nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2016‒10‒23
23 papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. A Model of Sustainable Growth with Renewables( Wind, CS, Algae) in Africa Europe Relation By Paunić, Alida
  2. Second-Best Renewable Subsidies to De-Carbonize the Economy: Commitment and the Green Paradox By Rezai, Armon; van der Ploeg, Frederick
  3. Optimal trading policies for wind energy producer By Zongjun Tan; Peter Tankov
  4. Panel regression analysis of electricity prices and renewable energy in the European Union By Cech, Marek
  5. Décentralisation énergétique et innovations territoriales: Une comparaison européenne dans les secteurs de l’éolien, de la biomasse et du photovoltaïque By François Bafoil; Rachel Guyet; Gilles Lepesant; null null
  6. The Impact of Electricity Production from Renewable Sources, Nuclear Source and the Conversion of Land Use into Agricultural Land on CO2 Emissions By Thi Thanh Xuan Tran
  7. Electricity Externalities, Siting, and the Energy Mix: A Survey By Heinz Welsch
  8. The Impact of Special Economic Zones on Electricity Intensity of Firms By Ronald B. Davies; T. Huw Edwards; Arman Mazhikeyev
  9. Mechanism Design and Auctions for Electricity Network By Benjamin Heymann; Alejandro Jofré
  10. Conducting an extensive empirical study on short-term electricity price forecasting (EPF), involving state-of-the-art parsimonious expert models as benchmarks, datasets from 12 power markets and 32 multi-parameter regression models estimated via the lasso, we show that using the latter shrinkage approach can bring statistically significant accuracy gains compared to commonly-used EPF models. We also address the long-standing question on the optimal model structure for EPF. We provide evidence that despite a minor edge in predictive performance overall, the multivariate modeling approach does not uniformly outperform univariate models across all datasets, seasons of the year or hours of the day, and at times is outperformed by the latter. This may be an indication that combining advanced structures or the corresponding forecasts from both modeling classes may bring a further improvement in forecasting accuracy. Finally, we also analyze variable selection for the best performing multivariate and univariate high-dimensional lasso-type models, thus provide guidelines to structuring better performing forecasting model designs. By Florian Ziel; Rafal Weron
  11. Description of European policies and issues related to electricity pricing By Cech, Marel; Janda, Karel
  12. Industrial Blockchain Platforms: An Exercise in Use Case Development in the Energy Industry By Mattila, Juri; Seppälä, Timo; Naucler, Catarina; Stahl, Riitta; Tikkanen, Marianne; Bådenlid, Alexandra; Seppälä, Jane
  13. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Sectoral Analysis By Nadeem, Sana; Munir, Kashif
  14. “Butterfly Effect" vs Chaos in Energy Futures Markets By Loretta Mastroeni; Pierluigi Vellucci
  15. Exploring the life of price responses in fuel markets. Mean group data or mean group estimator? By Jacint Balaguer; Jordi Ripollés
  16. Estimating the effect of air pollution on road safety using atmospheric temperature By Lutz Sager
  17. Viable Nash Equilibria in the Problem of Common Pollution By Noël Bonneuil; Raouf Boucekkine
  18. Emissions trading and productivity: Firm-level evidence from German manufacturing By Lutz, Benjamin Johannes
  19. Will the Paris Accord Accelerate Climate Change? By Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Andrey Polbin; Andrey Zubarev
  20. The Failure of Climate Change Negotiations: Irrational Countries Exclude the Poor and the Future Generations By Sang-Chul Suh
  21. Varieties of carbon voluntarism in contemporary capitalism By Louison Cahen-Fourot
  22. GDP-related emission targets weaknesses: the case of Argentina By Mariana Conte Grand
  23. Green new deal and the question of environmental and social justice By Herman, Christoph.

  1. By: Paunić, Alida
    Abstract: Paper states that investments in renewable energy - Africa north (Sahara) -contributes to growth, poverty reduction and social economical gain not just for Africa but for Europe too. It brings (wind) long term electricity input stability, price reduction, industry potential growth through cooperation with Africa(CS),input and long term solution (after oil) with algae to obtain biodiesel for car industry. With renewables in hand many innovation and day to day possibilities increase quality of life (wind supported with PV, magnets to increase efficiency), CS in respect of cooking, solar in transport (train, car), help in education. Opinion about long term sustainable growth is given as relation of known/unknown long term space matter constant 1 in which only variables are those in relation to person to person, person to positive (God) aspect.
