nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2016‒05‒14
38 papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. Federal Support for the Development, Production, and Use of Fuels and Energy Technologies By Congressional Budget Office
  2. Fossil Fuel Subsidies in Thailand: Trends, Impacts, and Reforms By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  3. Eliminating the Fuel Subsidy in Indonesia: A Behavioral Approach By Rimawan Pradiptyo; Gumilang Aryo Sahadewo
  4. State and federal fuel taxes: The road ahead for U.S. infrastructure funding By Dumortier, Jerome; Zhang, Fengxiu; Marron, John
  5. Impact of Oil Price and Its Volatility on Stock Market Index in Pakistan: Bivariate EGARCH Model By Naurin, Abida; Qayyum, Abdul
  6. Local Power, Local Pollution? An Analysis from the Philippines By Elvira M. Orbetta
  7. Concorrenza e innovazione nei mercati retail dell energia elettrica. Le prospettive dopo il Ddl Concorrenza 2015 By Carlo Stagnaro
  8. Transition Town Initiativen im deutschsprachigen Raum: Ein systematischer Überblick über Vorkommen, Schwerpunkte und Einfluss auf die Energiewende vor Ort By Krehl, Stefan
  9. Particulate matter and labor supply: the role of caregiving and non-linearities By Fernando M. Aragón; Juan Jose Miranda; Paulina Oliva
  10. Are the Central East European Countries Pollution Havens? By Martina Vidovic
  11. Relationship among Energy, Bioenergy, and Agricultural Commodity Prices: Re-Considering Structural Changes By Nemati, Mehdi
  12. Coordination of Renewable Energy Remuneration Schemes through Information Exchange By Thilo Grau; Karsten Neuhoff
  13. Second-Best Renewable Subsidies to De-Carbonize the Economy; Commitment and the Green Paradox By Armon Rezai; Frederick van der Ploeg
  14. Options for Increasing Federal Income From Crude Oil and Natural Gas on Federal Lands By Congressional Budget Office
  15. Mitigating Climate Change with Forest Climate Tools By Eriksson, Mathilda
  16. Elektronutzfahrzeuge in der Entsorgungslogistik By Witte, Christian; Marner, Torsten; Klumpp, Matthias
  17. Calculations of gaseous and particulate emissions from German agriculture 1990-2014: Report on methods and data (RMD) submission 2016 By Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus; Dämmgen, Ulrich; Freibauer, Annette; Döring, Ulrike; Wulf, Sebastian; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Döhler, Helmut; Schreiner, Carsten; Osterburg, Bernhard
  18. Where does the wind blow? Green preferences and spatial misallocation in renewable energy sector By Yatang Lin
  19. A second-best analysis of alternative instruments for the preservation of natural resources? By Llop Llop, Maria
  20. An Economic and Stakeholder Analysis for the Design of IPP Contracts for Wind Farms By Sener Salci; Glenn P. Jenkins
  21. Policy of energy poverty alleviation and quality of life in Poland By Michal Litwinski
  22. Economic Impacts of a Carbon Tax in an Integrated ASEAN By Ditya Agung Nurdianto
  23. Sustainable Energy for All: Tracking Progress in Asia and the Pacific: A Summary Report By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  24. On the comparative advantage of U.S. manufacturing: evidence from the shale gas revolution By Rabah Arezki; Thiemo Fetzer
  25. Survival to Adulthood and the Growth Drag of Pollution By Andreas Schaefer
  26. Volatility Spillover Effects and Cross Hedging in the U.S. Oil Market and the Energy Pipeline Sector Index By Jiang, Jingze; Marsh, Thomas L.
  27. An Exploration of a Strategic Competition Model for the European Union Natural Gas Market By Zaifu Yang; Rong Zhang; Zongyi Zhang
  28. The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond: Pareto Improvements to Policies that Mitigate Climate Change By Chichilnisky, Graciela; Hammond, Peter J.
  29. Updated Reference Forecasts for Global CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption By José M. Belbute; Alfredo Marvão Pereira
  30. Location and Occupancy of Energy Inefficient Residential Properties By Curtis, John; Devitt, Niamh; Whelan, Adele
  31. Demand Response in Germany: Technical Potential, Benefits and Regulatory Challenges By Jan Stede
  32. Energy across the Mediterranean: a call for realism By Simone Tagliapietra; Georg Zachmann
  33. Economic Implications of EU Mitigation Policies: Domestic and International Effects By Bosello, Francesco; Davide, Marinella; Alloisio, Isabella
  34. Competitive Dominance of Emission Trading Over Pigouvian Taxation in a Globalized Economy By Seung-Gyu Sim; Hsuan-Chih Lin
  35. Undermined by adverse selection: Australia’s Direct Action abatement subsidies By Paul J. Burke
  36. COP 21 can become a turning point towards sustainable energy systems: Paper on behalf of the secretariat of the club of Rome preparing for COP 21 By Hennicke, Peter; Fischedick, Manfred; Knoop, Katharina; Luhmann, Jochen; Fink, Thomas
  37. Автоматизация заправочных терминалов как фактор повышения конкурентоспособности АЗС By Kharitonenko, Yuliya
  38. Advances and Slowdowns in Carbon Capture and Storage Technology Development By D’Aprile, Aurora

  1. By: Congressional Budget Office
    Abstract: In fiscal year 2015, the federal government supported the development, production, and use of fuels and energy technologies through tax preferences totaling $15.8 billion and spending by the Department of Energy totaling $5.4 billion.
    JEL: H23 O32 Q20 Q30 Q40 Q50
    Date: 2015–11–18
  2. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Heavily dependent on imported energy sources, significant subsidies on fossil fuels present a heavy burden on public finances in Thailand. This study measures the size of fossil fuel subsidies such as tax breaks for diesel and natural gas, market price support for natural gas for vehicles, and free electricity for low income consumers as well as the potential economic, energy, and environmental impacts of reducing them. With adequate reallocation of subsidy savings, the short-term adverse impacts of subsidy reform are shown to turn positive in the long term as households and industry respond to changing market realities by adjusting energy demand, supply, and production capacity. The study offers policy advice for sustainable energy use to help guide Thailand’s reform strategies.
