nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2015‒12‒20
38 papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. Transition to clean technology By Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit , Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr, William R.
  2. In Search of ‘Good’ Energy Policy: The Social Limits to Technological Solutions to Energy and Climate Problems By Edward Anderson and Pär Holmberg
  3. Leaving Coal Unburned: Options for Demand-Side and Supply-Side Policies By Kim Collins; Roman Mendelevitch
  4. Sources of energy productivity change in China during 1997-2012: A decomposition analysis based on the Luenberger productivity indicator By Ke Wang; Yi-Ming Wei
  5. Does Renewable Energy Consumption and Health Expenditure Decrease Carbon Dioxide Emissions? Evidence for sub-Saharan Africa Countries By Apergis, Nicholas; Ben Jebli, Mehdi
  6. Sector-level approach to estimating mobilised private climate finance: The case of renewable energy By Raphaël Jachnik; Victor Raynaud
  7. Energies alternatives, énergies renouvelables, énergies vertes: la biomasse et climat By André Fontana
  8. Policy Labels and Investment Decision-making (Payne Institute Policy Brief) By Ian Lange; Mirko Moro; Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman
  9. Uranium Resources, Scenarios, Nuclear and Energy Dynamics By A Bidaud; Silvana Mima; S Gabriel; A Monnet; G Mathonnière; Patrick Criqui; M Cuney; P Bruneton
  10. Common long-range dependence in a panel of hourly Nord Pool electricity prices and loads By Yunus Emre Ergemen; Niels Haldrup; Carlos Vladimir Rodríguez-Caballero
  11. Competitive Equilibrium in the Italian Wholesale Electricity Market By Simona BIGERNA; Carlo Andrea BOLLINO; Maria Chiara D'ERRICO; Paolo POLINORI
  12. Bribes, Bureaucracies and Blackouts: Towards Understanding How Corruption at the Firm Level Impacts Electricity Reliability (Payne Institute Policy Brief) By Harrison Fell; Harrison Fell
  13. The Optimal Regulation of a Risky Monopoly By Yolande Hiriart; Lionel Thomas
  14. Real oil prices and the international sign predictability of stock returns By Pönkä, Harri
  15. Oil currencies in the face of oil shocks: What can be learned from time-varying specifications? By Jean-Pierre Allegret; Cécile Couharde; Valérie Mignon; Tovonony Razafindrabe
  16. North Dakota's Economic Base in 2013 By Coon, Randal C.; Bangsund, Dean A.; Hodur, Nancy M.
  17. The Ethanol Mandate and Corn Price Volatility (Payne Institute Policy Brief) By Peter Maniloff; Sul-Ki Lee
  18. A one-two punch: Joint effects of natural gas abundance and renewables on coal-fired power plants (Payne Institute Policy Brief) By Harrison Fell; Daniel T. Kaffine
  19. European Union gas market development By Tobias Baltensperger; Rudolf M. F\"uchslin; Pius Kr\"utli; John Lygeros
  20. Consommation d’énergie et croissance économique en Afrique subsaharienne. By Florian Grosset; Phu Nguyen-Van
  21. Energy and Economy Overview with Accent on Possibilities in Austria By Paunić, Alida
  22. What determines the long-run growth in Sub-Saharan Africa? Exploring the role of energy, trade openness and financial development in six countries By Eléazar Zerbo
  23. Klima- und Energiepolitik in Deutschland: Hintergrundinformationen und Handlungsempfehlungen für eine erfolgreiche Umsetzung der Energiewende By Andor, Mark
  24. Energiegenossenschaften und deren Mitglieder: Erste Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung By Poppen, Silvia
  25. Energieeffizienz im mittelständischen Einzelhandel: Kennzahlen und Einsparpotenziale in ausgewählten Einzelhandelsbranchen By Hohnhold, Kai
  26. The Integration of Energy, Environment and Health Policies in China: A Review By Huijie Yan
  27. Rationalizing Transport Fuels Pricing Policies and Effects on Global Fuel Consumption, Emissions, Government Revenues and Welfare (Payne Institute Policy Brief) By Yahya F. Anouti; Carol A. Dahl
  28. Prices vs. quantities in presence of a second, unpriced, externality By Guy Meunier
