nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2017‒09‒24
27 papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. The Elusive Effects of CAFE Standards By Kenneth A. Small
  2. The effect of climate policies on renewable energies : a review of econometric studies By Guillaume Bourgeois; Sandrine Mathy; Philippe Menanteau
  3. From Fossil Fuels to Renewables: The Role of Electricity Storage By Itziar Lazkano; Linda Nøstbakken; Martino Pelli
  4. Essays on the Economics of Sustainable Energy Policies By Luisa Dressler
  5. The Effect of Increased Transmission and Storage in an Interconnected Europe: an Application to France and Ireland By Valeria Di Cosmo; Sean Collins; Paul Deane
  6. Fuel poverty and indoor pollution: Providing financial support vs. combatting poor housing? By DorothŽe Charlier; Berang re Legendre; Anna Risch
  7. Beyond average energy consumption in the French residential housing market: A household classification approach By Emmanuel Hache; Déborah Leboullenger; Valérie Mignon
  8. Tracking sectoral progress in the deep decarbonisation of energy systems in Europe By Thomas Spencer; Roberta Pierfederici; Oliver Sartor; Nicolas Berghmans; Sascha Samadi; Manfred Fischedick; Katharina Knoop; Steve Pye; Patrick Criqui; Sandrine Mathy; Pantelis Capros; Panagiotis Fragkos; Maciej Bukowski; Aleksander Śniegocki; Maria Virdis; Maria Gaeta; Karine Pollier; Cyril Cassisa
  9. Consumer Valuation of Fuel Costs and the Effectiveness of Tax Policy - Evidence from the European Car Market By Grigolon, Laura; Reynaert, Mathias; Verboven, Frank
  10. Market Power, Production (Mis)Allocation and OPEC By John Asker; Allan Collard-Wexler; Jan De Loecker
  11. The impact of renewable versus non-renewable natural capital on economic growth By Laura Recuero Virto; Denis Couvet
  12. Protecting the environment during and after resource extraction By Ruth Greenspan Bell
  13. Oil market modelling: A comparative analysis of fundamental and latent factor approaches By Mark Cummins; Michael Dowling; Fearghal Kearney
  14. Trade Integration and the Polarisation of Eco-Labelling Strategies By Vera Danilina
  15. An economic model of metapopulation dynamics By Stefano BOSI; David DESMARCHELIER
  16. New industrial policy and the extractive industries By Evelyn Dietsche
  17. Elaboration et analyse macroéconomiquemacroéconomique d'un scénario bas carbone « acceptable » By Ruben Bibas; Sandrine Mathy; Meike Fink
  18. On the impact of indirect competition for political influence on environmental policy By Fabien Prieur; Benteng Zou
  19. Complementary Currencies and Environmental Sustainability By Hélène Joachain
  20. Climate change, financial stability and monetary policy By Yannis Dafermos; Maria Nikolaidi; Giorgos Galanis
  21. Boon or Bane? Trade Sanctions and the Stability of International Environmental Agreements By Achim Hagen; Jan Schneider
  22. Two scenarios for carbon capture and storage in Vietnam By Minh Ha-Duong; Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh
  23. Will fleet managers really help vehicle fleets to become electric? By Magali Pierre; Eleonora Morganti; Virginie Boutueil
  24. How large and uncertain are costs of 2030 GHG emissions reduction target for the European countries? Sensitivity analysis in a global CGE model By Zachlod-Jelec, Magdalena; Boratynski, Jakub
  25. Phân tích chi phí-lợi ích của đồng đốt sinh khối với than: Trường hợp nhà máy nhiệt điện Ninh Bình By An Ha Truong; Hoang Anh Tran; Minh Ha-Duong
  26. CGE model PLACE By Antoszewski, Michal; Boratynski, Jakub; Zachlod-Jelec, Magdalena; Wojtowicz, Krzysztof; Cygler, Maciej; Jeszke, Robert; Pyrka, Maciej; Sikora, Przemyslaw; Bohringer, Christoph; Gaska, Jan; Jorgenson, Erika; Kasek, Leszek; Kiuila, Olga; Malarski, Ryszard; Rabiega, Wojciech
  27. Challenges and Opportunities for Integrated Modeling of Climate Engineering By Massimo Tavoni; Valentina Bosetti; Soheil Shayegh; Laurent Drouet; Johannes Emmerling; Sabine Fuss; Timo Goeschl; Celine Guivarch; Thomas S. Lontzek; Vassiliki Manoussi; Juan Moreno-Cruz; Helene Muri; Martin Quaas; Wilfried Rickels

  1. By: Kenneth A. Small (Department of Economics, University of California-Irvine)
    Abstract: Despite decades of empirical assessment, economists have not reached consensus on key impacts of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, including how much they reduce fuel consumption. Evaluating CAFE is complicated by factors such as consumers' expectations of future fuel prices, their valuation of and responsiveness to changes in fuel economy, automakers' optimal technological and strategic behavior, changes in used-vehicle markets, and the path of energy prices. I investigate the effects of many of those factors in a quantitative assessment of CAFE. I do so by modifying the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Modeling System and using it to simulate variations from a set of reference assumptions. Results are especially sensitive to consumers’ valuation of expected fuel cost savings and to the future course of oil prices.
