nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2019‒01‒28
forty-five papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. Searching for Carbon Leaks in Multinational Companies By Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Caterina Gennaioli; Ralf Martin; Mirabelle Muûls; Thomas Stoerk
  2. Whose land is it anyway? Energy futures & land use in India By Mohan, Aniruddh
  3. Measuring output-based technical efficiency of Indian coal-based thermal power plants: A by-production approach By Sushama Murty; Resham Nagpal
  4. Climate Change Mitigation Through Market-based instruments in Large Asian Emitters By Nopiah, Ririn; Widodo, Tri
  5. The Environmental Kuznets Curve in ASEAN: The Case of Carbon Emissions By Budhi Utomo, Ginanjar; Widodo, Tri
  6. Factors influencing CO2 Emission in China: A Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lags Investigation By AhAtil, Ahmed; Bouheni, Faten Ben; Lahiani, Amine; Shahbaz, Muhammad
  7. Global Futures of Energy, Climate, and Policy: Qualitative and Quantitative Foresight towards 2055 By Dawud Ansari; Franziska Holz; Hasan Basri Tosun
  8. Applying Tax Rate of 33,33% on Primary Energy in Indonesia By Tri Purwaningsih, Vitriyani; Widodo, Tri
  9. Modelling crude oil-petroleum products’ price nexus using dynamic conditional correlation GARCH models By Yaya, OlaOluwa; Ogbonna, Ahamuefula
  10. The EU long-term strategy to reduce GHG emissions in light of the Paris Agreement and the IPCC Special Report on 1,5°C By Wachsmuth, Jakob; Schaeffer, Michiel; Hare, Bill
  11. Can product service systems support electric vehicle adoption? By Ensslen, Axel; Gnann, Till; Jochem, Patrick; Plötz, Patrick; Dütschke, Elisabeth; Fichtner, Wolf
  12. Optimal Control of a Global Model of Climate Change with Adaptation and Mitigation By Manoj Atolia; Prakash Loungani; Helmut Maurer; Willi Semmler
  13. Monitoring Sustainable Energy Development: A Cross-country Comparison of Selected EU Members By Claudia Kettner-Marx; Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig; Angela Köppl; Beate Littig; Irina Zielinska
  14. Weighted index of graph efficiency improvements for a by-production technology and its application to Indian coal-based thermal power sector By Sushama Murty; Resham Nagpal
  15. How to Deal with the Risks of Phasing out Coal in Germany through National Carbon Pricing By Sebastian Osorio; Robert C. Pietzcker; Michael Pahle; Ottmar Edenhofer
  16. Brazil’s INDC to COP21: the Agribusiness of the Future By Catherine Aubertin; Livia Kalil
  17. Indonesia's Commitment to Reducing GHG and Its Impact on the Indonesian Economy: CGE Approach By Dasih, Kuntari; Widodo, Tri
  18. Étude de causalité entre la consommation d’électricité et la croissance économique au Liban By Nour Wehbe; Bassam Assaf; Salem Darwich
  19. Does information break the political resource curse? Experimental evidence from Mozambique By Alex Armand; Alexander Coutts; Pedro C. Vicente; Inês Vilela
  20. Family Planning and Climate Change By Reyer Gerlagh; Veronica Lupi; Marzio Galeotti
  21. A First-Phase Screening Device for Site Selection of Large-Scale Solar Plants with an Application to Italy By Marco Rogna
  22. Why Has China Overinvested in Coal Power? By Mengjia Ren; Lee G. Branstetter; Brian K. Kovak; Daniel E. Armanios; Jiahai Yuan
  23. Optimal risk management problem of natural resources: Application to oil drilling By M’hamed Gaîgi; Stéphane Goutte; Idris Kharroubi; Thomas Lim
  24. Trajectories for energy transition in the countries of the European Union over the period 2000-2015: a multidimensional approach By Patricia Renou-Maissant; Rafik Abdessalam; Jean Bonnet
  25. Worker mobility and the purchase of low CO2 emission vehicles in France: a datamining approach By Raphaël Homayoun Boroumand; Stéphane Goutte; Thomas Péran; Thomas Porcher
  26. Constrained Connection for Distributed Generation by DSOs in European Countries By Ken Furusawa; Gert Brunekreeft; Toru Hattori
  27. Impacts of China Coal Import Tariff against US on Global Economy and CO2 Emissions By Septiyas Trisilia, Mustika; Widodo, Tri
  28. Straw potential for non-agricultural purposes in Lublin province By Żyłowska, Katarzyna; Kozak, Małgorzata; Jurga, Piotr; Borzęcka, Magdalena; Kozyra, Jerzy; Pudełko, Rafał
  29. Heterogeneity of social information programs: the role of identity and values By Jacopo Bonan; Cristina Cattaneo; Giovanna d'Adda; Massimo Tavoni
  30. A sequential mathematical modeling approach for estimating supply curves for energy crops under different policy scenarios: A Greek case study By Mantziaris, Stamatis; Kremmydas, Dimitris; Karanikolas, Pavlos
  31. The Impact of Carbon Tax on GDP and Environment By Khaerul Azis, Mohammad; Widodo, Tri
  32. Governance Choices and Policy Outcomes in the Latin American and Caribbean Electricity Sector By Morgane De Halleux; Antonio Estache; Tomas Serebrisky
  33. Platform Competition: Who Benefits from Multihoming? By Dana Kassem
  34. Heterogeneous Impacts of Cost Shocks, Strategic Bidding and Pass-Through: Evidence from the New England Electricity Market By Harim Kim
  35. The Comparative Economics of ICT, Environmental Degradation and Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa By Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta; Pyke, Chris
  36. Energy Consumption in the French Residential Sector: How Much do Individual Preferences Matter? By Salomé Bakaloglou; Dorothée Charlier
  37. The Impact of Changes in Fuel Prices on Inflation and Economic Growth in South Africa By Daniel Francois Meyer
  38. 2017 Energy Sector By World Bank Group
  39. The Value of Flexibility in Power Markets By Stéphane Goutte; Philippe Vassilopoulos
  40. La consommation énergétique et les enjeux de la transition écologique By Nathalie Lazaric
  41. Climate Wealth of Nations By Julia M. Puaschunder
  42. Les impacts de la fiscalité carbone sur les ménages : les Français pas tous égaux devant les coups de pompe By Paul Malliet
  43. Report for the Commission of Inquiry Respecting the Muskrat Falls Project By Bent Flyvbjerg; Alexander Budzier
  44. Using Value-at-Risk for effective energy portfolio risk management By Halkos, George; Tsirivis, Apostolos
  45. Operating a Storage-Augmented Hybrid Microgrid Considering Battery Aging Costs. By Weitzel, Timm; Schneider, M.; Glock, C. H.; Löber, F; Rinderknecht, Stephan

  1. By: Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Caterina Gennaioli; Ralf Martin; Mirabelle Muûls; Thomas Stoerk
    Abstract: Does unilateral climate change policy cause companies to shift the location of production, thereby creating carbon leakage? In this paper, we analyse the effect of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) on the geographical distribution of carbon emissions of multinational companies. The empirical evidence is based on unique data for the period 2007-2014 from the Carbon Disclosure Project, which tracks emissions of multinational businesses by geographical region. Because they already operate from multiple locations, multinational firms should be the most prone to carbon leakage. Our data includes regional emissions of 1,122 companies, of which 261 are subject to EU ETS regulation. We find no evidence that the EU ETS has led to a displacement of carbon emissions from Europe towards the rest of the world, including in countries with no climate policy in place and within energy-intensive companies. A large number of robustness checks confirm this finding. Overall, the paper suggests that modest differences in carbon prices between countries do not induce carbon leakage.