  29. A network-based analysis of the European Emission Market By Andreas Karpf; Antoine Mandel; Stefano Battiston
  30. Unveiling structural breaks in long-run economic development-CO2 relationships By Massimiliano Mazzanti; Antonio Musolesi
  31. How Urbanization Affects CO2 Emissions in Malaysia? The Application of STIRPAT Model By Shahbaz, Muhammad; Loganathan, Nanthakumar; Muzaffar, Ahmed Taneem; Ahmed, Khalid; Jabran, Muhammad Ali
  32. Why Have Greenhouse Emissions in RGGI States Declined? An Econometric Attribution to Economic, Energy Market and Policy Factors (Payne Institute Policy Brief) By Brian C. Murray; Peter T. Maniloff; Evan M. Murray
  33. Climate policy and competitiveness: Policy guidance and quantitative evidence (Payne Institute Policy Brief) By Jared C. Carbone; Nicholas Rivers
  34. Climate change abatement and farm profitability analyses across agricultural environments By Dumbrell, Nikki P.; Kragt, Marit E.; Biggs, Jody; Meier, Elizabeth; Thorburn, Peter
  35. Testing the effectiveness of enforcing industrial pollution regulations in Montevideo, Uruguay By Marcelo Caffera, Alejandro Lagomarsino
  36. Carbon policy and the structure of global trade By Edward J. Balistreri; Christoph Bohringer; Thomas F. Rutherford
  37. Determining the Success of Carbon Capture and Storage Projects (Payne Institute Policy Brief) By Dominique Thronicker; Ian Lange
  38. The road to Paris: Towards a fair and effective climate agreement? By Reif, Christiane; Schenker, Oliver

  1. By: Acemoglu, Daron (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and CIFAR); Akcigit , Ufuk (University of Pennsylvania); Hanley, Douglas (University of Pittsburgh); Kerr, William R. (Harvard University)
    Abstract: We develop a microeconomic model of endogenous growth where clean and dirty technologies compete in production and innovation–in the sense that research can be directed to either clean or dirty technologies. If dirty technologies are more advanced to start with, the potential transition to clean technology can be difficult both because clean research must climb several rungs to catch up with dirty technology and because this gap discourages research effort directed towards clean technologies. Carbon taxes and research subsidies may nonetheless encourage production and innovation in clean technologies, though the transition will typically be slow. We characterize certain general properties of the transition path from dirty to clean technology. We then estimate the model using a combination of regression analysis on the relationship between R&D and patents, and simulated method of moments using microdata on employment, production, R&D, firm growth, entry and exit from the US energy sector. The model’s quantitative implications match a range of moments not targeted in the estimation quite well. We then characterize the optimal policy path implied by the model and our estimates. Optimal policy makes heavy use of research subsidies as well as carbon taxes. We use the model to evaluate the welfare consequences of a range of alternative policies.
    Keywords: carbon cycle; directed technological change; environment; innovation; optimal policy
    JEL: C65 O30 O31 O33
    Date: 2015–12–10
  2. By: Edward Anderson and Pär Holmberg
    Abstract: We consider a procurement auction, where each supplier has private costs and submits a stepped supply function. We solve for a Bayesian Nash equilibrium and show that the equilibrium has a price instability in the sense that a minor change in a supplier’s cost sometimes result in a major change in the market price. In wholesale electricity markets, we predict that the bid price of the most expensive production unit can change by 1-10% due to price instability. The price instability is reduced when suppliers have more steps in their supply functions for a given production technology. In the limit, as the number of steps increases and the cost uncertainty decreases, the Bayesian equilibrium converges to a pure-strategy NE without price instability, the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE).