    Keywords: Fuel efficiency; CAFE; Motor vehicles; Energy paradox.
    JEL: R48 Q48 L62
    Date: 2017–08
  2. By: Guillaume Bourgeois (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Sandrine Mathy (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Philippe Menanteau (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: The limitation of global warming below 2°C requires rapid and significant deployment of renewable energies in the power sector. Policies to support innovation and diffusion of renewables have been implemented for more than 20 years. There is currently a debate surrounding their economic and environmental efficiency and the right balance between support for innovation and support for diffusion. This article sheds light on the stakes of this debate by presenting the results of the econometric literature which evaluates the effect of these policies and compares these results with the main conclusions of non-econometric studies. The results show that innovation policies and diffusion policies have a positive impact on renewable energies and so confirm non-econometric studies. However, they reveal differentiated effects
    Abstract: La limitation du réchauffement climatique nécessite un déploiement rapide et important des énergies renouvelables (ENR). Des politiques de soutien visant l'innovation et la diffusion de ces technologies ont été mises en oeuvre depuis plus de 20 ans. Il existe aujourd'hui un débat sur leur efficacité environnementale et économique et sur le bon équilibre entre soutien à l'innovation et à la diffusion. Cet article éclaire les enjeux de ce débat en présentant les résultats de la littérature économétrique qui évalue l'effet de ces politiques et en comparant ces résultats avec les principaux enseignements des études non économétriques. Les résultats montrent que les politiques d'innovation et les politiques de diffusion ont un impact positif sur les ENR et confirment en cela les études non économétriques. Ils font toutefois apparaitre des effets différenciés selon la nature des politiques (politiques prix versus politiques quantités) et la maturité des technologies.
    Keywords: Public policies,renewable energy,innovation,diffusion,literature review,Politiques publiques, énergies renouvelables, innovation, diffusion, revue de la littérature, études économétriques
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Itziar Lazkano (Economics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee); Linda Nøstbakken (Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics); Martino Pelli (Economics Department, Université de Sherbrooke)
    Abstract: Electricity storage represents a solution to curb emissions by enabling more use of intermittent renewable energy. Our goal is to empirically analyze the determinants of innovation in electricity storage and its role in fostering technological innovations in renewable and conventional electricity generation. Using a global firm-level data set of electricity patents from 1963 to 2011, we find that better electricity storage promotes innovation not only in renewable energy but also in conventional technologies. Specifically, our estimates show that an additional storage patent increases the probability to apply for patents in renewable energy and efficiency-improving fossil fuel technologies two years from now by 1.11% and 0.66%, respectively. This implies that improved electricity storage technologies can boost the energy efficiency of conventional, fossil fuel-fired power plants as well as increase the use of renewable electricity. Thus, the ability of electricity storage to curb carbon emissions depends on: the competitiveness of renewable energy against conventional electricity generation, and conventional power generation mix as storage increases fossil-fuel efficiency and reduces ramping costs.
    Keywords: Electricity storage; Innovation; Electricity; Directed technical change.
    JEL: O3 O4 O5 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2017–09
  4. By: Luisa Dressler
    Abstract: This dissertation seeks to contribute to the policy discussion on how to design efficient and sustainable energy policies. In three self-contained chapters, it applies microeconomic theory and empirical analysis to identify three market failures in European energy markets and to evaluate specific policy measures that strive to overcome these failures in order to increase market efficiency and to enhance environmental or societal sustainability. Chapter 1 and 2 study European electricity markets, which play an important role in the transition towards a carbon-neutral energy future. Overcoming barriers to efficient electricity markets is a crucial step to keep the costs of this transition as low as possible to society. Both chapters focus on obstacles to electricity market efficiency that have recently been highlighted by the European Commission. On the supply side, subsidies for renewable electricity may distort production incentives and competition in wholesale electricity markets. Chapter 1 applies a theoretical model to study the effect of different subsidies on producer strategies and competition in wholesale electricity markets. On the demand side, the European Commission seeks to overcome the reluctance of residential electricity consumers to switch electricity supplier in order to ensure effective competition in the retail electricity market. Chapter 2 empirically quantifies different reasons for switching inertia using a structural discrete choice model and performs counterfactual analysis to study the effect of different policy measures that seek to overcome switching inertia. Chapter 3 looks at the building sector, which accounts for 40% of final energy consumption in Europe and is a major emitter of carbon emissions. In the residential housing market information asymmetries hamper incentives to invest in energy efficiency improvements of rental property. This chapter empirically analyzes the effect of a European policy that mandates the use of energy performance certificates aiming at establishing an efficient market for energy efficient dwellings.