    Keywords: Carbon leakage, EU-ETS, CO2 emissions, multinational companies.
    JEL: H23 Q53 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2019–01
  2. By: Mohan, Aniruddh
    Abstract: Modelling studies which project pathways for the future of energy in India currently have several implicit assumptions with regards to the social, institutional, and political changes necessary for energy transitions. This paper focuses on the specific question of land use change required for realising ambitious clean energy targets. Demand for land is likely to be a critical question in India's energy future given the challenges with land acquisition in the country as a result of high population density and significant rights enjoyed by landowners. Yet, there is a lack of literature relevant to India which makes a quantitative assessment of the land use impacts of different types of low carbon technologies. I calculate and compare the land requirements in India of ground based solar photovoltaic (PV) power, nuclear power, and wind energy. All three types of technologies are expected to grow substantially as a share of India's electricity mix in the coming years. The analysis suggests that land demands of ground based solar PV are likely to be substantial compared to wind energy and nuclear power, and some policy suggestions are provided which may help mitigate that challenge.
    Keywords: Land use; India; Energy futures
    JEL: Q40
    Date: 2017–08
  3. By: Sushama Murty (Jawaharlal Nehru University); Resham Nagpal (Jawaharlal Nehru University)
    Abstract: The by-production approach is employed in conjunction with data from the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) of India to compute the output-based F¨are, Grosskopf, Lovell (FGL) eciency index and its decomposition into productive and environmental eciency indexes for the Indian coal-based thermal power plants (ITPPs). We show that given (i) the aggregated nature of data on coal reported by CEA (ii) CEA’s computation of CO2 emissions through a deterministic linear formula that does not distinguish between different coal-types and (iii) the tiny share of oil in coal-based power plants, the computed output-based environmental eciency indexes are no longer informative. Meaningful measurement of environmental eciency using CEA data is possible only along the dimension of the coal input. Productive eciency is positively associated with the engineering concept of thermodynamic/energy eciency and is also high for power plants with high operating availabilities reflecting better management and O&M practices. Both these factors are high for private and centrally-owned as opposed to state-owned power-generating companies. The example of Sipat demonstrates the importance of (ultra)supercritical technologies in increasing productive and thermodynamic eciencies of the ITPPs, while also reducing CO2 emitted per-unit of the net electricity generated.Length:40 pages
  4. By: Nopiah, Ririn; Widodo, Tri
    Abstract: Climate change is responsibility of the economic system like households, firms, and governments that produces Greenhouse Gases (GHG). This paper aims to analyze effectiveness and efficiency of climate change mitigation policies for Japan, China and India that are large Asian emitters through market-based instruments. GTAP-E model is used to analyze the impact of carbon tax policy using their global commitments to reduce carbon emissions. The result shows that carbon tax is best alternative choice for Japan, China, and India to reduce CO2 emissions as a climate change mitigation. The carbon tax provides that in a GDP increase of 0,44% in Japan. But in China and India find that reducing CO2 emission causes GDP is decline around 0,82% for China and 1,98 for India. Thus, all regions can get emission target by cost-effectively and each welfare loss can be compensated by carbon tax revenues. However, carbon tax is not one way fits to climate change mitigation.
    Keywords: Carbon Tax, Fuel Tax, Mitigation, Climate Change
    JEL: Q5 Q52 Q54
    Date: 2019–01–04
  5. By: Budhi Utomo, Ginanjar; Widodo, Tri
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, researchers have sought to establish empirical evidence for an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for carbon dioxide (CO2), with varied results. This study builds on that research to re-evaluate whether the EKC exists for CO2 emissions, using an improved dataset and the enhanced econometric technique Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) estimator. The aims determine how various factors like economic growth, and energy use influence CO2 emissions. The CO2 emission rate is the dependent variable and the independent variables of the model include the lagged dependent variable, GDP per capita (constant 2010 US$), and energy use. We find that EKC is based on economic growth for ASEAN countries, and increased energy use actually increase CO2 emissions
    Keywords: ASEAN, CO2, Environmental Kuznets Curve,GMM.
    JEL: Q52 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2019–01–06
  6. By: AhAtil, Ahmed; Bouheni, Faten Ben; Lahiani, Amine; Shahbaz, Muhammad
    Abstract: This paper investigates the environmental impact of economic growth, energy consumption, financial development and globalization in China over the period 1970Q1-2015Q4. In particular we consider four dimensions of globalization namely economic, social, political and overall globalization. The Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lags (NARDL) model has been employed to capture the potential asymmetric impact of the determinants of dioxide carbon emissions in China. Interestingly, findings show that: (1) In the short-run: economic growth and financial development have a significant symmetric impact on CO2 emissions. Energy consumption has a nonlinear and asymmetric influence on CO2 emissions. However, economic globalization does not impact CO2 emissions. (2) In the long-run: economic growth, financial development and economic globalization exhibit an asymmetric influence on carbon emissions in model including the economic dimension of globalization. Economic growth has a positive symmetric impact on CO2 emissions in model including social globalization, however, it does not influence CO2 emissions in case of political or overall globalization. In addition, energy consumption is positively linked to CO2 emissions. Moreover, financial development does not influence carbon emission in models including respectively social, political and overall globalization. Social and overall globalization have a significant influence on CO2 emissions. The results of this paper are important for policies that would promote sustainable development and environment protection.