    Keywords: Multi-unit auctions, indivisible unit, price instability, Bayesian Nash equilibria, supply function equilibria, convergence of Nash equilibria, wholesale electricity markets
    JEL: C62 C72 D43 D44 L94
    Date: 2015–12–03
  3. By: Kim Collins; Roman Mendelevitch
    Abstract: Climate policy consistent with the 2°C target needs to install mechanisms that leave most current coal reserves unburned. Demand-side policies have been argued to be prone to adverse carbon leakage and “green paradox” effects. A growing strain of literature argues in favor of supply-side policies in order to curb future coal consumption. Various concepts with analogies in other sectors are currently discussed. Future empirical research on both demand- and supply-side policy is vital to be able to design efficient and effective policy instruments for climate change mitigation.
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Ke Wang; Yi-Ming Wei (Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEP), Beijing Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Given that different energy inputs play different roles in production and that energy policy decision making requires an evaluation of productivity change in individual energy input to provide insight into the scope for improvement of the utilization of specific energy input, this study develops, based on the Luenberger productivity indicator and data envelopment analysis models, an aggregated specific energy productivity indicator combining the individual energy input productivity indicators that account for the contributions of each specific energy input towards energy productivity change. In addition, these indicators can be further decomposed into four factors: pure efficiency change, scale efficiency change, pure technology change, and scale of technology change. These decompositions enable a determination of which specific energy input is the driving force of energy productivity change and which of the four factors is the primary contributor of energy productivity change. An empirical analysis of China¡¯s energy productivity change over the period 1997-2012 indicates that (i) China¡¯s energy productivity growth may be overestimated if energy consumption structure is omitted; (ii) in regard to the contribution of specific energy input towards energy productivity growth, oil and electricity show positive contributions, but coal and natural gas show negative contributions; (iii) energy-specific productivity changes are mainly caused by technical changes rather than efficiency changes; (iv) the Porter Hypothesis is partially supported in China that carbon emissions control regulations may lead to energy productivity growth.
    Keywords: Carbon emissions, Data envelopment analysis, Driving force, Input specific productivity indicator
    JEL: Q54 Q40
    Date: 2015–10–02
  5. By: Apergis, Nicholas; Ben Jebli, Mehdi
    Abstract: This paper employs a number of panel methodological approaches to explore the link between per capita carbon dioxide emissions, per capita real income, renewable energy consumption and health expenditures for a panel of 42 sub-Saharan African countries, spanning the period 1995-2011. The empirical findings provide supportive of a long-run relationship among the variables. Granger causality reveals the presence of a short-run unidirectional causality running from real GDP to CO2 emissions, a bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions, a unidirectional causality running from real GDP to renewable energy consumption, and a unidirectional causality running from real GDP to heath expenditure, while long-run estimates document that both renewable energy consumption and health expenditures contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions, while real GDP leads to the increase of emissions in these countries. The results are expected to be of high importance for policymakers in the region. Both renewable energy consumption and expansionary health expenditures are the major drivers of pollution declines. In that sense the findings imply that a substantial part of the state budget in relevance to health expenditures would be a good path to combat global warming in these countries.
    Keywords: carbon emissions; renewable energy consumption; health expenditures; panel data; Sub-Saharan countries.