    Keywords: thailand, fossil fuel, energy, fossil fuel subsidies, greenhouse gas emissions, diesel, natural gas, energy use, economic impacts, social programs, developing asia
    Date: 2015–10
  3. By: Rimawan Pradiptyo (Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada); Gumilang Aryo Sahadewo (Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada)
    Keywords: Fuel Subsidy, Indonesia, Behavioral Approach
    Date: 2016–03
  4. By: Dumortier, Jerome; Zhang, Fengxiu; Marron, John
    Abstract: Taxes on gasoline and diesel are the primary sources of transportation funding at the state and federal level. Due to inflation and improved fuel efficiency, these taxes are increasingly inadequate to maintain the transportation system. In most states and at the federal level, the real fuel tax rates decrease because they are fixed at a cents-per-gallon amount rather than indexed to inflation. In this paper, we provide a forecast on state and federal tax revenue based on different fuel taxation policies such as indexing to inflation, imposing a sales tax on gasoline and diesel, or using a mileage fee on vehicles. We compare how those taxation policies perform compared to the policies states use currently under different macroeconomic conditions relating to the price of oil, economic growth, and vehicle miles traveled. The baselines projections indicate that between 2015 and 2040, fuel tax revenue will decrease 52.2%-54.9% in states that do not index taxes to inflation and 22.6%-22.9% that do currently index to inflation. Switching to a mileage fee increases revenue between 15.6%-26.9% in 2040 compared to 2015. Indexing fuel taxes to inflation in addition to imposing a states' sales tax increases revenue significantly but suffers from a continuous decline in the long-run due to increased fuel efficiency. Our results indicate that although a mileage fee is politically and technologically difficult to achieve, it avoids a declining tax revenue in the long-run.
    Keywords: gasoline taxes, diesel taxes, VMT fee, simulation, motor fuel tax revenue, Public Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–04–02
  5. By: Naurin, Abida; Qayyum, Abdul
    Abstract: Oil is becoming as an important determinant which affects the macroeconomic activities and the stock market indices in unusual patterns among various parts of the globe particularly since the first oil crisis in 1973. Also Petroleum products are recognized to be the essential source of energy and power throughout the world and gaining substantial importance as a tool for endurance and security of developed nations. The research study targets to explore the impact of oil price and its volatility on Stock market index in Pakistan from the period 1991:M11 to 2014:M12. In this study we used the financial time series econometrics techniques; first applied the Box-Cox transformation on the data which suggested log transformation is required for all series. As data used will be monthly, Beaulieu and Miron (1992) seasonal unit root test is used if stationarity is present in the data. All variables hold unit root at zero frequency and become stationary at first difference. Further to confirm if co-integration relationship exists between the variables we have estimated Engle and Granger (1987) two-step method. And finally Bivariate EGARCH model is applied to scrutinize the impact of oil price volatility Stock market index. Bollerslev and Wooldridge (1992) proposed this model which is projected by using Maximum likelihood method. Hence the findings of Bivariate EGARCH model suggested the direct association between oil prices and Stock market Index. It means SPI is positively affected by oil prices. In case of Pakistan, asymmetric impact is positive but statistically insignificant at α=.05 (Level of significance). But in case of oil price volatility Bivariate EGARCH model, it is negative and statistically insignificant. The summation of Beta Coefficients of ARCH and GARCH suggests that the volatility shocks in the SPI have been highly continual and became extinct rather slowly in case of Pakistan.
    Keywords: Oil prices, Volatility of oil prices, SPI, Box Cox Transformation, Beaulieu and Miron, Co-integration, Bivariate EGARCH, Pakistan.
    JEL: C22 G1
    Date: 2016–04
  6. By: Elvira M. Orbetta (Resources, Environment and Economics Center for Studies (REECS))
    Keywords: pollution, Philippines
    Date: 2016–04
  7. By: Carlo Stagnaro
    Abstract: Il disegno di legge annuale per la concorrenza 2015 prevede il superamento della maggior tutela e la piena liberalizzazione dei prezzi retail dellenergia elettrica a partire dal 1 gennaio 2018. Questo passaggio e' importante sia come elemento di coerenza col piu' generale disegno di mercato sia perch la piena apertura dei mercati retail in tutti gli Stati membri funzionale allintegrazione dei mercati europei. La liberalizzazione dei mercati finali dellenergia rappresenta uno stimolo allinnovazione, sia dal lato della domanda sia dal lato dellofferta. Questo paper presenta le ragioni teoriche e le evidenze empiriche a supporto del nesso tra la concorrenza e linnovazione nei mercati retail dellenergia elettrica. Italys 2015 Annual Competition Law provides for phasing out electricity retail prices regulation, as well as the implementation of full retail liberalization, starting on January 1st, 2018. This is a significant reform not just for the sake of consistency with the broader market design for electricity. Indeed, retail liberalization is instrumental for the full integration of EU electricity market. In fact, the full opening of retail markets provides a great opportunity for innovation, both on the demand side and on the supply side. This paper investigates the theoretical reasons, and presents some empirical evidence, on the competition-innovation nexus in retail electricity markets.
    Keywords: competition, electricity, liberalization, regulation, deregulation, retail markets
    JEL: D47 L43 L81 L94
    Date: 2016–04–18
  8. By: Krehl, Stefan
    Abstract: Klimawandel, Verknappung der Ressourcen, peak oil, die Sorge um unsere Lebensgrundlagen und deren Erhaltung und die Notwendigkeit zur Energiewende, sind Themen, die die Transition Town Initiativen antreiben, auf eine Veränderung der bisherigen ressourcen- und energieintensiven Lebens- und Wirtschaftsweise, hin zu einer nachhaltigen, ressourcen- und umweltschonenden Gestaltung des Lebens zu wirken. Der Transformationsansatz liegt in Lokalisierungsstrategien, die durch Vielfalt und Flexibiliät eine hohe Resilienz besitzen. Vorliegende Untersuchung prüft, ob dies im deutschsprachigen Raum auch auf die Energiebemühungen der Transition Initiativen zutrifft und welcher Einfluss auf die Energiewende von den lokalen Transition Initiativen zu erwarten ist. Daraus werden mögliche Entwicklungsszenarien abgeleitet.