    Keywords: Energy Policy; Renewable Electricity; Feed-in Tariff; Feed-in Premium; Cournot Model; Electricity Contract Choice
    Date: 2017–09–01
  5. By: Valeria Di Cosmo (FEEM); Sean Collins (MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork); Paul Deane (MaREI Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork)
    Abstract: A longstanding goal of the European Union (EU) is to promote efficient trading between price zones via electricity interconnection to achieve a single electricity market between the EU countries. This paper uses a power system model (PLEXOS-EU) to simulate one vision of the 2030 EU electricity market based on European Commission studies to determine the effects of a new interconnector between France and the Single Electricity Market of Ireland and Northern Ireland (SEM). We use the same tool to understand the effects of investment in storage, and the effects of the interaction between storage and additional interconnection. Our results show that both investments in interconnection and storage reduce wholesale electricity prices in France and Ireland as well as reduce net revenues of thermal generators in most scenarios in both countries. However, France is only marginally affected by the new interconnector. Renewable generators see a modest increase in net revenues. The project has the potential for a positive impact on welfare in Ireland if costs are shared between countries and remain below 45 million €/year for the scenarios examined. The owners of the new interconnector between France and SEM see increased net revenues in the scenarios without storage. When storage is included in the system, the new interconnector becomes less profitable.
    Keywords: Interconnection, Renewable Generation, Storage
    JEL: Q4 Q48
    Date: 2017–09
  6. By: DorothŽe Charlier (IAE Savoie Mont Blanc); Berang re Legendre (IAE Savoie Mont Blanc); Anna Risch (UniversitŽ Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the causal effect of two social policies on fuel poverty. The potential spillover effects of such policies on pollution are also considered. We apply matching methods to assess the impact of social energy tariff and social housing on fuel poverty. We show that social housing, probably by impacting the housing energy efficiency, allows reducing fuel poverty by about 5.9%. On the contrary, the price based policy Ð the social energy tariff- has no impact on fuel poverty. By demonstrating that fuel poor households emit significantly more pollutant gazes, we foresee then the potential spillover effects of policies decreasing fuel poverty: developing social housing could lead to reduce pollution and improve public health. The present research opens up space for a public debate on the image of social housing, which needs clearly to be rehabilitated in France.
    Keywords: Fuel Poverty, Social housing, social energy tariff, indoor pollution, matching method
    JEL: Q41 C52 Q51
    Date: 2017–09
  7. By: Emmanuel Hache (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles); Déborah Leboullenger (BPCE - BPCE, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Valérie Mignon (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique)
    Abstract: In a new environment marked by the growing importance of Green House Gas emissions, fuel poverty, and energy efficiency in the different national agendas, the comprehension of energy demand factors appears to be crucial for the effectiveness of energy policies. We consider the latter could be improved by targeting specific household groups rather than looking to follow a single energy consumption level target. This article explores the scope of having a disaggregated energy consumption market to design policies aimed at curbing residential energy consumption or lowering its carbon intensity. Using a clustering method based on the CHAID (Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detection) methodology, we find that the different levels of energy consumption in the French residential sector are related to socio-economic, dwelling and regional characteristics. Then, we build a typology of energy-consuming households where targeted groups (fuel poor, high income and high consuming households) are clearly and separately identified through a simple and transparent set of characteristics. This classification represents an efficient tool for energy efficiency programs and energy poverty policies, but also for potential investors, which could provide specific and tailor made financial tools for the different consumer groups. Furthermore, our approach helps designing some energy efficiency score that could reduce the rebound effect uncertainty for each identified household group.
    Keywords: Energy consumption,Residential sector,Clustering method,France
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Thomas Spencer (IDDRI - Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris); Roberta Pierfederici (IDDRI - Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris); Oliver Sartor (IDDRI - Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris); Nicolas Berghmans (IDDRI - Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris); Sascha Samadi (Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy - Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy); Manfred Fischedick (Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy - Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy); Katharina Knoop (Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy - Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment and Energy); Steve Pye (University college London Energy Institute - UCL - University College of London [London]); Patrick Criqui (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Sandrine Mathy (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Pantelis Capros (E3MLab - Institute of Communication and Computer Systems - National Technical University of Athens); Panagiotis Fragkos (E3MLab - Institute of Communication and Computer Systems - National Technical University of Athens); Maciej Bukowski (WiseEuropa Institute); Aleksander Śniegocki (WiseEuropa Institute); Maria Virdis (ENEA - Italian National agency for new technologies, Energy and sustainable economic development [Frascati]); Maria Gaeta (ENEA - Italian National agency for new technologies, Energy and sustainable economic development [Frascati]); Karine Pollier (Enerdata); Cyril Cassisa (Enerdata)
    Abstract: Decarbonisation of energy systems requires deep structural change. The purpose of this research was to analyse the rates of change taking place in the energy systems of each Member State of the European Union (EU), and the EU in aggregate, in the light of the EU's climate change mitigation objectives. Trends on indicators such as sectoral activity levels and composition, energy intensity, and carbon intensity of energy were compared with decadal benchmarks derived from deep decarbonisation scenarios. The methodology applied provides a useful and informative approach to tracking decarbonisation of energy systems. The results show that while the EU has made significant progress in decarbonising its energy system. On a number of indicators assessed the results show that a significant acceleration from historical levels is required in order to reach the rates of change seen on the future benchmarks for deep decarbonisation. The methodology applied provides an example of how the research community and international organisations could complement the transparency mechanism developed by the Paris Agreement on climate change, to improve understanding of progress toward low-carbon energy systems.
