surprisingly perhaps, our results suggest that the pass-through is higher for IT countries. Our main contribution is to show that these is mainly due to IT countries having a significant higher pass-through than non-IT countries when the oil price decreases: a 10% drop in oil price leads about a 0.11% drop in inflation in ITers (of which 4pp are explained by the monetary regime). Importantly, we show that adopting IT reduces the asymmetry of the pass-through. We run several robustness checks and conclude that falling oil prices are more welcomed by the central banks with an IT framework, in particular during deflationary episodes or when inflation is above the target. JEL Classification: E31; E42; Q43.
    Keywords: oil price,pass-through,inflation targeting,state-space model,propensity score matching
    Date: 2019–05
  43. By: Carlsson, Fredrik (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Johansson-Stenman, Olof (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: While nudges are still mostly associated with affecting individual choices for their own long-run interest, i.e. dealing with internalities, they are increasingly used in order to reduce externalities, such as environmental consequences. While we are gaining increasing insights into when and how nudges work, much less attention has been given to the normative aspects of nudging as a policy instrument to deal with externalities. We investigate optimal prosocial nudging under a number of different settings in a world where a conventional Pigovian tax can be used to a varying extent. We find that nudges typically only play a limited role when optimal taxes can be implemented. What we denote encouraging moral nudges, i.e. nudges where people’s choices are affected by strengthening consumers’ moral norms for doing the right thing, are more likely to play a role even when the tax is optimal compared to purely cognitive nudges. In addition, if a nudge better can target the right consumers, then it might also be optimal to use even when an optimal tax can be implemented. We also present decision rules for the optimal size of a nudge when an optimal tax cannot be implemented.
    Keywords: nudge; environmental policy; behavior
    JEL: D90 H21 H23
    Date: 2019–04
  44. By: Tipper, Adam
    Abstract: Environmental accounting has emerged as a global response to the shortcomings of the System of National Accounts (SNA) to reflect environmental considerations. Stats NZ is developing environmental-economic accounts to meet widespread needs around understanding the impacts and dependencies of the economy on the environment and develop statistics that show progress beyond that of GDP growth. This paper provides an overview of environmental-economic accounting, including its application to ecosystems and how it may be used to understand the stocks and flows of natural resources in New Zealand, its use in economic analysis, and Stats NZ’s work to date and future developments.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–08–31
  45. By: Montserrat Guillén (Department of Econometrics and Riskcenter-IREA, University of Barcelona.); Mònica Serrano (Department of Economics and BEAT, University of Barcelona.); Francisca Toro (Department of Applied Economics, University of Oviedo, Spain.)
    Abstract: Recent behavioral literature shows that we can identify differences between women and men in diverse domains in a general context, such as empathy, social preferences and reaction towards competitiveness, risk aversion, etc. Regarding the environment, recent studies propose that women have more knowledge and concern about the climate change than men. In this context, however, there is little evidence to what extend these behavioral differences between women and men have been translated into consumption actions more environmental friendly. Within this approach, this paper evaluates different environmental footprints of consumption patterns of women and men. As a case study, we examine Spain during the period 2008-2013. Using data from Spanish input-output tables, environmental air accounts, and household expenditure surveys for the same period, the study give evidence that gender differences take a relevant and significant position according to Weighted Least Square regression.
    Keywords: Environmental impact, Greenhouse gases, Private Consumption, Gender, Multisectoral models, Econometric analysis, Spain. JEL classification: C81, D57, Q5.
    Date: 2019–04
  46. By: Clémence Alasseur (FiME Lab - Laboratoire de Finance des Marchés d'Energie - Université Paris-Dauphine - CREST - EDF R&D - EDF R&D - EDF - EDF, EDF R&D - EDF R&D - EDF - EDF); Emmanuel Gobet (CMAP - Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées - Ecole Polytechnique - X - École polytechnique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Isaque Pimentel (CMAP - Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées - Ecole Polytechnique - X - École polytechnique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, EDF R&D - EDF R&D - EDF - EDF); Xavier Warin (EDF R&D - EDF R&D - EDF - EDF)
    Abstract: Power producers are interested in valuing their power plant production. By trading into forward contracts, we propose to reduce the contingency of the associated income considering the fixed costs and using an asymmetric risk criterion. In an asymptotic framework, we provide an optimal hedging strategy through a solution of a nonlinear partial differential equation. As a numerical experiment, we analyze the impact of the fixed costs structure on the hedging policy and the value of the assets.
    Keywords: Hedging,asymmetric risk,fully nonlinear PDE,cost management,power plant
    Date: 2019–03–23

This nep-ene issue is ©2019 by Roger Fouquet. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.