    Abstract: Climate change, resource depletion, peak oil, the concern about our bases of life and their maintenance and the need of renewable energy systems, are issues that drive the Transition Town Initiatives to work on a change of the existing resource- and energy-intensive lifestyle and economy, towards a sustainable design of life. The transformation approach lies in localization strategies that reach a high resilience through variety and flexibility. This study examines the energy efforts of the Transition Initiatives in the German-speaking area and asks if an effect on the energy turnaround is to be expected. Possible development scenarios are derived.
    Keywords: Transition Town,Zivilgesellschaft,Erneuerbare Energien,Transformation,Nachhaltigkeit,Stadtökonomie,Wirtschaftssoziologie,civil society,renewable energy sources,sustainability,urban economics,economic sociology
    JEL: D70 H40 P11 Q56 R10 Z13
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Fernando M. Aragón (Simon Fraser University); Juan Jose Miranda (World Bank); Paulina Oliva (University of California, Santa Barbara and NBER)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of air pollution on labor supply in Lima, Peru. We focus on fine particulate matter (PM2.5), an important pollutant for health according to the medical literature, and show that moderate levels of pollution reduce hours worked for working adults. Our research design takes advantage of rich household panel data in labor outcomes to address omitted variables. This research design allows us to investigate whether the response to air pollution is non-linear. We find that the effect of moderate pollution levels on hours worked is concentrated among households with susceptible dependents, i.e., small children and elderly adults; while the highest concentrations affect all households. This suggests that caregiving is likely a mechanism linking air pollution to labor supply at moderate levels. We provide further evidence of this mechanism using DHS data on children morbidity for the same time period. Finally, we find no evidence of intra-household attenuation behavior. For instance, there is no re-allocation of labor across household members, and earnings decrease with air pollution.
    Date: 2016–05
  10. By: Martina Vidovic (Rollins College)
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to investigate the relationship between environmental stringency and export flows in EU countries and to determine whether the recent accessions of the CEECs into the EU and the subsequent changes in the regulatory framework of new members have affected intra-EU trade flows. Two main hypotheses are tested. First, we test whether the stringency of a country’s environmental regulations results in pollution havens or, on the contrary it results in better export performance. Second, we test whether the results differ by industry (dirty versus clean) and by EU membership tenure (old versus new EU member countries).An augmented gravity model is estimated using panel data for 21 European countries during the period 1999-2008 for the full sample and also separately for the CEECS and the old EU members. We find that while exporters’ environmental tax expenditure differences are positively correlated with bilateral net exports of clean industries, the effect of environmental stringency differences on net exports of dirty industries is not significant when all the industries are treated as a homogeneous group. However, when heterogeneity across specific industries and between two groups of countries is considered, the results differ. We find that while for old-EU countries higher differences in environmental revenues between partner countries are associated with lower net exports of dirty goods for four major-polluter industries, namely for iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, metal manufactures, metal manufactures and petroleum products, this happens only for two industries when CEEs are considered as exporters (petroleum products and fertilizers). Thus our results show weak support for the pollution haven hypothesis for some dirty industries, mainly for net exports from Western EU countries to the rest. Instead, we find support for the “Porter hypothesis†for trade in clean goods.
    Keywords: Pollution Haven Hypothesis, Porter hypothesis, European Union, Trade Flows
    JEL: F14
  11. By: Nemati, Mehdi
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationships among the prices of gasoline, ethanol, and agricultural products that includes soybeans and corn. By increasing production of ethanol using corn, concerns about emerging new relationship between agricultural products price and energy price increased. The result indicates that, without considering structural breaks, there is no long-run relationship between energy and agricultural products prices. However, after consideration of structural breaks not only, long-run relationship between energy and agricultural products exist, but also this relationship intensified during last decade. Also, energy price can be transmitted to agricultural products prices from the indirect and direct channel.
    Keywords: Ethanol, Agricultural commodities, Structural changes, VECM modeling, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Security and Poverty, Q11, Q13, Q42, Q48,
    Date: 2016
  12. By: Thilo Grau; Karsten Neuhoff
    Abstract: The increasing scale and dynamics of the global market for renewable energy technologies has often resulted in unexpected high deployment volumes in EU Member States. These deployment peaks were particularly strong for solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies in countries using feed-in tariff remuneration mechanisms. In this paper, we develop an analytic model to capture the interactions of national remuneration schemes with the global market. The model covers two countries and one global technology market. We calibrate the model for the impact of coordinated tariff adjustments based on the experience with PV in Germany and the UK. We then use the model to measure the impact of different global module supply functions, national installation price reductions, and specific shocks on deployment effectiveness in terms of reaching national or aggregated target corridors for separate and coordinated feed-in tariff adjustment mechanisms. The relevance of the insights for wind energy technologies is evaluated. Based on the results, we discuss the implications for the coordination of remuneration schemes.
    Keywords: Renewable energy, feed-in tariff, coordinated remuneration schemes
    JEL: D78 L94 O3
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Armon Rezai; Frederick van der Ploeg
    Abstract: Climate change must deal with two market failures: global warming and learning by doing in renewable use. The first-best policy consists of an aggressive renewables subsidy in the near term and a gradually rising and falling carbon tax. Given that global carbon taxes remain elusive, policy makers have to use a second-best subsidy. In case of credible commitment, the second-best subsidy is set higher than the social benefit of learning. It allows the transition time and peak warming close to first-best levels at the cost of higher fossil fuel use (weak Green Paradox). If policy makers cannot commit, the second-best subsidy is set to the social benefit of learning. It generates smaller weak Green Paradox effects, but the transition to the carbon-free takes longer and cumulative carbon emissions are higher. Under first-best and second best with pre-commitment peak warming is 2.1 - 2.3 °C, under second best without commitment 3.5°C, and without any policy temperature 5.1°C above pre-industrial levels. Not being able to commit yields a welfare loss of 95% of initial GDP compared to first best. Being able to commit brings this figure down to 7%.
    Keywords: first-best and second-best policy, commitment, Markov-perfect, Ramsey growth, carbon tax, renewables subsidy, learning by doing, directed technical change
    JEL: H21 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Congressional Budget Office
    Abstract: From 2005 to 2014, private firms paid $11 billion per year, on average, to the federal government for the right to produce oil and gas on federal lands. CBO analyzes eight options for changing the leasing system for oil and gas development on federal lands in order to increase federal income modestly without significantly reducing production.