    Keywords: energy system decarbonisation, EU climate policy, policy monitoring
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Grigolon, Laura; Reynaert, Mathias; Verboven, Frank
    Abstract: To what extent do car buyers undervalue future fuel costs, and what does this imply for the effectiveness and welfare impact of alternative tax policies' To address both questions, we show it is crucial to account for consumer heterogeneity in mileage and other dimensions. We use detailed product-level data for a long panel of European countries, and exploit variation in fuel costs by engine type. Although we find there is modest undervaluation of fuel costs, fuel taxes are still more effective in reducing fuel usage than product taxes based on fuel economy. Importantly, fuel taxes also perform better in terms of total welfare even when usage demand is held completely fixed. The reason is that fuel taxes better target the right consumers, those with a high mileage, to purchase more fuel efficient cars.
    Date: 2017–08
  10. By: John Asker; Allan Collard-Wexler; Jan De Loecker
    Abstract: This paper estimates the extent to which market power is a source of production misallocation. Productive inefficiency occurs through more production being allocated to higher-cost units of production, and less production to lower-cost production units, conditional on a fixed aggregate quantity. We rely on rich micro-data covering the global market for crude oil, from 1970 to 2014, to quantify the extent of productive misallocation attributable to market power exerted by the OPEC. We find substantial productive inefficiency attributable to market power, ranging from 14.1 percent to 21.9 percent of the total productive inefficiency, or 105 to 163 billion USD.
    JEL: D2 L1 L4 L72
    Date: 2017–09
  11. By: Laura Recuero Virto (MNHN and MAEDI); Denis Couvet (MNHN)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether natural capital is a robust determinant of economic growth, distinguishing the contribution of direct and indirect effects in renewable and non-renewable natural capital. Our hypothesis is that renewable natural capital may have a rather indirect but more important impact on economic growth than non-renewable natural capital, particularly through human well-being. In contrast, non-renewable natural capital can be a source of immediate financial wealth, but can have adverse social and environmental effects. To test this hypothesis we use a data set on 83 countries for the period 1960-2009 to compare the relevance of proximate and fundamental theories to explain economic growth. We find some evidence of an indirect negative impact of renewable natural capital in wealth on economic growth through through human well-being and, more precisely, population growth rates and fertility. This is particularly the case for countries with higher levels of human development. In contrast, the share of non-renewable natural capital in wealth has a direct positive impact on economic growth in countries with lower income inequality and higher institutional quality. This finding reflects the effect of capital accumulation in the domestic economy, as capacity constrainst are relaxed. Finally, countries with higher income per capita, higher human development and higher institutional quality have a higher share of higher renewable natural capital per capita, although they also have a lower share of lower renewable natural capital in wealth. Such result emphasises that renewable natural capital is very necessary for people (per capita), hence isa primary concern for empowered countries, although such capital contributes less to wealth, and economic growth, in these countries . Our results question the way ‘wealth’ and economic growth are defined in economics when the effect of natural capital is examined.
    Keywords: natural capital, economic growth, renewable, non-renewable,
    JEL: O44 O47 Q20 Q30 Q32
    Date: 2017–09
  12. By: Ruth Greenspan Bell
    Abstract: Natural resources extraction inevitably imposes environmental injuries including diversion of scarce water away from pressing local needs, disruption of fragile ecosystems, and longer-range and often irreparable harm. These fall most forcefully on the local populations at or near the extraction sites but also beyond. Effective regulation is critical to balance immediate needs with longer-term considerations. Unfortunately, much extraction takes place in countries with weak institutions and poor success rates in addressing any of their environmental challenges and often rampant corruption undercutting fair application of rules. Improving practices requires a long and sustained commitment for everyone involved—the countries and industry.
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Mark Cummins (DCU - Dublin City University [Dublin]); Michael Dowling (ESC Rennes School of Business - ESC Rennes School of Business); Fearghal Kearney (Queen's University Belfast [Belfast] - Queen's University Belfast)
    Abstract: We formally compare fundamental factor and latent factor approaches to oil price modelling. Fundamental modelling has a long history in seeking to understand oil price movements, while latent factor modelling has a more recent and limited history, but has gained popularity in other financial markets. The two approaches, though competing, have not formally been compared as to effectiveness. For a range of short-medium-and long-dated WTI oil futures we test a recently proposed five-factor fundamental model and a Principal Component Analysis latent factor model. Our findings demonstrate that there is no discernible difference between the two techniques in a dynamic setting. We conclude that this infers some advantages in adopting the latent factor approach due to the difficulty in determining a well specified fundamental model.