    Keywords: energy, renewables, Africa, growth
    JEL: O40 O44 Q20 Q4 Q40
    Date: 2016–10–13
  2. By: Rezai, Armon; van der Ploeg, Frederick
    Abstract: Climate change must deal with two market failures: global warming and learning by doing in renewable energy production. The first-best policy consists of an aggressive renewables subsidy in the near term and a gradually rising and falling carbon tax. Given that global carbon taxes remain elusive, policy makers might have to rely on a second-best subsidy only. With credible commitment the second-best subsidy is higher than the social benefit of learning to cut the transition time and peak warming close to first-best levels at the cost of higher fossil fuel use in the short run (weak Green Paradox). Without commitment the second-best subsidy is set to the social benefit of learning. It generates smaller weak Green Paradox effects, but the transition to the carbon-free takes longer and cumulative carbon emissions are higher. Under first best and second best with pre-commitment peak warming is 2.1 - 2.3 °C, under second best without commitment 3.5°C, and without any policy 5.1°C above pre-industrial levels. Not being able to commit yields a welfare loss of 95% of initial GDP compared to first best. Being able to commit brings this figure down to 7%.
    Keywords: carbon tax; commitment; learning by doing; Ramsey growth; renewables subsidy
    JEL: H21 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2016–10
  3. By: Zongjun Tan; Peter Tankov
    Abstract: We study the optimal trading policies for a wind energy producer who aims to sell the future production in the open forward, spot, intraday and adjustment markets, and who has access to imperfect dynamically updated forecasts of the future production. We construct a stochastic model for the forecast evolution and determine the optimal trading policies which are updated dynamically as new forecast information becomes available. Our results allow to quantify the expected future gain of the wind producer and to determine the economic value of the forecasts.
    Date: 2016–09
  4. By: Cech, Marek
    Abstract: This paper provides an econometric panel data model with data collected from 13 member states of the European Union over the period between 2010 and 2013 analysing two energy and climate relationships. First, it investigates the impact of the share of renewable energy sources in the final electricity production on the European consumer electricity prices. Second, it analyzes whether the replacement of fossil fuels by renewable energy causes a significant decrease in the greenhouse gases (specifically carbon dioxide) emissions. The results of our model analysis suggest that household electricity prices in the studied countries increase with the deployment of renewable electricity production. On the contrary, a negative effect of the renewables used in energy consumption on the CO2 emissions produced was found by the model regression.
    Keywords: electricity price, renewable energy sources, energy policy, European Union
    JEL: Q20 Q40
    Date: 2016–10–16
  5. By: François Bafoil (Centre de recherches internationales); Rachel Guyet (Centre de recherches internationales); Gilles Lepesant (Centre national de la recherche scientifique); null null (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches de Sciences Administratives et Politiques (CERSA))
    Abstract: Penser l’autonomie énergétique par le biais des énergies renouvelables, c’est penser plusieurs formes de changement qui affectent le secteur énergétique et la gouvernance, et plus généralement les échanges entre acteurs publics, privés, associatifs et citoyens pour un questionnement qui porte d’un côté sur les relations d’échanges au sein des gouvernances nationales et de l’autre, sur l’action collective. La question ultime est de savoir si les innovations mises en œuvre dans le secteur énergétique à l’échelle des territoires traités dans cette étude favorisent une plus grande inclusion sociale et une participation démocratique accrue. Les territoires en question sont Malmö, Brest, Grenoble, Aberdeen, le Land de Brandebourg, la région du Haut-Adige et Katowice...