    Keywords: Energy, Growth, Financial Development, Globalization, CO2 Emissions
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2019–01–01
  7. By: Dawud Ansari; Franziska Holz; Hasan Basri Tosun
    Abstract: Existing long-term energy and climate scenarios are typically a rather simple extrapolation of past trends. Both qualitative and quantitative outlooks co-exist, but they often focus narrowly on individual perspectives, which is opposed to the interlinked and complex nature of energy and climate. Therefore, this study presents a set of novel and multidisciplinary narratives that give insight into four distinct and extreme yet plausible worlds: base case ‘Business-as-usual’, worst case ‘Survival of the Fittest’, best case ‘Green Cooperation’, and surprise scenario ‘ClimateTech’. Going beyond other outlooks, our narratives focus on changes in the geopolitical landscape and global order, social perspectives on climate issues, and technological progress. These holistic scenarios are designed to overcome previous barriers by an innovative bridging between both qualitative and quantitative methods. We start with the generation of qualitative scenario storylines using techniques of foresight analysis, including a facilitated expert workshop. Then, we calibrate the numerical energy systems model Multimod to reflect the different storylines. Finally, we unite and refine storylines and numerical model results into holistic narratives. In addition to the narratives (which include quantitative results on e.g. emissions, energy consumption, and the electricity mix), the study generates insights on the key uncertainties and drivers of different pathways of (more or less successful) climate change mitigation. Additionally, a set of transparent indicators serves as an early-warning system to identify which of the paths the world might enter. Lessons learnt include the dangers from increased isolationism and the importance of integrating economic and energy-related objectives as well as the large role of public opinion and social transition.
    Keywords: Energy and climate, scenarios, equilibrium model, global order, geopolitics
    JEL: C61 C73 C78 F50 L13 Q40 Q47 Q54 Z13
    Date: 2019
  8. By: Tri Purwaningsih, Vitriyani; Widodo, Tri
    Abstract: High fuel consumption has a negative impact not only on the environment, but also can have wider impact on the country's economic conditions. Thus, steps need to be taken regarding the use of fuel in order to reduce the negative impact that results. The aims of this study is to analyze the impact that occurred on the industry and the Indonesian economy when a tax of 33,33% was determined on the use of primary energy, that is coal and petroleum products, through three simulations. By using a model from GTAP-E, the region is aggregated into 7 regions and the industrial sector will be aggregated into 11 industries. The result shows that simulation C has a significant impact on the industry and the Indonesian economy. In addition, this simulation is also able to reduce carbon dioxide gas emissions which derive from coal and petroleum.
    Keywords: Tax, Petroleum, Coal, GTAP-E
    JEL: Q43 Q48
    Date: 2019–01–07
  9. By: Yaya, OlaOluwa; Ogbonna, Ahamuefula
    Abstract: Modelling volatility in returns has continued to gain popularity with the evolution of the GARCH-type models under different frameworks. This study therefore examined the different variants of the multivariate GARCH model with focus on those that incorporated asymmetry and constant or dynamic conditional correlations. These variants were used in modelling the crude oil-petroleum products’ (gasoline, heating oil, kerosene, propane and diesel) price nexuses. Comparatively, the DCC-VAR-AMGARCH model fitted the return series more appropriately in four out of the five investigated nexuses, while the DCC-AMGARCH variant fitted the return series in just one nexus. With the exception of propane own market spillover, the overall volatility persistence of spillovers from own market and other markets for the nexuses of crude oil and the other four petroleum products (gasoline, heating oil, diesel and kerosene) were mean reverting. The study also adopted two hedging strategies, for each of the five crude oil-petroleum product nexuses, to ascertain plausible portfolio investment options. The empirical evidence on the different portfolio investments that were herein provided are especially useful for stakeholders/investors desiring to channel their resources into less risky investment portfolios.
    Keywords: Asymmetry, Hedging Strategy, Multivariate, Portfolio Management, West Texas Intermediate
    JEL: C22 G11
    Date: 2018–12–31
  10. By: Wachsmuth, Jakob; Schaeffer, Michiel; Hare, Bill
    Abstract: The European Commission's long-term Strategic Vision "A clean planet for all" and the In-Depth Analysis supporting it were released on 28 November, 2018. The Commission claims that an 80% reduction of the EU's GHG emissions by 2050 can be taken as being in line with the Paris Agreement's long-term temper-ature goal (LTTG). This is shown to be questionable due to the Commission's re-labelling of the former "hold-below-2°C" pathways associated with the 2010 Can-cun Agreements as "well-below 2°C" pathways. Those "hold-below-2°C" path-ways had a 66% chance of limiting warming to 2°C and were further characterised by a peak warming of around 1.7-1.8°C. By contrast, the actual Paris long-term temperature goal is, by design, a strength-ening of the former "hold-below-2°C" goal. In this paper, strong arguments are provided that this implies achieving a lower peak warming and a higher probability of limiting warming to 2°C. Further, the "hold-below-2°C" pathways do not provide guidance in terms of lowering peak warming and increasing the probability of lim-iting warming to 1.5°C, an integral part of the Paris LTTG (unless with negative emissions at a scale the IPCC Special Report on 1.5°C does not deem feasible). At the same time, the IPCC SR1.5 is very clear about the increases in climate risks between 1.5°C and 2°C, which relates to the clause of the LTTG that holding warming well below 2°C significantly reduces the risks and impacts of climate change. This provides a clear argument for lower limit to peak warming. Despite the shortcoming with regard to interpreting "well-below-2°C", the EU Strategic Vision is a clear shift away from the lower end of the former "80-95%" re-duction target by 2050 towards achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions in 2050. This is based on the In-Depth Analysis, which shows that a greenhouse gas emission reduction of 90% by 2050 compared to 1990 is necessary to keep 1.5°C in range, while limiting negative emissions even calls for net-zero green-house gas emissions in 2050. Hence, the "net-zero greenhouse gas emissions in 2050" target chosen in the Strategic Vision is a reasonable choice in light of the Paris Agreement and the IPCC Special Report on 1.5°C, but 80% reduction by 2050 is not. Thus, the lower end of the current "80-95%" EU target is insufficient.
    Date: 2018
  11. By: Ensslen, Axel; Gnann, Till; Jochem, Patrick; Plötz, Patrick; Dütschke, Elisabeth; Fichtner, Wolf
    Abstract: Plug-in electric vehicles are seen as a promising option to reduce oil dependency, greenhouse gas emissions, particulate matter pollution, nitrogen oxide emissions and noise caused by individual road transportation. But how is it possible to foster diffusion of plug-in electric vehicles? Our research focuses on the question whether e-mobility product service systems (i.e. plug-in electric vehicles, interconnected charging infrastructure as well as charging platform and additional services) are supportive to plug-in electric vehicle adoption in professional environments. Our user oriented techno-economic analysis of costs and benefits is based on empirical data originating from 109 organizational fleets participating in a field trial in south-west Germany with in total 327 plug-in electric vehicles and 181 charging points. The results show that organizations indicate a high willingness to pay for e-mobility product service systems. Organizations encounter non-monetary benefits, which on average overcompensate the current higher total cost of ownership of plug-in electric vehicles compared to internal combustion engine vehicles. However, the willingness to pay for e-mobility charging infrastructure and services alone is currently not sufficient to cover corresponding actual costs. The paper relates the interconnected charging infrastructure solutions under study to the development of the internet of things and smarter cities and draws implications on this development.