    Keywords: Oil futures,Fundamental models,Latent factors,Vuong model comparison
    Date: 2016–07
  14. By: Vera Danilina (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille)
    Abstract: Growing ecological concerns give rise to salient discussions of green policy impact within different social sciences domains. This research studies the outcomes of voluntary environmental labelling in autarky and upon trade integration in the presence of two types of heterogeneity, across countries and across producers. It investigates the impact of the two main types of eco-labels - multiple-criteria-based programmes (ISO Type I) and self-declared environmental claims (ISO Type II), both of which are simultaneously introduced due to the environmental concerns of consumers. The model illustrates the polarisation of eco-labels when the least productive firms tend to avoid green strategies, lower-middle productive and the most efficient firms are incentivized to greenwash, and the upper-middle productive firms choose trustful programmes. It also shows that voluntary green restrictions lead to substantial productivity effects in the market upon opening to international trade, conditionally, depending on the type of the labelling and the relative degree of environmental awareness across trading countries. The model predicts average market productivity losses and within segments productivity gains for the relatively more eco-concerned country, while the effects for the relatively less eco-concerned country are the opposite.
    Keywords: eco-labelling, Firm heterogeneity, trade integration, voluntary environmental regulation, firms productivity
    JEL: F18
    Date: 2017–07
  15. By: Stefano BOSI; David DESMARCHELIER
    Abstract: In this paper, we aim to model the impact of human activities on the wildlife habitat in a general equilibrium framework by embedding the Levins model (1969) of metapopulation dynamics into a Ramsey model (1928) with a pollution externality. In the long run, as in Levins (1969), two steady states coexist: a zero one with mass extinction and anotherone with positive wildlife when the migration rate of the metapopulation exceeds the rate of extinction. A green tax always increases the wildlife and lowers the consumption demand. It is welfare-improving if and only if agents overweight the wildlife. In the short run, we show that a sufficiently negative effect of wildlife habitat on consumption demand can lead to the emergence of a limit cycle near the positive steady state through a Hopf bifurcation. We show also that the negative pollution effect on wildlife habitat works as a destabilizing force in the economy by promoting limit cycles.
    Keywords: metapopulation dynamics, pollution, Ramsey model, Hopf bifurcation.
    JEL: C61 E32 O44
    Date: 2017
  16. By: Evelyn Dietsche
    Abstract: Industrial policy is back. Advocates for industrial policy argue that the important question is not whether such policies should be applied at all, but how to design and implement them. For the extractive industries this development poses a challenge. First, there is the argument that host countries should reduce their dependence on the extractive resources sector and diversify their economies. But there is little consensus over how countries should go about this. Second, there is the universal climate agreement reached at the Paris COP21 in November 2015 which mandates that all economies have to move towards more sustainable and resource-efficient growth, with (green) industrial policy playing a critical part in achieving this structural transformation. Third, the liberal capitalist system underpinning the current global economy is under pressure with some political forces now making the case for more inward-looking economic policies and protectionism. This paper explores the new debate on industrial policy in relation to the extractive industries and the extractives-led development agenda.
    Date: 2017
  17. By: Ruben Bibas (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sandrine Mathy (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Meike Fink (Réseau Action Climat - Aucune)
    Abstract: La définition des technologies à mobiliser et des politiques à mettre en œuvre pour atteindre l'objectif de division par quatre des émissions de gaz à effet de serre suscite de vifs débats. En ce sens, la réalisation d’un exercice de scénarisation peut permettre d'objectiver l’ensemble des conséquences économiques et sociales d’une trajectoire et ainsi ouvrir le débat sur les visions compatibles avec les objectifs climatiques et énergétiques. Cet article décrit le processus d'élaboration participative par une trentaine de parties prenantes ( issues du secteur privé, du secteur public et de l’Etat, des ONG, des associations de consommateurs, des syndicats, des banques ou des collectivités territoriales) d'un scénario bas carbone pour la France. Les mesures considérées comme acceptables par les parties prenantes sont intégrées dans le modèle technico-économique Imaclim-R France, afin d’évaluer leurs impacts sur les émissions de CO2 et sur l'économie. Le scénario issu de cette concertation atteint une réduction des émissions de CO2 de 68% en 2050, par rapport à 1990, ce qui se rapproche de l’objectif de Facteur 4. Les mesures de réduction des émissions, dont la plus emblématique est la taxe carbone, sont bénéfiques pour l'emploi et la croissance économique, sauf à court terme où le défaut d’anticipation des acteurs ne leur permet pas de se préparer à l’instauration d’une taxe carbone. Les mesures permettent en outre de réduire rapidement et durablement le budget des ménages dédié aux services énergétiques, ainsi que la facture énergétique et la compétitivité industrielle est renforcée.