    Keywords: énergies renouvelables; gouvernance; décentralisation; innovation
    Date: 2016–02–04
  6. By: Thi Thanh Xuan Tran (CREM - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Management - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - Université de Caen Basse-Normandie - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper attempts to introduce factors which are linked to the sources of CO2 emissions using a standard scale, technique and composition approach. In their early work, Grossman & Krueger (1991) suggest that the impact of economic factors such as growth and trade on the environment can be decomposed into scale, technique and composition effects. Later work of Antweiler et al. (1998) provides a well-completed theoretical guideline that allows researchers to estimate separately these 3 effects. However, studies of Cole & Elliott (2003) and Managi et al. (2009), while providing partial support for Antweiler et al., show that the relationship between economic factors and pollution vary by pollutant given the differences between many common pollutants, "particularly with regards to their sources" (Cole & Elliott (2003)). Thus, this study contributes to this literature and pay attention to variables which are linked to the sources of CO2 emissions. Since electricity production and the conversion of land use into agricultural land are two main single sources of carbon dioxide emissions, I examine these impact on per capita CO2 emissions. The results of estimation for a panel of 99 countries spanning the period 1971-2010 indicate that :(1) increasing the share in electricity production from nuclear and renewable sources can decrease CO2 emissions whereas (2) the conversion of land use into agriculture land raises the amount of carbon emitted.
    Keywords: Trade openness, Nuclear energy, Agricultural land, CO2 emissions,Renewable energy, Scale-technique-composition
    Date: 2016–04–10
  7. By: Heinz Welsch (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: While early literature on electricity externalities was largely concerned with fossil fuel power generation and the associated emissions, nuclear accidents (Chernobyl, Fukushima) and the large-scale deployment of renewable energy facilities have spurred a wave of research on the externalities of nuclear power and renewable energies. The issue is important because many countries have started reconsidering their energy policies, and the externalities from electricity generation play a major role in the benefit-cost analysis of relevant options. This paper reviews the literature on electricity-related externalities. It starts by discussing their nature and the methods employed in valuing them. It finds that appraisals of electricity externalities are complicated because of heterogeneity of both the externalities themselves and the methods applied in measuring them. The paper reviews valuation studies of the externalities from fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable sources, and it discusses the relevance of their findings for the siting of plants and the electricity mix. It concludes by pointing out gaps in our knowledge about electricity externalities that deserve to be addressed in future research.
    Keywords: electricity generation; externalities; fossil fuels; nuclear power; renewable energy; siting; electricity mix; property value; willingness to pay; subjective well-being
    JEL: Q48 Q42 Q51 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2016–10
  8. By: Ronald B. Davies; T. Huw Edwards; Arman Mazhikeyev
    Abstract: In light of concerns over the environmental impact of Special Economic Zones located in developing countries, where environmental regulation is weak, we analyse the electricity intensity of firms in SEZs. We use firm level data from Africa and Asia, and we find that SEZ firms have higher electricity intensity as opposed to non-SEZ firms. If they also face higher fiscal, financial or environmental regulations, the electricity intensity of firms in SEZs increases by a greater rate as opposed to non-SEZ firms. As such, establishing SEZs may have significant environmental implications.
    Keywords: Energy intensity; Special economic zones
    JEL: F14 J16
    Date: 2016–10
  9. By: Benjamin Heymann (Commands - Control, Optimization, Models, Methods and Applications for Nonlinear Dynamical Systems - CMAP - Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées - Ecole Polytechnique - Polytechnique - X - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRIA Saclay - Ile de France - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique - ENSTA ParisTech UMA - Unité de Mathématiques Appliquées - Univ. Paris-Saclay, ENSTA ParisTech - École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées - Univ. Paris-Saclay, ENSTA ParisTech - École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées - Polytechnique - X - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CMAP - Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées - Ecole Polytechnique - Polytechnique - X - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Alejandro Jofré (CMM - Center for Mathematical Modeling - Universidad de Chile [Santiago])
    Abstract: We present some key aspects of wholesale electricity markets modeling and more specifically focus our attention on auctions and mechanism design. Some of the results arising from those models are the computation of an optimal allocation for the Independent System Operator, the study of the equilibria (existence and unicity in particular) and the design of mechanisms to increase the social surplus. From a more general perspective, this field of research provides clues to discuss how wholesale electricity market should be regulated. We start with a general introduction and then present some results the authors obtained recently. We also briefly expose some undergoing related work. As an illustrative example, a section is devoted to the computation of the Independent System Operator response function for a symmetric binodal setting with piece-wise linear production cost functions.