    JEL: C1 I15
    Date: 2015–08–01
  6. By: Raphaël Jachnik; Victor Raynaud
    Abstract: In order to help address climate finance-related information needs under the UNFCCC, this paper explores the extent to which currently-available secondary data make it possible to estimate private finance mobilised by developed countries for climate action in developing countries. This is done by testing the implementation of two approaches: the first one based on an analysis of an investment-related commercial database, and the second one based on the use of publicly-available private finance leverage ratios. Due to data constraints, the focus is on renewable energy as a sub-set of climate mitigation activities. Volumes of private finance estimated as mobilised under the first approach are very partial, due to limitations of the database used, while the second approach results in highly inaccurate extrapolations due to a current lack of empirically-robust publicly-available private finance leverage ratios. These findings highlight the need for improved primary data collection, in particular by public climate finance providers on private co-finance, building upon the recent progress already achieved by a number of bilateral and multilateral development finance institutions. Further, very careful and transparent use should be made of leverage ratios, as they are highly sensitive to both the underlying calculation methods (e.g. in terms of attribution of mobilised private finance among public actors involved), as well as to core characteristics of public finance that result from varying mandates of development agencies and institutions. In any case, amounts of private finance mobilised by public actors and interventions (and ratios that can be calculated on such basis) should not necessarily be interpreted as reflecting their respective abilities to achieve effective and transformational climate action, which requires monitoring of impacts over time.<BR>Afin d’aider à répondre aux besoins d’informations concernant le financement climatique dans le cadre de la CNUCC, ce document explore dans quelle mesure les données secondaires actuellement disponibles rendent possible l’estimation des financements privés mobilisés par les pays développés pour l’action climatique dans les pays en développement. Deux approches sont testées dans ce but : la première faisant usage d’une base de données commerciale de flux d’investissements, et la seconde de ratios d’effet de levier de finance privée rendus publics. Compte tenu des données disponibles, l’étude se concentre sur les énergies renouvelables en tant que sous-ensemble des activités d’atténuation au changement climatique. Les volumes de financement privé estimés comme mobilisés par la première approche sont très partiels du fait des limitations inhérentes à la base de données utilisée, tandis que les extrapolations résultant de la seconde approche sont très inexactes compte tenu du manque actuel de ratios d’effet de levier de finance privée fiables. Ces constats soulignent un besoin de collecte de meilleures données primaires, en particulier par les bailleurs de fonds publics concernant le co-financement privé, en poursuivant les progrès récent déjà réalisés par un certain nombre d’institutions bilatérales et multilatérales de développement. De plus, une utilisation prudente et transparente des ratios d’effet de levier est nécessaire compte tenu de leur grande sensibilité à la méthode de calcul sous-jacente (ex. attribution du financement privé mobilisé entre acteurs publics concernés) et aux caractéristiques clés de la finance publique découlant des différents mandats des agences et institutions de développement. Dans tous les cas, les montants de financement privé mobilisés par les acteurs et interventions publics (ainsi que les ratios pouvant être calculés sur cette base) ne doivent pas être nécessairement interprétés comme reflétant leurs capacités respectives à atteindre des résultats efficaces et transformationnels en termes d’action climatique, ce qui nécessite un suivi des impacts dans le temps.
    Keywords: renewable energy, climate change, leverage, mobilisation, public interventions, private finance, financement privé, mobilisation, changement climatique, énergie renouvelable
    JEL: F21 F53 G2 O16 O19 Q42 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2015–12–18
  7. By: André Fontana
    Abstract: Après avoir évoqué différentes pistes relatives aux énergies alternatives disponibles dans nos Sociétés, l’accent est mis sur l’attractivité de la valorisation de la biomasse et ses limites environnementales et économiques.