    Keywords: scenario bas carbone , Imaclim-France , politique climatique , taxe carbone
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Fabien Prieur (Université Paris Nanterre); Benteng Zou (CREA, Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: Motivated by the history of climate politics in the US over the last decades, this paper aims at studying the impact of indirect competition for political influence, through environmental awareness raising vs disinformation campaigns, on environmental and economic performance. The analysis of the game in which groups devote efforts to bring the majority’s concern closer to their views shows a strong asymmetry in the results. Strategic interaction may lead the economy to a better situation in the long run, compared to what would prevail in the absence of lobbying. But this only occurs when the environmental group exhibits a radical ideology and people’s awareness is initially closer to that of the industrial group. By contrast, economies with very aggressive conservative groups and with people originally well aware of environmental problems can never benefit from the outcome of the game of political influence. The latter result is reinforced when one accounts for different lobbying powers and supremacy of industrial groups. This may explain why the US have failed to take action on global warming up to now.
    Keywords: Public persuasion, environmentalists, industrialists, environmental awareness, information campaigns, disinformation, game of political influence
    JEL: D72 C73 Q54
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Hélène Joachain
    Abstract: The overarching question of this dissertation is in what ways complementary currencies (CC) systems can contribute to environmental sustainability from an institutional and ecological economics perspective. More particularly, the research focuses on household energy consumption, as it is an important target for policy makers in the EU. The first three chapters focus on the emerging trend of using CC systems as top-down instruments for environmental sustainability. Our findings relate to developing a taxonomy of these systems, designing new top-down CC systems adapted to the context of energy savings in the household sector, exploring the influence of these new systems on the quality of motivation in the light of Self-Determination Theory and investigating the acceptability and effectiveness of these systems. In the fourth and last chapter of this dissertation, we approach our research question from a bottom-up angle and, using an inductive methodology, we explore how community currencies could act as an organising instrument capable of helping cohousing communities achieve their energy-efficiency potential. Finally, we conclude by highlighting our contributions regarding the structure and important features of these systems, how they can be used in an ecological economics paradigm, and how they can set rules for collective action in an institutional perspective.
    Keywords: Complementary currencies; Environmental sustainability; Households; Energy savings; Behavioural change; Motivation; Innovative policies; Smart meters; Cohousing; Collective action; Effectiveness; Values and life goals; Ecological economics; Institutional economics
    Date: 2017–09–04
  20. By: Yannis Dafermos; Maria Nikolaidi (University of Greenwich); Giorgos Galanis
    Abstract: Using a stock-flow-fund ecological macroeconomic model, we analyse (i) the effects of climate change on financial stability and (ii) the financial and global warming implications of a green QE programme. Emphasis is placed on the impact of climate change damages on the price of financial assets and the financial position of firms and banks. The model is estimated and calibrated using global data and simulations are conducted for the period 2015-2115. Four key results arise. First, by destroying the capital of firms and reducing their profitability, climate change is likely to gradually deteriorate the liquidity of firms, leading to a higher rate of default that could harm both the financial and the non-financial corporate sector. Second, climate change damages can lead to a portfolio reallocation that can cause a gradual decline in the price of corporate bonds. Third, financial instability might adversely affect credit expansion and the investment in green capital, with adverse feedback effects on climate change. Fourth, the implementation of a green QE programme can reduce climate-induced financial instability and restrict global warming. The effectiveness of this programme depends positively on the responsiveness of green investment to changes in bond yields.
    Keywords: ecological macroeconomics, stock-flow consistent modelling, climate change, financial stability, green quantitative easing
    JEL: E12 E44 E52 Q54
    Date: 2017–09
  21. By: Achim Hagen (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany); Jan Schneider (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In spite of scientific agreement on the negative effects of anthropogenic climate change, efforts to find cooperative solutions on the international level have been unsatisfactory so far. Trade sanctions in the form of import tariffs are one principal measure discussed as a means to foster cooperation. Former studies have concluded that import tariffs are an effective mechanism to establish international cooperation. However, most of these studies rely on the assumption that outsiders are not able to retaliate, i.e. to implement import tariffs themselves. In this paper we use combined analytical and numerical analysis to investigate implications of retaliation. We find a threshold effect: below a certain coalition size the effect of retaliation predominates and decreases incentives to be a coalition member. In coalitions above the threshold size the effect of trade sanctions that stabilizes coalitions dominates and enables the formation of larger stable coalitions. Our analysis suggests that only after a sufficiently large climate coalition has already been formed, the threat of trade sanctions might be an effective stick to establish the grand coalition.
    Keywords: international environmental agreements, computable general equilibrium
    JEL: D58 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2017–09
  22. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi)
    Abstract: Vietnam plans to develop dozens of new coal-fired power generation units over the next 20 years. In order to reduce emissions, it may appear necessary to dispose of these plants' CO2 by burying it in deep underground geological formations instead of releasing it into the atmosphere, using Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology. We show that CCS has a technical potential in Vietnam. To discuss under which economics conditions this potential could actualize, we examine two scenarios for 2050. In the first scenario, CO2 is used in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) only. The second scenario considers CCS deployment in coal-based power plants, on top of using it for EOR. In both scenarios, a few gas-fired CCS power plants are build, reaching 1GW in 2030, supported by Enhanced Oil Recovery and international carbon finance. The decision point where the two scenarios diverge is in 2030. A scenario to switch all currently existing or planned power plants to low-carbon by 2050 is to retrofit 3.2 GW of coal-fired capacity and install 1.2 GW of gas-fired capacity with CCS every year, starting in 2035 for 15 years. Capture readiness would lower the costs of using CCS in Vietnam, but is not mandatory today.