    Keywords: Electric mobility; electric vehicle; Smart city; Platform service; Business model; Product service system
    JEL: O33 R42
    Date: 2018–05–21
  12. By: Manoj Atolia; Prakash Loungani; Helmut Maurer; Willi Semmler
    Abstract: The Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) has extensively treated the adverse effects of climate change and the appropriate mitigation policy. We extend such a model to include optimal policies for mitigation, adaptation and infrastructure investment studying the dynamics of the transition to a low fossil-fuel economy. We focus on the adverse effects of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration on households. Formally, the model gives rise to an optimal control problem of finite horizon consisting of a dynamic system with five-dimensional state vector consisting of stocks of private capital, green capital, public capital, stock of brown energy in the ground, and emissions. Given the numerous challenges to climate change policies the control vector is also five-dimensional. Our solutions are characterized by turnpike property and the optimal policy that accomplishes the objective of keeping the CO2 levels within bound is characterized by a significant proportion of investment in public capital going to mitigation in the initial periods. When initial levels of CO2 are high, adaptation efforts also start immediately, but during the initial period, they account for a smaller proportion of government's public investment.
    Keywords: Fiscal policy;Climate Change, Optimal Control, Environmental Economics, Environmental Economics: Government Policy
    Date: 2018–12–10
  13. By: Claudia Kettner-Marx (WIFO); Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig (WIFO); Angela Köppl (WIFO); Beate Littig; Irina Zielinska
    Abstract: Two major international frameworks provide landmarks for future development paths: the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Climate Agreement. Monitoring the progress towards achieving the individual goals has to consider a multitude of synergies and trade-offs. In this paper we use composite indices to analyse climate and energy policy in Austria and other selected EU countries. The analysis delivers several results which are also supported by the assessment of climate and energy policies in the case study countries. In general, the improvements regarding energy efficiency, emissions and deployment of renewables have been moderate in the period under observation. This hints at the time needed for restructuring to take place. This underlines the importance of credible political commitment to climate targets, the implementation of ambitious instruments and the need for stability in the guiding frameworks in order to effectuate substantial changes. In addition, the description of the circumstances and policy frameworks in the selected countries shows, that each one is characterised by a very specific energy system (complemented by specific social structures) which determines the challenges that have to be overcome on the way to decarbonisation.
    Keywords: sustainable development, composite indices, energy policy, climate policy, cross-country comparison, EU Member States
    Date: 2019–01–15
  14. By: Sushama Murty (Jawaharlal Nehru University); Resham Nagpal (Jawaharlal Nehru University)
    Abstract: In contrast to conventional output-based efficiency indexes that hold input-levels fixed, a graph index of efficiency-improvements (EIs) is derived for a by-production technology by optimizing a weighted average of EIs in input and good and bad output-directions. Trade-offs, which determine optimal-EIs, arise between EIs in good and bad outputs when inefficiencies are removed in emission-causing input-directions. The optimal configurations of EIs for Indian coal-based thermal power plants depend on weights assigned and are correlated with output-based productive-efficiency (OBPE). EIs for plants with high OBPE is limited. With equal weights assigned to EIs in both outputs, optima of plants with moderate OBPE involve greatest EIs in coal-usage and CO2-generation, with no electricity-expansion, while most plants with low OBPE need focus only on electricity expansion with existing coal-usage. With increasing weight on CO2-reduction, EIs in coal-usage and emission-generation at existing electricity-levels become optimal for increasingly more plants, EIs being greatest for lowest-OBPE plants.Length:52 pages
  15. By: Sebastian Osorio; Robert C. Pietzcker; Michael Pahle; Ottmar Edenhofer
    Abstract: Germany aims to phase out coal to achieve its 2030 climate target, for which a UK-style carbon price floor is considered. But this measure comes with risks related to the uncertainty about what price level is sufficient, and the waterbed effect arising from unilateral policy under the EU-ETS. Quantifying these risks we find that to be on the “safe side” target-wise, the price must be nearly twice as high as the reference scenario price (33 €/tCO2). Further, cancelling 1.1 GtCO2 of certificates and forming coalitions with other countries is essential to reduce the risk that EU climate policy will renationalize.
    Keywords: EU-ETS, carbon price floor, coal phase-out, policy interaction, waterbed effect
    JEL: L94 Q58
    Date: 2018
  16. By: Catherine Aubertin (PALOC - Patrimoines Locaux et Gouvernance - MNHN - Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement); Livia Kalil
    Abstract: Assessing Brazil's contribution (INDC) to the United Nations convention on climate change to COP21, we present a study showing how the country affirms both its sovereignty and dual posture as a model learner and a leader in the international arena. The decline in deforestation in the Amazon rain-forest has allowed Brazil to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions while masking the increase of emissions in all other sectors. While not proposing an energy transition, the contribution made every effort to follow an « Agribusiness of the future » without undermining the political model based on the export of agricultural commodities. Here we are studying Brazil's contribution as an illustration of its national political model in response to the problem represented by global warning.
    Abstract: En étudiant la contribution nationale (Intended Nationally Determined Contribution-INDC) du Brésil à la convention des Nations unies sur le changement climatique pour la COP21, cet article montre comment le pays affirme à la fois sa souveraineté et sa double posture de bon élève et de leader sur la scène internationale. La baisse de la déforestation de l'Amazonie lui a en effet permis de réduire ses émissions de gaz à effet de serre, tout en masquant leur augmentation dans tous les autres secteurs. À défaut d'organiser une transition énergétique, la contribution brésilienne fait reposer tous les efforts sur un "agrobusiness du futur", sans rupture par rapport au modèle politique reposant sur l'exportation de matières premières agricoles. Dans ce texte, la contribution brésilienne indique un modèle de politique nationale décliné à l'aune de la nouvelle problématique que représente le réchauffement climatique.
    Abstract: Estudando a contribuição nacional (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions – INDC) do Brasil à convenção das Nações Unidas sobre as mudanças climáticas para a COP21, esse artigo mostra como o país afirma tanto a sua soberania quanto a sua dupla postura de bom aluno e de líder na cena internacional. A queda do desmatamento na Amazônia permitiu de fato ao Brasil reduzir suas emissões de gás a efeito estufa, mas camuflou o aumento das emissões em todos os outros setores. Sem propor uma transição energética, a contribuição brasileira deposita todos os seus esforços no « agronegócio do futuro », sem romper com o modelo político baseado na exportação de matérias primas agrícolas. Estudamos neste artigo a contribuição brasileira como indicador de um modelo de política nacional interpretado em função da nova problemática que representa o aquecimento global.