    JEL: D44 H82 L71 Q38 Q48
    Date: 2016–04–19
  15. By: Eriksson, Mathilda (CERE and the Department of Economics, Umeå University)
    Abstract: This paper develops the FRICE, a framework that determines optimal levels of forest climate tools in the context of global climate policy. The paper integrates afforestation and avoided deforestation into the well-known global multi-regional integrated assessment model, RICE-2010. The paper finds that climate forest tools can play an essential role in global climate policy and that this role is increasingly important under stringent temperature targets. Under a 2C temperature target, the model reveals that emission reductions from avoided deforestation are quickly exhausted whereas afforestation is capable of substantially reducing emission reductions in both the medium and long run. The model also indicates that the most significant reductions in emissions from avoided deforestation and afforestation can be achieved by focusing policy efforts on tropical forests.
    Keywords: Climate change; Integrated assessment; Carbon sequestration
    JEL: C61 Q23 Q54
    Date: 2016–03–24
  16. By: Witte, Christian; Marner, Torsten; Klumpp, Matthias
    Abstract: The global use of delivery vehicles with combustion motors is increasingly responsible for air pollution and the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide. For this reason, the use of electric vehicles is discussed in order to minimize the emissions of increasing freight traffic. In many publications a significant future role of electric mobility in the logistics sector is discussed. Especially in the field of reverse logistics high logistical and technical requirements do occur if enterprises make use of electric vehicles. This is particularly due to the large quantities of materials that have to be transported in this specific sector. Central restrictions of electric vehicles like the load weight and the range lead to modified delivery processes. These processes have to be examined to ensure the reliability of reverse logistics if electric vehicles are used. Funded by the State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) the project partners FOM University of Applied Sciences, University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE), and the enterprise Noweda and Zentek investigate the operational change areas by using electric vehicles in their common project E-Route. In the field of reverse logistics this research contribution examines the niche in which electric vehicles can be used efficiently. The value of this paper is to provide guidance for further research and to give information for companies who are interested in gaining information concerning the chances and risks of implementing e-vehicles to their existing transport fleet.
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus; Dämmgen, Ulrich; Freibauer, Annette; Döring, Ulrike; Wulf, Sebastian; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Döhler, Helmut; Schreiner, Carsten; Osterburg, Bernhard
    Abstract: The report at hand (including a comprehensive annex of data) serves as additional document to the National Inventory Report (NIR) on the German green house gas emissions and the Informative Inventory Report (IIR) on the German emissions of air pollutants (especially ammonia). The report documents the calculation methods used in the German agricultural inventory model GAS-EM as well as input data, emission results and uncertainties of the emission reporting submission 2016 for the years 1990 - 2014. In this context the sector Agriculture comprises the emissions from animal husbandry, the use of agricultural soils and anaerobic digestion of energy crops. As required by the guidelines, emissions from activities preceding agriculture, from the use of energy and from land use change are reported elsewhere in the national inventories. The calculation methods are based in principle on international guidelines for emission reporting and have been continuingly improved during the past years. In particular, these improvements concern the calculation of energy requirements, feeding and the N balance of the most important animal categories. In addition, technical measures such as air scrubbing (mitigation of ammonia emissions) and digestion of animal manures mitigation of emissions of methane and loughing gas) have been taken into account [...].
    Abstract: Der vorliegende Berichtsband einschließlich des umfangreichen Datenanhangs dient als Begleitdokument zum National Inventory Report (NIR) über die deutschen Treibhausgas-Emissionen und zum Informative Inventory Report (IIR), über die deutschen Schadstoffemissionen (insbesondere Ammoniak). Er dokumentiert die im deutschen landwirtschaftlichem Inventarmodell GASEM integrierten Berechnungsverfahren sowie die Eingangsdaten, Emissionsergebnisse und Unsicherheiten der Berichterstattung 2016 für die Jahre 1990 bis 2014. Der Bereich Landwirtschaft umfasst dabei die Emissionen aus der Tierhaltung und der Nutzung landwirtschaftlicher Böden sowie aus der Vergärung von Energiepflanzen. Emissionen aus dem Vorleistungsbereich, aus der Nutzung von Energie sowie Landnutzungsänderungen werden den Regelwerken entsprechend an anderer Stelle in den nationalen Inventaren berichtet. Die Berechnungsverfahren beruhen in erster Linie auf internationalen Regelwerken zur Emissionsberichterstattung und wurden in den vergangenen Jahren beständig weiterentwickelt. Letzteres betrifft im Wesentlichen die Berechnung des Energiebedarfs, der Fütterung und der tierischen N-Bilanz bei den wichtigen Tierkategorien. Zusätzlich wurden technische Maßnahmen wie Abluftreinigung (Minderung von Ammoniakemissionen) und die Vergärung von Wirtschaftsdünger (Minderung von Methan- und Lachgasemissionen) berücksichtigt [...].
    Keywords: emission inventory,agriculture,animal husbandry,agricultural soils,anaerobic digestion,energy crops,renewable primary products,greenhouse gases,air pollutants,methane,loughing gas,ammonia,particulate matter,Emissionsinventar,Landwirtschaft,Tierhaltung,landwirtschaftliche Böden,anaerobe Vergärung,Energiepflanzen,nachwachsende Rohstoffe,Treibhausgase,Luftschadstoffe,Methan,Lachgas,Ammoniak,luftgetragene Partikel
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Yatang Lin
    Abstract: Are "greener" investments less efficient? This paper looks at the location choices by wind power investors. I measures the efficiency loss in this sector due to wrong project location and explore the factors contributing to it. Using extensive information on wind resources, transmission, electricity price and other restrictions that might affect the siting of wind farms, I calculate the predicted profitability of wind power projects for all the possible places across the contiguous US, use it as a counterfactual for profit- maximizing wind power investment and compare it to the actual placement of wind farms. Average predicted profit of wind projects will raise by 47.1% had the 1770 current projects in the continental US been moved to the best 1770 sites. It is also shown that 80% and 42% of this observed deviation can be accounted for by within- state and within-county distortion. I show further evidence that a large proportion of the within-state and within-county spatial misallocation in wind farm siting can be attributable to green investors' “conspicuous generation” behaviour: wind farms in more environmental-friendly counties are more likely to be invested by local and non- profit investors, are closer to cities, are much less responsive to local fundamentals and have significant worse performance ex-post. Surprisingly, the implementation of state policies such as Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) and price-based subsidies are related to better within-state locational choices by adding more capacities in the “brown” counties and attract more for-profit investments, leading to improved observed efficiency, while lump-sum subsidies have the opposite or no effects. These findings calls for the attention from policy makers to the non-monetary incentives of renewable investors when determining the allocative efficiency of policies.