    Keywords: scenarios, energy,vietnam, carbon capture and storage
    Date: 2017–11
  23. By: Magali Pierre (GRETS - Groupe de Recherche Energie, Technologie et Société - EDF R&D); Eleonora Morganti (LVMT - Laboratoire Ville, Mobilité, Transport - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - IFSTTAR - Institut Français des Sciences et Technologies des Transports, de l'Aménagement et des Réseaux - PRES Université Paris-Est - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC)); Virginie Boutueil (LVMT - Laboratoire Ville, Mobilité, Transport - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - IFSTTAR - Institut Français des Sciences et Technologies des Transports, de l'Aménagement et des Réseaux - PRES Université Paris-Est - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC))
    Abstract: Over the last few years, obligations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have led European States to propose ambitious targets concerning electrifying car fleets. In France for instance, electric vehicles are required to cover a quarter of all new car purchases in big companies and public administrations. In these organizations, departments that are traditionally in charge of company vehicles have thus been tasked to implement these policy decisions. General Resources have become de facto responsible for testing and managing these new EVs. Illustrating our results through five case-studies that took place in France in 2012-2015, we will show how these departments, and notably fleet managers, carry out the numerous tasks accompanying the spreading of EVs in their organizations: acquiring these vehicles (and the charging infrastructure), allocating them and managing the charging of the cars. The allocation, whether as fleet cars or executive ones, is an important step for the success of their implementation in these companies. We will also point out the contradictory significations and powerful constraints that complicate the performance of these tasks. Their achievement strengthens the role of the fleet managers, who turn out to be crucial but unexpected players in electricity demand.
    Keywords: Fleet management, electric vehicles, corporate fleets
    Date: 2016–04–13
  24. By: Zachlod-Jelec, Magdalena (Ministry of Finance); Boratynski, Jakub (Ministry of Finance, University of Łódź)
    Abstract: In the paper we address the problem of parameters uncertainty of computable general equilibrium (CGE) simulation results concerning the economic effects of climate policy actions. Large scale CGE models utilize extensive, detailed databases on the structure of the economies (industry-specific technologies, international trade patterns etc.). At the same time, the behaviour of the economic system modelled in the CGE framework is largely driven by assumptions rooted in theory, with relatively little empirical content. It is therefore crucial to understand how assumptions affect outcomes of policy experiments. We employ a static global CGE model PLACE, representing 35 regions and 20 industries, with a focus on representing links between economic activities, energy use and CO2 emissions. Applying systematic sensitivity analysis based on Stroud's (1957) Gaussian quadratures approach we test how variation in elasticity parameters (values of which are subject to substantial uncertainty) affects economic assessment of emission reduction policies. Using as our workhorse simulation scenario the imposition of the European Commission's 40% greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target (with respect to 1990) we find that the uncertainty of model simulation results driven by the uncertainty in assumed elasticities values is quite remarkable indicating that presenting only mean simulation results from CGE models is not sufficient.
    Keywords: commputable general equilibrium model; systematic sensitivity analysis; emissions reduction
    JEL: C68 D58
    Date: 2016–08–31
  25. By: An Ha Truong (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi); Hoang Anh Tran (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi); Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi)
    Abstract: Đồng đốt sinh khối với than là công nghệ tận dụng sinh khối để phát điện với mức chi phí thấp hơn rất nhiều so với việc xây dựng nhà máy điện sinh khối. Đồng đốt giúp giảm bớt tác động của nhiệt điện than đến kinh tế, môi trường và xã hội. Việt Nam có tiềm năng phát triển công nghệ này do có tiềm năng lớn về sinh khối cũng như do Việt Nam sẽ tiếp tục phát triển các nhà máy nhiệt điện than trong vòng 2 thập kỷ tới theo như Quy hoạch điện mới nhất. Trong số các công nghệ đồng đốt, đồng đốt trực tiếp là công nghệ phù hợp nhất đối với điều kiện Việt Nam hiện nay. Mặc dù tỉ lệ đồng đốt thấp nhưng chi phí chuyển đối thấp nhất và có thể tận dụng hầu hết các loại sinh khối. Việt Nam có nguồn sinh khối dồi dào, đặc biệt là nguồn phụ phẩm, phế phẩm nông nghiệp. Đây là các nguồn sinh khối nên được cân nhắc sử dụng trước tiên cho đồng đốt. Viên nén sinh khối cũng là một lựa chọn tốt cho đồng đốt xét về các đặc tính kỹ thuật cũng như nguồn cung trong nước. Tuy nhiên giá cả của viên nén chưa thực sự cạnh tranh được với than cũng như với nguồn phụ phẩm phế phẩm nông nghiệp. Hiệu quả về mặt kinh tế của đồng đốt sinh khối với than sẽ cao hơn tại các nhà máy có