    Date: 2017–03–16
  17. By: Dasih, Kuntari; Widodo, Tri
    Abstract: To achieve the carbon emission target in Indonesia in 2030, what trade offs will be carried out if viewed from an economic perspective such as GDP, energy consumption? This study employs the CGE model to see the impact of imposing carbon tax on GDP and GHG emissions in Indonesia. Five scenarios have been applied to gauge the linkage between those factors. The main finding in this study is that carbon tax can reduce emissions in large numbers in Indonesia thus that carbon tax can be used as an effective emission control instrument. However, what needs to be concerned is the impact of carbon tax on decreasing GDP. It is different from Singapore where the impact of carbon tax almost does not affect GDP, in Indonesia even though the tax is applied in small amounts but has a significant effect on changes in GDP.
    Keywords: carbon emission, GHG, carbon tax, CGE
    JEL: Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2019–01–07
  18. By: Nour Wehbe (ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Bassam Assaf (Université Libanaise); Salem Darwich (Université Libanaise)
    Abstract: This article studies the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Lebanon over the period 1971-2012. This relationship is examined using cointegration and Granger causality tests. The results of the estimates indicate that economic growth and electricity consumption in Lebanon are not cointegrated and that there is no causal relationship between variables according to Granger's tests. However, a unidirectional causality is detected in the post-war period (1990-2012), ranging from electricity consumption to economic growth. The results of this research prove strongly, and with an econometric approach, that electricity consumption was the fundamental source of economic growth after the civil war in Lebanon, which explains the appearance of this causal relationship. In addition, the most relevant implication of this study is that mitigation of current power generation shortages should be a national priority, given its potential positive effect on the Lebanese economy.
    Keywords: cointegration.,Granger causality,Electricity consumption,economic growth
    Date: 2018
  19. By: Alex Armand; Alexander Coutts; Pedro C. Vicente; Inês Vilela
    Abstract: The political resource curse is the idea that natural resources can lead to the deterioration of public policies through corruption and rent-seeking by those closest to political power. One prominent consequence is the emergence of conflict. This paper takes this theory to the data for the case of Mozambique, where a substantial discovery of natural gas recently took place. Focusing on the anticipation of a resource boom and the behavior of local political structures and communities, a large-scale field experiment was designed and implemented to follow the dissemination of information about the newly-discovered resources. Two types of treatments provided variation in the degree of dissemination: one with information targeting only local political leaders, the other with information and deliberation activities targeting communities at large. A wide variety of theory-driven outcomes is measured through surveys, behavioral activities, lab-in-the-field experiments, and georeferenced administrative data about local conflict. Information given only to leaders increases elite capture and rent-seeking, while information and deliberation targeted at citizens increases mobilization and accountability-related outcomes, and decreases violence. While the political resource curse is likely to be in play, the dissemination of information to communities at large has a countervailing effect.
    Keywords: Natural Resources, Curse, Natural Gas, Information, Deliberation, Rent-seeking, Mozambique
    Date: 2019
  20. By: Reyer Gerlagh; Veronica Lupi; Marzio Galeotti
    Abstract: The historical increase in emissions is for one-fourth attributable to the growth of emissions per person, whereas three-fourths are due to population growth. This striking evidence is not represented in the majority of climate-economic studies, which mostly neglect the environmental consequences of individuals’ reproductive decisions. In this paper, we study the interactions between climate change and population dynamics. We develop an analytical model of endogenous fertility and embed it in a calibrated climate-economy model. Our results present family planning as an integral part of climate policies and quantify the costs of neglecting the interaction.
    Keywords: fertility, climate change, population, carbon tax, fertility tax, climate-economy models
    JEL: J11 J13 H23 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2018
  21. By: Marco Rogna (Free University of Bolzano‐Bozen, Faculty of Economics, Italy)
    Abstract: Increasing the exploitation of renewable energy sources (RES) is a key element for reducing the detrimental consequences of greenhouse gases emissions and for satisfying the growing demand for energy once fossil fuels will be depleted. Among RES, solar power plays a central role having the potential, by itself, to completely satisfy the world energetic needs. Locating optimal sites where to install solar plants becomes then an important task since this choice can a ect the long term probatability of such plants. The present paper proposes a filtering method to select a subset of efficient locations in order to reduce the dimensionality of the original problem when a large territory is screened in order to locate optimal sites for large-scale solar plants. It is based on the idea of preference relations and Pareto dominance and, avoiding to operate an inter-comparison of different locations' attributes, it can be considered as assumptions-free. The second part of the paper applies such filtering method to Italy, a country with relatively high potentials in terms of solar energy that, however, currently lacks an optimal site selection analysis. Once applied, the filter reduces the original set of feasible locations by more than 99%. The resulting Pareto efficient locations, evaluated through five selected criteria, are concentrated in the southern part of Italy and, particularly, in the islands of Sicily and Sardinia.
    Keywords: Geographic Information System, optimal site selection, Pareto dominance, renewable energy sources, solar energy
    JEL: Q01 Q24 Q42
    Date: 2019–01
  22. By: Mengjia Ren; Lee G. Branstetter; Brian K. Kovak; Daniel E. Armanios; Jiahai Yuan
    Abstract: Since 2005, the Chinese government has engaged in an ambitious effort to move China’s energy system away from coal and towards more environmentally friendly sources of energy. However, China’s investment in coal power has accelerated sharply in recent years, raising concerns of massive overcapacity and undermining the central policy goal of promoting cleaner energy. In this paper, we ask why China engaged in such a pronounced investment boom in coal power in the mid-2010s. We find the protective rules under which China’s coal power industry has historically operated have made excessive investment extremely likely unless the central government serves as a “gatekeeper,” slowing and limiting investment in the face of incentives for socially excessive entry. When coal-power project approval authority was decentralized from the central government to local governments at the end of 2014, the gate was lifted and approval time considerably shortened, allowing investment to flood into the market. We construct a simple economic model that elucidates the effects of key policies on coal power investment, and examine the model’s predictions using coal-power project approval records from 2013 to 2016. We find the approval rate of coal power is about 3 times higher when the approval authority is decentralized, and provinces with larger coal industries tend to approve more coal power. We estimate that local coal production accounts for an additional 54GW of approved coal power in 2015 (other things equal), which is about 1/4 of total approved capacity in that year.
    JEL: Q40 Q48
    Date: 2019–01
  23. By: M’hamed Gaîgi; Stéphane Goutte (LED - Université Paris 8); Idris Kharroubi (CEREMADE - CEntre de REcherches en MAthématiques de la DEcision - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Thomas Lim (ENSIIE - Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Informatique pour l'Industrie et l'Entreprise)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to determine the optimal balance between extraction and storage of a natural resource (in particular crude oil) over time under a large array of environmental, operational and financial constraints for an infinite maturity time. We consider a manager that owns an oil field from which he can extract oil and decides to sell or store it. This operational strategy has to be carried out in continuous time and has to satisfy physical, operational, environmental and financial constraints such as storage capacity, crude oil spot price volatility, amount available for possible extraction or maximum amount that could be invested at time t for the extraction choice. The costs of storage and extraction are also taken into account to better fit the real market scenario. We solve the optimization problem of the manager's profit under this large array of constraints and provide an optimal strategy. We then examine different numerical scenarios to check the robustness and the corresponding optimal strategies given by our model, which is obtained by a numerical approach, with respect to different possible events related to the market , environmental policies or ecological constraints.