    Keywords: Spatial misallocation; renewable energy policies; productivity; green preferences
    JEL: F37 O34
    Date: 2016–04
  19. By: Llop Llop, Maria
    Abstract: The literature on environmental taxation provides a consistent range of knowledge about the welfare impacts of pollution regulation. In particular, an important body of research has warned that partial-equilibrium analysis is not appropriate for showing the interactions of environmental taxes with pre-existing (distortionary) taxes. However, all the research undertaken to date has focused on environmental pollution, while other topics in environmental economics, such as the preservation of natural resources, have not warranted much attention in the optimal taxation literature. This paper examines the role of alternative instruments in preserving natural resources. Using a simple general equilibrium model, the welfare effects of taxes on final goods, taxes on natural resources and extraction permits are analysed by applying a second-best approach, based on the existence of initial distortionary taxes. This analysis not only takes into account the non-use utility coming from the mere existence of natural resources, but also captures the consequences of enjoying environmental goods on labour supply decisions, through the use-value attributed to natural resources. The findings in this paper precise the standard results of the second-best literature on pollution control and offer an extension to the knowledge of the natural resources preservation policies. Keywords: natural resources; environmental regulation; tax-interaction effects; use and non-use value.
    Keywords: Medi ambient -- Impostos, 33 - Economia, 504 - Ciències del medi ambient,
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Sener Salci (Department of Economics, Queen’s University, Kingston ON, Canada and University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK); Glenn P. Jenkins (Queen’s University, Canada and Eastern Mediterranean University, North Cyprus)
    Abstract: In this paper we introduce a method for quantifying the benefits and costs of implementing a grid-connected onshore wind project that is owned and operated by an independent power producer (IPP). The proposed policy analysis tool is applied to the appraisal of a wind farm in Santiago Island, Cape Verde. The policy analysis is conducted from the perspectives of the electric utility, the country’s economy, the government and the private sector investor. The key question is whether the design of the power purchase agreement (PPA) will yield a high enough rate of return to the project to be bankable, while at the same time yielding a positive net financial and economic present value to the electric utility and the country respectively. The PPA results in a negative outcome for the economy of Cape Verde in almost all circumstances. In contrast the owners of the IPP are guaranteed a very substantial return for their modest investment under all circumstances.
    Keywords: electricity, wind power, power purchase agreement, public-private partnership, Santiago Island (Cape Verde)
    JEL: D61 E22 Q42 L94 O55
    Date: 2016–05
  21. By: Michal Litwinski (Poznan University of Economics)
    Abstract: The aim of the article is to verify a hypothesis about positive influence of instrument of energy poverty alleviation policy on quality of life in Poland. In the article literature review is presented. There is also conducted quantitative analysis of data for 2004-2014. Variables regarding energy policy were obtained from OECD database, variables regarding quality of life – from Eurostat. The analysis confirmed that shaping one of the instruments of energy poverty alleviation policy – energy prices can positively affect access to electricity, thereby reducing scope and depth of energy poverty. Limitation of this phenomena could be a reason of quality of life increase.
    Keywords: energy policy; quality of life; energy prices
    JEL: I31 C32 Q48
    Date: 2016–05
  22. By: Ditya Agung Nurdianto (The Australian National University)
    Abstract: The establishment of an ASEAN Economic Community in 2015 has been on the agenda for quite some time. One issue that recently emerged is the climate change issue in which each member of ASEAN needs to respond. The main goal of this study is to analyze the benefits and losses of cooperation among ASEAN members in mitigating their carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, particularly by implementing a uniform carbon tax across ASEAN. To achieve this goal, this study develops a multi-country computable general equilibrium (CGE) for ASEAN, known as the Inter-Regional System of Analysis for ASEAN (IRSA-ASEAN) model. An ASEAN Social Accounting Matrix (ASEAN-SAM) consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam is constructed as the main database for this CGE. This study finds that the implementation of a carbon tax scenario is an effective means of reducing carbon emissions in the region. However, this environmental gain could come at a cost in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) contraction and reduction in social welfare, i.e. household income. Nevertheless, Indonesia and Vietnam can still gain from the implementation of a carbon tax depending on how revenues generated from the carbon tax are redistributed.
    Keywords: ASEAN, climate change, CGE, carbon tax
    Date: 2016–04
  23. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: The Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative is the global effort rallying action towards a transformation in the energy sector by the year 2030. With targets to increase energy use, expand energy efficiency, and ensure energy access for all, SE4All’s priorities are tied closely to the challenges of developing Asia and the Pacific, which is confronting issues of energy sustainability, security, and widespread energy poverty. In the interest of combining efforts and resources to meet the challenge, the Asian Development Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific have partnered to act as the leading organizations for the SE4All Regional Hub for Asia and the Pacific. Together, they are supporting actions among developing countries in the region that will put them on track to transform their energy sectors, in line with SE4All. This report summarizes the initial activities of the Regional Hub, and contextualizes the challenges in Asia and the Pacific with the global efforts to reach the 2030 targets.
    Keywords: energy, energy access, energy efficiency, renewable energy, sustainable energy, sustainable development goals, asia, pacific, sdgs, se4all, undp, adb, energy targets, 2030 targets
    Date: 2015–09
  24. By: Rabah Arezki; Thiemo Fetzer
    Abstract: This paper provides the first empirical evidence of the newly found comparative advantage of the United States manufacturing sector following the so-called shale gas revolution. The revolution has led to (very) large and persistent differences in the price of natural gas between the United States and the rest of the world owing to the physics of natural gas. Results show that U.S. manufacturing exports have grown by about 6 percent on account of their energy intensity since the onset of the shale revolution. We also document that the U.S. shale revolution is operating both at the intensive and extensive margins.