các điều kiện như sau: sử dụng lò đốt than, tiếp cận được với nguồn cung sinh khối ổn định và có mức giá cạnh tranh, có giá than cao, có các điều kiện ưu tiên về thị trường cũng như cơ chế đối với sử dụng năng lượng tái tạo và giảm rác thải. Việt Nam nên bắt đầu thí điểm với các nhà máy nhiệt điện than nằm tại các vùng có trữ lượng sinh khối cao, thuận lợi cho việc thu gom và vận chuyển sinh khối, sử dụng than nhập khẩu có nguồn cung than không ổn định và giá than cao như Vĩnh Tân 2, Duyên Hải 1, Long Phước 1...; hoặc các nhà máy sắp hết thời gian khấu hao như Ninh Bình, Uông Bí hay Phả Lại 1 để tận dụng cơ sở hạ tầng sẵn có. Phân tích trường hợp đồng đốt 5% rơm với than tại nhà máy nhiệt điện Ninh Bình cho thấy đồng đốt đã mang lại hiệu quả kinh tế cho nhà máy trong điều kiện không có cơ chế chính sách hỗ trợ cho đồng đốt cũng như chưa có thị trường cacbon và doanh thu từ bán tro xỉ than. Mặt khác, lợi ích mà đồng đốt đem lại cho xã hội cũng như môi trường là rất đáng kể, đặc biệt là đối với người nông dân và sức khỏe cộng đồng. Các lợi ích này, nếu có cơ chế chia sẽ hợp lý sẽ có thể hỗ trợ cho nhà máy áp dụng đồng đốt đạt hiệu quả cao hơn về mặt kinh tế.
    Keywords: biomass, co-firing, coal, power generation, vietnam
    Date: 2016
  26. By: Antoszewski, Michal (Ministry of Finance); Boratynski, Jakub (Ministry of Finance); Zachlod-Jelec, Magdalena (Ministry of Finance); Wojtowicz, Krzysztof (Ministry of Economy); Cygler, Maciej (National Centre for Emissions Management); Jeszke, Robert (National Centre for Emissions Management); Pyrka, Maciej (National Centre for Emissions Management); Sikora, Przemyslaw (National Centre for Emissions Management); Bohringer, Christoph (World Bank); Gaska, Jan (World Bank); Jorgenson, Erika (World Bank); Kasek, Leszek (World Bank); Kiuila, Olga (World Bank); Malarski, Ryszard (World Bank); Rabiega, Wojciech (World Bank)
    Abstract: PLACE is a static multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model designed to assess the economic impact of energy and climate policies. Policies are typically analyzed using a comparative static approach, in which a situation with policy interference is compared to a situation without policy interference (often termed "baseline" or "business-as-usual"). Based on general equilibrium theory, PLACE incorporates micro-economic mechanisms within a comprehensive macro-economic framework, which distinguishes it from other large-scale economic models such as multivariate econometric models and input output analysis. The particular strengths of the CGE approach is the scope for quantifying distributional impacts of policies and the ability to reflect complex sectoral adjustments. This document constitutes technical documentation of the PLACE model and aims to present the underlying algebra and data sources that were used at different stages during the model's development.
    Keywords: computable general equilibrium model; emissions; GTAP; baseline scenario
    JEL: C68 D58
    Date: 2015–12–11
  27. By: Massimo Tavoni (FEEM, CMCC and Politecnico di Milano); Valentina Bosetti (FEEM, CMCC and Bocconi University); Soheil Shayegh (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Laurent Drouet (FEEM and CMCC); Johannes Emmerling (FEEM and CMCC); Sabine Fuss (Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change); Timo Goeschl (University of Heidelberg); Celine Guivarch (CIRED); Thomas S. Lontzek (RWTH Aachen University); Vassiliki Manoussi (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Juan Moreno-Cruz (School of Economics and Brook Byers Institute for Sustainability Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology); Helene Muri (University of Oslo); Martin Quaas (Kiel University); Wilfried Rickels (Kiel Institute for the World Economy)
    Abstract: The Paris Agreement has set stringent temperature targets to limit global warming to 2°C above preindustrial level, with efforts to stay well below 2°C. At the same time, its bottom-up approach with voluntary national contributions makes the implementation of these ambitious targets particularly challenging. Climate engineering – both through carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and solar radiation management (SRM) – is currently discussed to potentially complement mitigation and adaptation. Results from integrated assessment models already suggest a significant role for some forms of climate engineering in achieving stringent climate objectives1. However, these estimates and their underlying assumptions are uncertain and currently heavily debated2–4. By reviewing the existing literature and reporting the views of experts, we identify research gaps and priorities for improving the integrated assessment of climate engineering. Results point to differentiated roles of CDR and SRM as complementary strategies to the traditional ones, as well as diverse challenges for an adequate representation in integrated assessment models. We identify potential synergies for model development which can help better represent mitigation and adaptation challenges, as well as climate engineering.
    Keywords: Climate Engineering, Paris Agreement, Carbon Dioxide Removal, Solar Radiation Management, Integrated Assessment Models
    JEL: Q5 Q55
    Date: 2017–09

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