    Date: 2016–05–13
  10. By: Florian Ziel; Rafal Weron
    Keywords: Electricity price forecasting; Day-ahead market; Univariate model; Multivariate model; Regression; Variable selection; Lasso
    JEL: C14 C22 C51 C53 Q47
    Date: 2016–10–14
  11. By: Cech, Marel; Janda, Karel
    Abstract: This paper is focused on the description of institutional, technical, economic, legal and other relevant issues of electricity pricing in the European Union connected with the increasing use of renewable energy sources in electricity production and consumption. It provides background information related to the types of energy sources along with the summary of their advantages and disadvantages regarding both the environmental impact and financial costs. Furthermore, it involves fundamental global and European electricity production statistics and a summary of the European Union approach to the support of environment-friendly energy production methods.
    Keywords: electricity price, energy sources, renewable energy sources, energy policy, European Union
    JEL: Q20 Q40
    Date: 2016–10–16
  12. By: Mattila, Juri; Seppälä, Timo; Naucler, Catarina; Stahl, Riitta; Tikkanen, Marianne; Bådenlid, Alexandra; Seppälä, Jane
    Abstract: To encourage public discourse on blockchain use case development, this paper provides a pragmatic view on how to develop and to describe blockchain use cases. We approach the issue by developing a tentative use case for autonomous machine-to-machine transactions of electricity in a housing society environment through an iterative process with stakeholders in the energy industry. We proceed by evaluating the outlined concept and its technical specifications against six criteria for a sensible blockchain use case, as identified by blockchain industry specialists. Finally, we conclude with observations and discussion on the use case development process, and its future steps.
    Keywords: Digital platform, industrial platform, blockchain technology, autonomous marketplace, energy industry
    Date: 2016–10–11
  13. By: Nadeem, Sana; Munir, Kashif
    Abstract: The study aimed at investigating the relationship between energy consumption at aggregate and disaggregate levels i.e., oil, coal, gas and electricity in different sectors (commercial, agriculture, industry, power and transport) of the economy with the economic growth in Pakistan. Annual time series data for the time period ranging from 1972 to 2014 has been used in this study. Autoregressive distributed lag bound testing approach for cointegration and to find the relationship between variables Granger causality test is applied. The results of the study showed that there exists a long run relationship between the dependent variable (economic growth) and independent variables (aggregate and disaggregate oil, coal, gas and electricity consumption in different sectors). It is also found that there exists a Neutrality Hypothesis between aggregate and disaggregate oil consumption and Conservation Hypothesis is found in aggregate and disaggregate coal, gas and electricity consumption. This study recommends that government should increase job opportunities in industrial sector where oil is used for production, shift their burden to cheap available resource from coal and transfer the units of electricity to industrial sector so that economic growth of Pakistan can be enhanced.
    Keywords: Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, Disaggregate, ARDL, Pakistan
    JEL: C32 O13 Q43
    Date: 2016–09–09
  14. By: Loretta Mastroeni; Pierluigi Vellucci
    Abstract: In this paper we test for the sensitive dependence on initial conditions (the so called \butter y e ect") of energy futures time series (heating oil, natural gas), and thus the determinism of those series. Unlike previous studies, we test for the time series for sensitive dependence on initial conditions, introducing a coecient that describes the determinism rate of the series and that represents its reliability level (in percentage). The introduction of this reliability level is motivated by the fact that time series generated from stochastic systems also might show sensitive dependence on initial conditions. The reliability level obtained for the NYMEX energy futures considered here is always approximately 50% and this means that the stochastic component and the deterministic one turn up approximately in the same proportions. Such a tangible presence of a stochastic component does not warrant strong evidence of chaotic behaviour.
    Keywords: nonlinear dynamics, chaos, butter y e ect, energy futures.
    JEL: C45 C53 D40 Q47
    Date: 2016–10
  15. By: Jacint Balaguer (Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Jordi Ripollés (Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)
    Abstract: Empirical studies on vertical price transmission in retail fuel markets commonly use mean group data of petrol stations. In this paper a simulation approach is employed to illustrate that, in this case, the persistence of price responses tends to be overestimated. To explore the real extent of the problem, we apply the mean group (MG) and the mean group with common correlated effects (MG-CCE) estimators to individual data from petrol stations. When heterogeneity in the price-setting dynamics is captured by MG and MG-CCE estimators, persistence of retail price responses becomes considerably lower than the typical OLS estimations from mean group data would suggest.