    Keywords: manufacturing; exports; energy prices; shale gas
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2016–01
  25. By: Andreas Schaefer (ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Environmental pollution adversely affects children’s probability to survive to adulthood, reduces thus parental expenditures on child quality and increases the number of births necessary to achieve a desired family size. We argue that this mechanism will be intensified by economic inequality because wealthier households live in cleaner areas. This is the key mechanism through which environmental conditions may impose a growth drag on the economy. Moreover, the adverse effect of inequality and pollution on children’s health may be amplified, if the population group that is least affected decides about tax-financed abatement measures. Our theory provides a candidate explanation for (1) the observed positive correlation between inequality and the concentration of pollutants at the local level, and (2) the humpshaped evolution of child mortality ratios between cleaner and more polluted areas during the course of economic development.
    Keywords: Endogenous Growth, Endogenous Fertility, Inequality, Mortality, Pollution
    JEL: O10 Q50 I10
    Date: 2016–03
  26. By: Jiang, Jingze; Marsh, Thomas L.
    Abstract: This study fills an important gap in the research literature to examine the mean and volatility spillover effects between the U.S. oil, overall U.S. stocks markets and the U.S. energy pipeline market by studying the linkages between the West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Dow Jones Industrial Average Index (DJIA), S&P 500 stock index (SP500) and the Dow Jones U.S. Pipeline Indices (DJUSPL). We are particularly interested in the impact of the liquidity crisis in the financial market on the volatility spillovers. Results indicate that both WTI and DJIA/SP500 have statistically significant volatility spillover effect on DJUSPL. In addition, the volatility transmission from the U.S. oil and overall stock markets to the U.S. energy pipeline market increased since the 2007-2008 financial crisis started. Furthermore, the raising illiquidity in the U.S. financial market is associated with the statistically significant increase in the volatility transmission between the markets. Furthermore, we examine the new cross-hedging strategy involving DJUSPL to manage the risk on the oil market and the both in-sample and out-of-sample performances of the hedging strategy are more effective than the oil-stock hedging strategy proposed by previous scholars (Basher & Sadorsky, 2016; Salisu & Oloko, 2015). Our results will assist policy makers and investors on planning energy, diversifying portfolio and managing energy risk.
    Keywords: cross hedges, crude oil, DJUSPL, energy pipeline, liquidity crisis, volatility spillover, Financial Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty, Q40, Q43, G11, C3,
    Date: 2016–07
  27. By: Zaifu Yang; Rong Zhang; Zongyi Zhang
    Abstract: Following Jansen et al. (2012), we examine an unconventional Cournot model of the European Union natural gas market with three major suppliers Russian Gazprom, Norwegian Statoil, and Algerian Sonatrach. To re ect Russia's other strategic consideration besides profit, we incorporate a relative market share into Gazprom's objective function. We prove that when Gazprom pursues the control of market share along with profit, it will be good news for consumers but bad news for its pure profit maximising rivals. We further show that by seeking a proper market share, Gazprom can achieve the same profit of a Stackelberg leader in a simultaneous move model as in the standard sequential move leader-follower model. Compared with Jansen et al.'s, our approach makes the analysis considerably simpler and more transparent.
    Keywords: Natural gas market, Cournot model, Stackelberg leader's advantage, Non-profit incentive, Relative market share, European Union
    JEL: C62 C72 L13 L95 Q41
    Date: 2016–05
  28. By: Chichilnisky, Graciela (Columbia University); Hammond, Peter J. (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol allowed emissions trading; Article 12 defined a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). In a simple theoretical model we adapt standard gains from trade results to demonstrate that, relative to any status quo with specified worldwide aggregate emissions: first, emissions trading with a suitable international distribution of permit rights generally allows each nation more consumption while aggregate emissions remain constant; second, the CDM generally adds to these efficiency gains by reducing further the total cost of achieving any target worldwide emissions level. The provisions of the 2015 Paris Agreement that grant credit for carbon removals allow even further potential gains. Contrary to some claims, the Kyoto Protocol is not “defunct”; instead, retaining its key provisions of emissions trade and the CDM while including credit for carbon removals could make emissions reductions much more affordable. Yet an essential part of the institutional background required to make international trade in emissions permits function well has been destroyed by the Paris Agreement, since it lacks mandatory limits of the kind that the Kyoto Protocol imposed.
    Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, emissions trade, clean development mechanism, gains from trade, carbon removals JEL Classification: Q54, Q56, D62, D61
    Date: 2016
  29. By: José M. Belbute (Department of Economics, University of Évora, Portugal); Alfredo Marvão Pereira (Department of Economics, The College of William and Mary)
    Abstract: We provide alternative reference forecasts for global CO2 emissionsbased on an ARFIMA model estimated with annual data from 1750 to 2014. These forecasts are free from additional assumptions on demographic and economic variables that are commonly used in reference forecasts, as they only rely on the properties of the underlying stochastic process for CO2emissions, as well ason all the observed information it incorporates. In this sense, these forecasts are morebased on fundamentals. Our reference forecast suggests that in 2030, 2040 and 2050, in the absence of any structural changes of any type, CO2would likely be at about 23.1%, 29.1% and 33.7% above 2010 emission levels, respectively. These values are clearly below the levels proposed by other reference scenarios available in the literature.This is important, as it suggests that the ongoing policy goals are actually within much closer reach than what is implied by the standard CO2reference emission scenarios. Having lower and more realistic reference emissions projections not only gives a truer assessment of the policy efforts that are needed,but also highlights the lower costs involved in mitigation efforts, thereby maximizing the likelihood of more widespread energy and environmental policy efforts.