    Keywords: Ecological,Oil Storage,Oil Extraction,Environment,Optimal Strategy,Drilling
    Date: 2019–01–09
  24. By: Patricia Renou-Maissant (Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, CNRS, CREM, F-14000 Caen, France et EconomiX, UMR CNRS 7235, Université de Paris Nanterre, 92001 Nanterre, France); Rafik Abdessalam (Université de Lyon, Lumière Lyon 2, COACTIS, EA 4161, 69365 Lyon Cedex 07, France); Jean Bonnet (Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, CNRS, CREM, F-14000 Caen, France)
    Abstract: Transition towards low-carbon energy sources is a dominant paradigm of public energy policies today. This article conducts an inventory of energy transition in the European Union over the period 2000-2015. Multidimensional data analysis methods are employed in order to develop temporal and spatial typologies of the energy transition with respect to the three targets defined by the European Climate Energy Package. Results show evidence of a gradual transition over three sub-periods towards a more environmentally conscious economy: reducing greenhouse gas emissions, developing renewable energy sources and improving energy efficiency. Four profiles of energy transition are proposed. The evolutionary analyses of the 28 EU countries over the sub-periods shows strong stability in country trajectories, with a few exceptions. The interpretation of the energy transition classes is then enriched by reference to wide range of variables related to five themes, namely energy systems; environmental characteristics; economic performance; political characteristics; and demographic, climatic and geographic characteristics. These themes contribute to the identification of barriers as well as levers in the energy transition. Finally, our results highlight the backwardness of the great Western European countries in achieving the goals assigned to them.
    Date: 2018–12
  25. By: Raphaël Homayoun Boroumand (City University London); Stéphane Goutte (LED - Université Paris 8); Thomas Péran (Paris School of Business); Thomas Porcher (ESG Research Lab - ESG Management School)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to pattern a non-driven geographical classication of French departmental territorial units based on both mobility behavior and passenger car eet composition. With no mathematical regression analysis but applying datamining methodology to behavior, consumption and geography variables, we have grouped French territorial units into 8 clusters with similar characteristics. The main results reveal that commuters' behavior with respect to the choice of transport mode varies substantially across clusters (rural and highly rural, urban and highly urban clusters, ...). Conversely, the structure of the French vehicle eet and French car purchases in terms of engines, tax horsepower and CO2 emissions are similar. this nding should enable state organizations to implement dierentiated public policies for environmental and industrial sectors. Alternatively, our paper should help industrial groups to better deploy their economic strategies in line with environmental concerns.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions,Datamining,Cluster,Worker mobility,Passenger cars,France
    Date: 2019–01–01
  26. By: Ken Furusawa; Gert Brunekreeft; Toru Hattori
    Abstract: A high penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) connected to the distribution network due to Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) brought many challenges for DSOs. With the responsibility to connect, DSOs may be required to make investment in the network. In order to connect distributed generation (DG) while deferring the investment, European DSOs use “constrained connection” by which DG is connected conditional on the curtailment. Different approaches for constrained connection in Europe exist and case studies of the different approaches in Germany, France, and UK show that the relative acceptability of DG and ease of curtailment by DSOs are different, depending on the energy policy background and technology available in each country.
    Keywords: electric utilities, regulation
    JEL: L94 L51
    Date: 2019–01
  27. By: Septiyas Trisilia, Mustika; Widodo, Tri
    Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of China coal import tariff against US on global economy and CO2 emissions. Using Global Trade Analysis Project Environmental (GTAP-E) model, coal import tariff was found to generate trade deflection and trade depression phenomena. Then, US and China’s would have welfare loss, but Indonesia and Australia would seem gainers from this tariff war. Furthermore, skilled and unskilled labor will decline in coal’s industry in US and increase in China. Finally, it is also found evidence that China coal import tariff was not good policy because not only the global economy, the environment would be disadvantaged by increasing CO2.
    Keywords: Import tariff, Coal, Carbon dioxide emissions, GTAP
    JEL: F18 Q5 Q54
    Date: 2019–01–04
  28. By: Żyłowska, Katarzyna; Kozak, Małgorzata; Jurga, Piotr; Borzęcka, Magdalena; Kozyra, Jerzy; Pudełko, Rafał
    Abstract: The use of renewable energy sources with application of innovative technologies for that purpose is one of the elements of the bioeconomy, and constitutes one of the smart specializations of the Lublin region. The growing demand for energy will force increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy production. The paper presents theoretical and technical potential of straw, which can be used for non-agricultural purposes, including energy production. The estimation of this potential takes into account utilization of straw for agricultural purposes in the first place, indicating only its surplus to be used for other purposes. The analysis was carried out for all NUTS-5 of the Lublin province.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–01–21
  29. By: Jacopo Bonan (Politecnico di Milano, EIEE and LdA); Cristina Cattaneo (EIEE, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici and FEEM); Giovanna d'Adda (University of Milan); Massimo Tavoni (Politecnico di Milano, EIEE and CMCC)
    Abstract: Social information programs are increasingly used to nudge behavioral change, but still relatively little is known about sources of heterogeneity in their impact. This paper examines whether individual values are associated with heterogeneous responses to social information. Using data from a large field experiment of household energy conservation, we combine electricity metering and survey data to study how environmental values affect the impact of the program. We then leverage the role of values by augmenting social information messages with an environmental self-identity prime. Results show that values are important drivers of heterogeneity. Moreover, enhancing social information by making environmental self-identity more salient boosts the social information impact, but only among individuals who acted pro-environmentally in the past.
    Keywords: Energy consumption, Environmental identity, Social norms, RCT
    JEL: D91 Q49
    Date: 2019–01–21
  30. By: Mantziaris, Stamatis; Kremmydas, Dimitris; Karanikolas, Pavlos
    Abstract: This article studies the potential of three perennial energy crops, miscanthus, arundo and poplar, to play such a role in the region of Karditsa, Greece. The relevant policy mix is analysed, discussed and outlined as a nexus of interrelated incentives provided by policy makers and the market. Supply curves for different energy crops can be used as a decision-making tool by all interested parties within a biomass-oriented supply chain; biomass producers can use them to decide on the economic feasibility and efficiency of a suggested energy crop, while industrial players may use them to determine contract prices that ensure long-term availability of inputs. For the purpose of energy crops supply curves estimation a sequential linear programming model is developed, which takes into consideration the deployment of farms’ decisions in time, illustrating crop mix and economic indicators in the medium term. As biomass price increases, arundo cultivation reveals significant possibility of expansion compared to miscanthus and poplar. On the other hand, durum wheat and set-aside are decreased significantly. Aggregate biomass supply curve moves upwards over the studied years.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics
    Date: 2018–12–21
  31. By: Khaerul Azis, Mohammad; Widodo, Tri
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the impact of imposing carbon taxes as an effort to reduce the effects of greenhouse gases. By using GTAP-E, this study found that the imposition of a vehicle carbon tax of 5 percent resulted in a reduction in the GDP rate of 0.01 percent and effectively reduced the level of carbon dioxide emissions by 0.06 percent.