    Keywords: Fuel price responses, Cross-sectional aggregation, Dynamic persistence, Overestimation
    JEL: C51 C23 L71 Q41
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Lutz Sager
    Abstract: This paper estimates the causal effect of increased ambient air pollution on the frequency of road traffic accidents in the United Kingdom between 2009 and 2014. An instrumental variable approach is applied, exploiting atmospheric temperature inversions as a source of plausibly exogenous variation in daily air pollution levels. The paper estimates the local average treatment effect for a geographic grid cell (1° X 1º) as an increase of 0:3 accidents per day for each additional 1μg=m³ in the daily concentration of NO2. The effect is equivalent to an increase of 2% relative to the average number of daily accidents. The results appear robust to multiple sources of potential confounding, measurement error and co-emission bias.
    Date: 2016–10
  17. By: Noël Bonneuil (EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales, INED - Institut national d'études démographiques); Raouf Boucekkine (IUF - Institut Universitaire de France - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales)
    Abstract: Two countries produce goods and are penalized by the common pollution they generate. Each country maximizes an inter-temporal utility criterion, taking account of the pollution stock to which both contribute. The dynamic is in continuous time with possible sudden switches to less polluting technologies. The set of Nash equilibria, for which solutions also remain in the set of constraints, is the intersection of two manifolds in a certain state space. At the Nash equilibrium, the choices of the two countries are interdependent: different productivity levels after switching lead the more productive country to hasten and the less productive to delay the switch. In the absence of cooperation, efforts by one country to pollute less motivate the other to pollute more, or encourage the country that will be cleaner or less productive country after switching to delay its transition.
    Keywords: pollution,dynamic game,Nash,viability theory
    Date: 2016–06
  18. By: Lutz, Benjamin Johannes
    Abstract: I study the causal effect of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) on the productivity of German manufacturing firms. Using administrative firm-level data, I estimate robust production functions for narrowly defined industries. This approach allows for an endogenous dynamic productivity process and corrects for simultaneous changes in input use or productivity after a firm is regulated by the EU ETS. After estimating the firm specific productivity, I employ a difference-in-differences framework in order to identify and quantify the average treatment effect of the EU ETS on the productivity of regulated firms. The results suggest no significant negative effect of the EU ETS on productivity. In contrast, the EU ETS had a positive effect on productivity during the first compliance period. An alternative identification strategy based on a combination of the difference-in-differences framework and nearest neighbor matching supports this finding. A subsample analysis provides evidence that the effect of the EU ETS is heterogeneous across industries.
    Keywords: Control of Externalities,Emissions Trading,Robust Production Function Estimation,Productivity,Difference-in-Differences
    JEL: D22 D24 Q52
    Date: 2016
  19. By: Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Andrey Polbin; Andrey Zubarev
    Abstract: The 2015 Paris Accord is meant to control our planet’s rising temperature. But it may be doing the opposite in gradually, rather than immediately reducing CO2 emissions. The Accord effectively tells dirty-energy producers to "use it or lose it." This may be accelerating their extraction and burning of fossil fuels and, thereby, be permanently raising temperatures. Our paper uses a simple OLG model to illustrate this long-noted Green Paradox. Its framework treats climate damage as a negative externality imposed by today’s generations on tomorrow’s – an externality that is, in part, irreversible and can tip the climate to permanently higher temperatures. In our model, delaying abatement can lead to larger changes in climate than doing nothing, reducing welfare for all generations. In contrast, immediate policy action can raise welfare for all generations. Finally we question the standard use of infinitely-lived, single-agent models, which assume, unrealistically, intergenerational altruism in determining optimal abatement policy. Their prescriptions can differ, potentially dramatically, from those needed to correct the negative climate externality today’s generations are imposing on tomorrow’s.