    Keywords: Forecasting, reference scenario, CO2 emissions, long memory, ARFIMA
    JEL: C22 C53 O13 Q47 Q54
    Date: 2016–05–06
  30. By: Curtis, John; Devitt, Niamh; Whelan, Adele
    Date: 2015–07
  31. By: Jan Stede
    Abstract: An increased flexibility of the electricity demand side through demand response (DR) is an opportunity to support the integration of renewable energies. By optimising the use of the generation, transmission and distribution infrastructure, DR reduces the need for costly investments and contributes to system security. There is a significant technical DR potential for load reduction from industrial production processes in Germany, as well as from cross-cutting technologies in industry and the tertiary sector.The availability of demand response as a system resource depends on the underlying type of demand. Already today energy-intensive industries market significant demand capacity in the German minute reserve. The DR literature reveals that there is a potential of several gigawatts of additional capacity available for at least one hour in Germany. Demand can also cover longer periods, but this often requires investment, for example in storage capacity for intermediate products.To enable the effective use and full remuneration of demand response, further improvements in power market design are discussed: (i) Enabling third parties (referred to as Demand Side Management Companies) to help business customers realise their flexibility potential; (ii) creating robust intraday and balancing prices in auction platforms as reference prices for longer-term contracts to stabilise revenue streams of flexibility providers; (iii) it needs to be further assessed whether additional catalysing instruments are necessary to initiate investment in new business processes or storage capacity.
    Date: 2016
  32. By: Simone Tagliapietra; Georg Zachmann
    Abstract: THE ISSUE Political instability in the southern Mediterranean countries have highlighted the unsustainability of their economic models. Widespread economic discontent, and in particular very high youth unemployment, underpinned the Arab Spring uprisings. As the refugee crisis shows, this is also Europe’s problem and Euro-Mediterranean economic cooperation needs to be reviewed. Energy is a key part of the cooperation framework. Policy Challenge Trade links between southern Mediterranean countries (SMCs) are very limited and they trade mainly with the European Union. Energy represents more than half of SMC exports to the EU. While the regional energy relationships were developed on a bilateral basis, the EU’s Mediterranean energy policy has followed a regional approach, aimed at harmonising energy policies and regulatory frameworks in the region on the path to a Euro-Mediterranean energy market. This approach has proved unproductive and should change. The EU should pursue bilateral energy policies through public-private partnerships involving the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), EU companies and selected SMCs. This would allow support to be provided for sustainable energy in partner countries, improving their economic stability and safeguarding the EU’s gas security of supply. It might also represent a business opportunity for EU energy firms in the context of the sluggish EU energy outlook. Sustainable energy funds for SMCs Source - Bruegel For full references and footnotes, please see the PDF version. Euro-Mediterranean energy cooperation is on the European Union’s agenda in the context of creating an EU Energy Union and of revising the EU Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)1. While until 2014 the EU’s relationship with the southern Mediterranean countries (SMCs) was mainly seen as an issue for France, Italy and Spain (and to some extent the United Kingdom), the migration crisis and energy security concerns during the Ukraine crisis have underlined that developments in SMCs are relevant for the EU as a whole. Defining the strategy at EU level is logical because the interests of member states are quite well aligned and they will achieve significant economic and political leverage if they act together. An aim of EU energy policy is "to develop access to alternative gas suppliers, including [...] from the Mediterranean" (European Commission, 2015). The intention is to reduce the reliance on existing suppliers. In terms of foreign and neighbourhood policy, the EU’s primary objective is to stabilise the region in order to reduce the migration pressure and reverse the spread of radical Islam. Despite the significant changes that have taken place in the southern Mediterranean, the EU has been slow to adapt its energy and neighbourhood policies. The EU’s policies towards the region continue to be grounded on a multilateral approach, underpinned by the vision of integrating the regional energy markets into a sort of unique Euro-Mediterranean energy community. The multilateral approach is highlighted in the intergovernmental Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) initiative2. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs stressed in 2015 that the role of the UfM should be enhanced for "supporting cooperation between southern neighbours"3. Accordingly, it was decided in 20154 to create three energy cooperation platforms - the UfM Gas Platform, UfM Regional Electricity Market Platform5 and the UfM Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Platform6 (which will start up during 2016). The aim of these platforms is to facilitate "partnerships based on mutual trust and transparency between UfM member states as well as with the relevant energy stakeholders in the region"7. Even though increased regional energy cooperation certainly has economic and political merits, the prospects for these new initiatives are at best limited, for at least five reasons - Real energy cooperation in the region has always been, and continues to be, bilateral rather than multilateral or regional8. Previously tried regional energy initiatives did not deliver. The level of intra-regional trade in the southern Mediterranean is among the lowest in the world (Figure 1). This not because of a lack of economic complementarity, but rather because of a lack of political trust among the SMCs. The geopolitical situation has massively deteriorated in recent years, further limiting the potential for regional cooperation. The EU viewed energy cooperation as a core pillar of its neighbourhood policy that ‘offered’ individual SMCs a complex policy package to increase cooperation. The whole package was perceived by the SMCs as ‘second class membership’ – and the SMCs thus never took ownership of the entire approach. Figure 1 - The EU’s predominant position in Euro-Mediterranean trade Source - Bruegel based on UN Comtrade and Eurostat databases (accessed March 2016).