    Keywords: Carbon tax, GTAP
    JEL: Q51 Q52 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2019–01–07
  32. By: Morgane De Halleux; Antonio Estache; Tomas Serebrisky
    Abstract: The paper first provides for Latin America and the Caribbean, country specific synthetic quantitative measures of the degree of adoption of common governance reforms of the electricity sector accounting for four key dimensions (market structure, private sector participation, regulatory autonomy and operational organization). These synthetic indicators are then correlated with standard policy performance outcomes measures. This suggests that, as of 2018, reforms could be statistically significantly associated with higher technical quality but not with social or service improvements. This implies that almost 30 years after their adoption and despite recurring reports of failures in these three decades, governance reforms are still not delivering on some promised payoffs, notably the reduction of the energy poverty issues.
    Keywords: governance choices, policy outcomes, Latin America, Carribean, electricity sector
    Date: 2019–01
  33. By: Dana Kassem
    Abstract: I ask whether electrification causes industrial development. I combine newly digitized data from the Indonesian state electricity company with rich manufacturing census data. To understand when and how electrification can cause industrial development, I shed light on an important economic mechanism - firm turnover. In particular, I study the effect of the extensive margin of electrification (grid expansion) on the extensive margin of industrial development (firm entry and exit). To deal with endogenous grid placement, I build a hypothetical electric transmission grid based on colonial incumbent infrastructure and geographic cost factors. I find that electrification causes industrial development, represented by an increase in the number of manufacturing firms, manufacturing workers, and manufacturing output. Electrification increases firm entry rates, but also exit rates. Empirical tests show that electrification creates new industrial activity, as opposed to only reorganizing industrial activity across space. Higher turnover rates lead to higher average productivity and induce reallocation towards more productive firms in electrified areas. This is consistent with electrification lowering entry costs, increasing competition and forcing unproductive firms to exit more often. Without the possibility of entry or competitive effects of entry, the effects of electrification are likely to be smaller.
    JEL: D24 L60 O13 O14 Q41
    Date: 2018–11
  34. By: Harim Kim
    Abstract: Industry-wide shocks can have heterogeneous impacts on firms’ costs due to different firm characteristics. The heterogeneity in these impacts is crucial for understanding the passthrough of the shock, because of its implications on strategic competition. In the context of the gas price shock in the electricity market, I develop a method to identify heterogeneous impacts of the shock and show with a structural analysis that the heterogeneous feature of the shock induces markup adjustments of firms. Pass-through that is estimated without incorporating heterogeneous impacts fails to reflect the change in competition arising from the shock, and is, on average, underestimated.
    Date: 2018–11
  35. By: Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta; Pyke, Chris
    Abstract: This study examines how information and communication technology (ICT) could be employed to dampen the potentially damaging effects of environmental degradation in order to promote inclusive human development in a panel of 44 Sub-Saharan African countries. ICT is captured with internet and mobile phone penetration rates whereas environmental degradation is measured in terms of CO2 emissions per capita and CO2 intensity. The empirical evidence is based on Fixed Effects and Tobit regressions using data from 2000-2012. In order to increase the policy relevance of this study, the dataset is decomposed into fundamental characteristics of inclusive development and environmental degradation based on income levels (Low income versus (vs.) Middle income); legal origins (English Common law vs. French Civil law); religious domination (Christianity vs. Islam); openness to sea (Landlocked vs. Coastal); resource-wealth (Oil-rich vs. Oil-poor) and political stability (Stable vs. Unstable). Baseline findings broadly show that improvement in both of measures of ICT would significantly diminish the possibly harmful effect of CO2 emissions on inclusive human development. When the analysis is extended with the abovementioned fundamental characteristics, we observe that the moderating influence of both our ICT variables on CO2 emissions is higher in the group of English Common law, Middle income and Oil-wealthy countries than in the French Civil law, Low income countries and Oil-poor countries respectively. Theoretical and practical policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; ICT; Economic development; Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2018–01
  36. By: Salomé Bakaloglou; Dorothée Charlier (ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to understand the impact of preference heterogeneity in explaining energy consumption in French homes. Using a discrete-continuous model and the conditional mixed-process estimator (CMP) enable us to address two potential endogeneities in residential energy consumption: energy prices and the choice of home energy characteristics. As a key contribution, we provide evidence that a preference for comfort over saving energy does have significant direct and indirect impacts on energy consumption (through the choice of dwelling), particularly for high-income households. Preferring comfort over economy or one additional degree of heating implies an average energy overconsumption of 10% and 7.8% respectively, up to 18% for high-income households. Our results strengthen the belief that household heterogeneity is an important factor in explaining energy consumption and could have meaningful implications for the design of public policy tools aimed at reducing energy consumption in the residential sector.
    Keywords: Residential energy consumption,Household preferences,Discrete-continuous choice method,Conditional mixed-process
    Date: 2018
  37. By: Daniel Francois Meyer (North-West University, Vanderbijlpark)
    Abstract: : From a cost-push inflation point of view, the fuel energy sector plays a significant role in price stability and production costs. This sector has been volatile over the last decade, impacting on global economic stability. In South Africa, which is a fuel importer, fuel prices have been rising at an alarming rate of 21 percent since the beginning of 2018, causing inflation pressure within a low growth environment. The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of changes in fuel prices on inflation and economic growth in South Africa as a proxy for fuel importing developing countries. This study followed a quantitative research approach with time series data from 2001 to 2018. The impact of changes in the fuel price on inflation and economic growth were analysed by means of the Johansen cointegration and Granger causality econometric models. The results indicated both long and short-run relationships between the variables. The Granger causality tests indicated that causality is from changes in fuel prices to economic output and inflation. The results of the study could be used in monetary and fiscal policy, although not much control regarding the changes of the fuel price exists except for reduction in levies as a direct method of taxation.