    JEL: F0 F20 H0 H2 H3 J20
    Date: 2016–10
  20. By: Sang-Chul Suh (Department of Economics, University of Windsor)
    Abstract: Despite decades of international negotiations, little progress has been made in reducing the level of the Green House Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. The understanding of the climate change problem in economic theory as an allocation failure of common resources is explained in "the tragedy of the commonsÉ by Hardin (1968). We start with a simple prisoners’ dilemma game (PD game) that represents the essence of Hardin’s "the tragedy of the commons". We argue that the PD game model is not adequate for explaining the failure of the climate negotiations. As an alternative explanation, we claim that countries’ irrational decision making, rather than misdirected incentives of rational countries in the PD game, is the main cause of the failure of climate negotiations. The irrationality of a government originates from ignoring the well-being of the poor and the future generations who are mostly excluded from the market activities, and hence receive the least economic benefit, contribute least to the climate problem, and yet are forced to pay most of the non-economic costs of climate change. The current paper tries to keep the resolution of the climate problem in the realm of economic discussion, while following Gardiner’s (2011) view that regards the issue of climate change as a moral problem of ignoring the wellbeing of the poor and the future generations. The immediate challenge of this approach is to measure the non-economic losses of the poor and the future generations due to climate change and to reflect them in climate change related decisions
    Keywords: Climate Change, Negotiation, Game, Irrationality, Income Inequality, Intergenerational Conflict.
    JEL: Q54 C72 D62
    Date: 2016–10
  21. By: Louison Cahen-Fourot (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We investigate national greenhouse gases mitigation objectives, labeled as carbon voluntarism, in the context of contemporary globalized finance-led capitalism. Using principal components analysis and clustering, we delineate a typology of OECD and BRICS countries from the standpoint of the assumed underpinnings of carbon voluntarism: the productive structure of the economy, the relative position in global GHG chains, the levels of income and capitalist development, the political demand for the environment, the class structure of GHG emissions and financialization. The least carbon voluntary countries appear to be at the beginning of global GHG chains and to rely heavily on the primary sector. They have a weak political demand for the environment and a more unequal class structure of emissions. The most carbon voluntary countries have a higher political demand for the environment, a more equal class structure of emissions, weaker financialization, and greater reliance on the tertiary sector. These countries are also net importers of GHG emissions.
    Abstract: On s’intéresse dans ce travail aux objectifs de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES), que l’on désigne par le terme volontarisme carbone, dans le contexte du capitalisme globalisé et tiré par la finance. A partir d’une analyse en composante principale et d’une classification, on esquisse une typologie des pays de notre échantillon (OCDE et BRICS) du point de vue des déterminants hypothétiques du volontarisme carbone : le tissu productif des économies, la position relative dans les chaines globales de GES, le niveau de revenu et de développement capitaliste, la demande politique d’environnement, la structure de classe des émissions et le processus de financiarisation. Les pays les moins volontaristes sont ceux situés au début des chaines globales de GES et dont le secteur primaire est le plus important. Ils ont une faible demande politique d’environnement et une structure de classe des émissions plus inégale. Les pays les plus volontaires ont une demande politique d’environnement supérieure, une structure de classe des émissions plus égalitaire, la financiarisation y est moins importante et la tertiarisation plus poussée. Ils sont également importateurs nets de GES.
    Keywords: Climate Change,Capitalism,Carbon voluntarism,Financialization,GHG emission,GHG emissions reduction
    Date: 2016
  22. By: Mariana Conte Grand
    Abstract: GDP linked targets have the potential to favor green growth and avoid “hot air” in uncertain backgrounds, like those of many developing economies. Even if they are not a guarantee of emissions reduction as required by the 2 degree Celsius Copenhagen goal because emissions´ intensity can decrease even when emissions do not. A few countries have submitted at some point of international negotiations a target based on this type of metric. Argentina is one of them, together with Chile, China, India, Singapore, Tunisia, Uruguay and Turkmenistan. As is the case of all target forms, it requires good monitoring and forecast of emissions. But, as the literature has shown, one of the GDP-related target weaknesses is that it relies on a second indicator: the GDP. This article shows concretely how GDP biases influence intensity targets monitoring, using as a base the case of Argentina.
    Keywords: climate change, intensity targets, target metrics, developing countries, Latin America, Argentina
    Date: 2016–10
  23. By: Herman, Christoph.
    Keywords: sustainable development, economic recovery, employment creation, green jobs, environmental protection, equal rights, développement durable, reprise économique, création d'emploi, emplois verts, protection de l'environnement, droits égaux, desarrollo sostenible, recuperación económica, creación de empleos, empleos verdes, protección ambiental, igualdad de derechos
    Date: 2015

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