    Date: 2016–04
  33. By: Bosello, Francesco; Davide, Marinella; Alloisio, Isabella
    Abstract: The EU has a consolidated climate and energy regulation: it played a pioneering role by adopting a wide range of climate change policies and establishing the first regional Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). These policies, however, raise several concerns regarding both their environmental effectiveness and their potentially negative effect on the economy, especially in terms of growth and competitiveness. The paper reviews the European experience in order to understand if these concerns are supported by quantitative evidence. It thus focuses on key economic indicators, such as costs, competitiveness and carbon leakage as assessed by quantitative ex-ante and ex-post analyses. A dedicated section, extends the investigation to the potential extra-EU spillover of the EU mitigation policy with a particular attention to developing countries. The objective of the paper is to highlight both the limits and the opportunities of the EU regulatory framework in order to offer policy insights to emerging and developing countries that are on the way to implement climate change measures. Overall, the European experience shows that the worries about the costs and competitiveness losses induced by climate regulation are usually overestimated, especially in the long term. In addition, a tightening climate policy regime in the EU might in fact negatively impact developing countries via deteriorated trade relations. Nonetheless it tends to facilitate a resource relocation that if well governed could be beneficial to those countries where the poor are mainly involved in rural activities.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Climate Policy, Mitigation, Economic Impacts, GDP, Competitiveness, Environmental Economics and Policy, F64, H23, O44, O52, Q54, R11,
    Date: 2016–04–30
  34. By: Seung-Gyu Sim (University of Tokyo); Hsuan-Chih Lin (Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)
    Abstract: It is generally accepted that the Pigouvian taxation scheme and emission trading scheme (delegating the emission pricing authority to the market mechanism) offer equivalent incentives to reduce emissions. In contrast, we demonstrate that in a globalized economy with international trade and cross border pollution, (i) the latter outperforms the former in terms of domestic welfare, and (ii) global welfare improves as more countries switch to the latter. We find that adopting the emission trading scheme incentivizes a foreign country to raise emission taxes without concern for excessive shrink of domestic production and/or aggravation of cross border pollution from the home country. JEL Classification: H23, L51, Q56, Q58
    Keywords: Emission Trading Scheme, Pigouvian Taxation, International Trade, Cross Border Pollution
    Date: 2016–04
  35. By: Paul J. Burke (Arndt-Corden Department of Economics, The Australian National University)
    Abstract: This paper examines economic challenges faced by Australia’s Direct Action abatement subsidy scheme. Introduced in 2014, the scheme operates by reverse auction, funding projects voluntarily proposed by the private sector. Because the government cannot know true project counterfactuals, the lowest auction bids are likely to often be non-additional “anyway” projects. The scheme is hence likely to exhibit a systematic skew toward low-quality abatement. The paper presents a model of the adverse selection problem and describes the early experience with Direct Action. A discussion of a way forward is also provided.
    Keywords: abatement subsidy; adverse selection; emissions; climate; Australia
    JEL: Q58 Q52 D82
    Date: 2016–05
  36. By: Hennicke, Peter; Fischedick, Manfred; Knoop, Katharina; Luhmann, Jochen; Fink, Thomas
    Abstract: Will climate change stay below the 2 degree target in the 21st century on the basis of the COP 21 results? Looking into challenges and opportunities, this paper answers: To stay below the global 2dt is neither a real choice for the world society nor for businesses and civil societies in specific countries. It is a global guideline, scientifically developed for global negotiations, which should be broken down to national interests and actors. Key questions concerning the energy sector from the perspective of national interests are how to create and sustain a momentum for the inevitable energy transition, how to encourage disruptive innovations, avoid lock in effects, enable rapid deployment of energy efficiency and renewable energies etc. Or in other words: how to get to a competitive, economically benign, inclusive, low carbon and risk minimising energy system. With this background the paper argues that "burden sharing" is a misleading perception of strong climate mitigation strategies. It is more realistic to talk about "benefit sharing", using the monetary benefits and co-benefits of climate mitigation (e.g. energy cost savings, revenues from CO2-tax or emission trading systems) to help vulnerable national and international actors to adapt to the unavoidable climate risks. It has to be demonstrated on country level that the technologies and policy mix of strong climate mitigation and risk-minimising actions are indeed "benefit sharing" strategies which should be chosen anyhow, even if there was no climate change. For China and Germany this paper includes basic findings supporting this view.
    Abstract: Bleibt nach den Beschlüssen von COP 21 der Klimawandel im 21. Jahrhundert unter dem 2 Grad Ziel? Dieses Papier argumentiert: Unter dem 2 Grad Ziel zu bleiben ist weder in globaler noch in nationaler Hinsicht ein reales Aktionsziel. Es handelt sich um eine globale Zielorientierung, die auf Basis bestmöglicher wissenschaftlicher Analysen für ein weltweites Klimaschutzregime entwickelt worden ist, aber auf nationale Interessen, Strategien und Akteure heruntergebrochen werden muss. Aus nationaler Perspektive ist zu fragen, wie eine Dynamik in Richtung der ohnehin notwendigen Transformation des Energiesystems erreicht werden kann: Wie können Innovationen ermutigt, Lock-in Effekte vermieden und die focierte Markteinführung von Effizienz und Erneuerbaren beschleunigt werden, um auf eine risikominimales Energiesystem rascher umzusteuern? Das Papier argumentiert, dass "Burden Sharing" eine irreführende Wahrnehmung dieses Transformationsprozesses darstellt. Es handelt sich vielmehr um einen komplexen Prozess des "Benefit Sharing", der mit einschließt, dass besonders verwundbaren Ländern und Akteuren die Anpassung an den unvermeidlichen Klimawandel erleichtert wird. Insofern gilt es nach COP 21 primär durch System- und Szenarienanalysen zu demonstrieren, dass nationale Strategien und Techniken des Klimaschutzes und der Risikominimierung ohnehin implementiert werden sollten, auch wenn es den Klimawandel nicht geben würde. Am Beispiel China und vor allem der Energiewende in Deutschland werden diese Thesen konkretisiert.
    Date: 2016
  37. By: Kharitonenko, Yuliya
    Abstract: In this article the problem of improving the competitiveness of gas stations by automating the sales of petroleum products on the Russian enterprises. The author analyzes the features, advantages and disadvantages of automation of petrol stations in Russia. Particular attention is paid to the comparative performance of different types of gas stations.
    Keywords: automation, marketing tactic, competitiveness, profit, efficiency, savings, automatic filling station, the customer.
    JEL: M30
    Date: 2016
  38. By: D’Aprile, Aurora
    Abstract: With the long term goal of holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C and "to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C", the Paris Agreement puts renewed attention on the portfolio of technologies needed to achieve consistent emission reductions and reach "a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks” in the second half of this century. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, after having been hailed as a promising mitigation option around a decade ago, is undergoing a gruelling path to stay on top of the expectations. The opportunities and constraints in deploying large-scale carbon capture and storage systems are of the utmost actuality, as the technology promises to get rid of up to 90% of the most common greenhouse gases produced in industrial and energy plants before they reach the atmosphere (or even to achieve “negative” emissions, if combined with biomass). Despite potential benefits, CCS development and deployment proceeded at a far slower rate than what was expected and are struggling to emerge as a sound low-carbon choice for governments and investors. Based on recent existing literature, this reflection explores the main progress and deadlocks in CCS’s difficult path.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Carbon Sequestration, CCS, Carbon Mitigation, Low-carbon Technology, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q42, Q55, Q58,
    Date: 2016–04–30

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