    Keywords: Economic growth, fuel prices, inflation, South Africa
    Date: 2018–11
  38. By: World Bank Group
    Keywords: Energy - Electric Power Energy - Energy Demand Energy - Energy Policies & Economics Energy - Renewable Energy Infrastructure Economics and Finance - Infrastructure Finance Infrastructure Economics and Finance - Private Participation in Infrastructure
    Date: 2018–12
  39. By: Stéphane Goutte (LED - Université Paris 8); Philippe Vassilopoulos
    Abstract: The concept of flexibility is not one you find in standard microeconomics textbooks , yet it already plays a major role in the remuneration of the resources that generate and consume electricity every day and is likely to play an even larger role with the penetration of large intermittent renewable capacities. In this paper we attempt to quantify the net revenues that can be captured by a flexible resource able to react to the short term price variations on the day-ahead and intraday markets in Germany. We find that the difference between day-ahead and intraday revenues for a flexible resource has been increasing (although the profitability has been decreasing on both markets). This difference is more pronounced once 15mn price variations can be captured by a flexible resource. The net revenues from the local 15mn auction (which is held 3 hours after the hourly "coupled" day-ahead auction) are more than eight times higher than the day-ahead hourly auction but
    Date: 2019–01–02
  40. By: Nathalie Lazaric (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: La région SUD PACA est caractérisée par une forte croissance démographique, tant au niveau des aglomérations qu'au niveau des zones rurales. Il en découle des tensions importantes sur l'appprovisionnement énergétique, amplifiées, d'une part, par une fragilité du système électrique et, d'autre part, par la forte consommation locale et le développement rapide de l'urbanisation. La région est, par conséquent, en dépendance énergétique. En effet, si la consommation de la région SUD PACA représente 8 % de la consommation nationale, sa production énergétique primaire représente 1 % de la production nationale, ce qui permet de couvrir seulement 10 % de sa consommation effective. Cette situation est souvent jugée critique et accentue les tensions sur l'approvisionnement électrique, la région, et plus précisément les Alpes-Maritimes, étant par ailleurs en situation de péninsule électrique car située en « bout de réseau ». Au niveau des principaux postes de consommation (cf. Figure 1), le secteur industriel (33 % au niveau local contre 19 % au niveau national) est prédominant du fait de la présence de grandes infrastructures, telles que l'Etang de Berre, qui contribue à accroître fortement la consommation énergétique. Figure 1 : Consommation d'énergie finale par secteur d'activité (Source : ORECA) Consommation régionale Consommation nationale Par ailleurs, le secteur des transports (35 %) est le principal consommateur d'énergie et représente le principal poste d'émissions des gaz à effet de serre. Le transport routier est, en 2016, responsable de plus de 52 % des émissions d'oxydes d'azote NOx et de 32 % de celles de particules fines PM2.5. Le principal émetteur des particules fines est le secteur de l'habitat et du tertiaire (36 %). Au niveau de la consommation énergétique de l'habitat et du tertiaire, le chauffage représente 75 % de la consommation. Ce poids très important du chauffage est une caractéristique régionale liée à la faible performance énergétique locale et la surreprésentation des chauffages électriques. La vétusté de l'équipement énergétique (équipement en double vitrage insuffisant dans les bâtiments collectifs, et réhabilitations thermiques très en retard par rapport au niveau national), conjuguée à un taux de pauvreté élevé dans la région, conduisent à une précarité énergétique qui devrait être une priorité en matière de politique publique locale pour les partenaires publics et privés. En 2012, 16,9 % des ménages vivent en dessous du seuil de pauvreté. La région SUD PACA est la troisième région touchée par la pauvreté, derrière la Corse et le Nord-Pas
    Date: 2018–10–29
  41. By: Julia M. Puaschunder (The New School)
    Abstract: A 3-dimensional climate justice approach introduces to share the benefits and burden of climate change in an economically efficient, legally equitable and practically feasible way around the globe. Climate justice within a country pays tribute to low and high-income households carrying the same burden proportional to their dispensable income through consumption tax, progressive carbon taxation and a corporate inheritance tax. Climate change burden sharing between countries ensures those countries benefiting more from a warmer environment bear higher responsibility regarding climate change mitigation and adaptation. Climate justice over time is proposed by an innovative bonds climate change burden sharing strategy (Puaschunder, 2018, forthcoming).
    Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Bonds, Climate Justice, Climate Wealth of Nations, Climate Finance, Fairness, Inheritance Tax, Intergenerational Responsibility, International Law, Mitigation, Progressive Tax
    Date: 2018–11
  42. By: Paul Malliet (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: La fiscalité des carburants ne peut expliquer à elle seule le mouvement social des gilets jaunes. Mais elle a fédéré le ressentiment d’une partie de la population française sur la question du pouvoir d’achat et a finalement conduit le gouvernement à renoncer à la hausse programmée de la composante carbone de la taxe intérieure sur la consommation sur les produits énergétiques (Contribution climat énergie, CCE) tout comme le rattrapage de la fiscalité du diesel sur celle de l’essence pour l’année 2019
    Keywords: Changement climatique; Environnement; C02; Gaz à effet de serre; Fiscalité écologique; Taxe carbone
    Date: 2018–12
  43. By: Bent Flyvbjerg; Alexander Budzier
    Abstract: This report was commissioned by the Commission of Inquiry Respecting the Muskrat Falls Project to provide the national and international context in which the Muskrat Falls Project took place. The Commission asked for the report to cover three specific topics of questions: (1) What is the national and international context of the Muskrat Falls Project with regards to cost overrun and schedule overrun? (What are the typical cost and schedule overruns of hydro-electric dam projects? How do hydro-electric dams compare to other capital investment projects? How do Canadian projects compare to other countries?), (2) What are the causes and root causes of cost and schedule overruns? (3) What are recommendations, based on international experience and research into capital investment projects, to prevent cost and schedule overruns in hydro-electric dam projects and other capital investment projects? Keywords: Hydroelectric Dams, Megaprojects, Cost Overrun, Schedule Overrun, Optimism Bias, Strategic Misrepresentation, Infrastructure, Capital Investment Projects, Canada, Muskrat Falls
    Date: 2019–01
  44. By: Halkos, George; Tsirivis, Apostolos
    Abstract: It is evident that the prediction of future variance through advanced GARCH type models is essential for an effective energy portfolio risk management. Still it fails to provide a clear view on the specific amount of capital that is at risk on behalf of the investor or any party directly affected by the price fluctuations of specific or multiple energy commodities. Thus, it is necessary for risk managers to make one further step, determining the most robust and effective approach that will enable them to precisely monitor and accurately estimate the portfolio’s Value-at-Risk, which by definition provides a good measure of the total actual amount at stake. Nevertheless, despite the variety of the variance models that have been developed and the relative VaR methodologies, the vast majority of the researchers conclude that there is no model or specific methodology that outperforms all the others. On the contrary, the best approach to minimize risk and accurately forecast the future potential losses is to adopt that specific methodology that will be able to take into consideration the particular characteristic features regarding the trade of energy products.
    Keywords: Energy commodities, Risk Management, Value-at-Risk (VaR).
    JEL: C01 C58 D81 G30 O13 P28 Q43 Q47 Q5 Q58
    Date: 2019–01–23
  45. By: Weitzel, Timm; Schneider, M.; Glock, C. H.; Löber, F; Rinderknecht, Stephan
    Date: 2018–07–01

This nep-ene issue is ©2019 by Roger Fouquet. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.