    Keywords: énergie renouvelable; biomasse; limites écologiques et économiques
    JEL: Q23 Q34 Q42 Q48 Q51
    Date: 2015–12–08
  8. By: Ian Lange (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Mirko Moro (Division of Economics, University of Stirling, Scotland, UK); Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman (Division of Economics, University of Stirling, Scotland, UK)
    Keywords: Winter Fuel Payment, Regression Discontinuity, Renewable energy
    JEL: C31 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2015–12
  9. By: A Bidaud (LPSC - Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie - IN2P3 - Université Grenoble Alpes [Saint Martin d'Hères] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Silvana Mima (équipe EDDEN - PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier); S Gabriel (GeoRessources - CREGU - Centre de recherches sur la géologie des matières premières minérales et énergétiques - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); A Monnet (GeoRessources - CREGU - Centre de recherches sur la géologie des matières premières minérales et énergétiques - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); G Mathonnière (GeoRessources - CREGU - Centre de recherches sur la géologie des matières premières minérales et énergétiques - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Patrick Criqui (équipe EDDEN - PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier); M Cuney (GeoRessources - CREGU - Centre de recherches sur la géologie des matières premières minérales et énergétiques - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); P Bruneton (LPSC - Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie - IN2P3 - Université Grenoble Alpes [Saint Martin d'Hères] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: A dynamic simulation of coupled supply and demand of energy, resources and nuclear reactors is done with the global model Prospective Outlook for Long Term Energy Supply (POLES) over this century. In this model, both electricity demand and uranium supply are not independent of the cost of all base load electricity suppliers. Uranium consuming Thermal Neutron Reactors and future generation, free from the uranium market once started, breeder reactors are only one part of the market and are in a global competition, not limited to the other nuclear generation. In this paper we present a new model of the impact of uranium scarcity on the development of nuclear reactors. Many scenarios rely on the subjective definition of ultimate uranium resources. We suggest that when uranium will mainly be extracted together with other resources, its cost should not be simply a function of cumulated uranium mined but also of mine yearly outputs. We describe the sensitivities of our model to breeder reactor physical performance indicators. Used fuels can be seen as a liability or as a source of usable material and a scarce resource limiting fast reactor startups in fast development in India or China. We present the impact of synergetic strategies where countries with opposite strategies share used fuels.
    Keywords: scenario,uranium scarcity
    Date: 2015–09–20
  10. By: Yunus Emre Ergemen (Aarhus University and CREATES); Niels Haldrup (Aarhus University and CREATES); Carlos Vladimir Rodríguez-Caballero (Aarhus University and CREATES)
    Abstract: Equilibrium electricity spot prices and loads are often determined simultaneously in a day-ahead auction market for each hour of the subsequent day. Hence daily observations of hourly prices take the form of a periodic panel rather than a time series of hourly observations. We consider novel panel data approaches to analyse the time series and the cross-sectional dependence of hourly Nord Pool electricity spot prices and loads for the period 2000-2013. Hourly electricity prices and loads data are characterized by strong serial long-range dependence in the time series dimension in addition to strong seasonal periodicity, and along the cross-sectional dimension, i.e. the hours of the day, there is a strong dependence which necessarily has to be accounted for in order to avoid spurious inference when focusing on the time series dependence alone. The long-range dependence is modelled in terms of a fractionally integrated panel data model and it is shown that both prices and loads consist of common factors with long memory and with loadings that vary considerably during the day. Due to the competitiveness of the Nordic power market the aggregate supply curve approximates well the marginal costs of the underlying production technology and because the demand is more volatile than the supply, equilibrium prices and loads are argued to identify the periodic power supply curve. The estimated supply elasticities are estimated from fractionally co-integrated relations and range between 0.5 and 1.17 with the largest elasticities being estimated during morning and evening peak hours.
    Keywords: Electricity prices and loads, panel data models, fractional integration, long memory
    JEL: C33 C38 Q4 Q41
    Date: 2015–12–09
  11. By: Simona BIGERNA; Carlo Andrea BOLLINO; Maria Chiara D'ERRICO; Paolo POLINORI
    Abstract: The market power analysis in electricity market is relevant for understanding the competitive development of the industry’s restructuring and the liberalization process. The paper analyzes the market power exercised by power generators in the Italian wholesale electricity market. Following the approach of Wolak (2003, 2009), the extent of market power is measured using the Lerner index computed as the inverse of arc elasticity of the residual demand faced by each Cournot competitors. Then, the market supply curves have been adjusted to entail market power effects and the new market resolutions were derived. The new equilibrium prices are the competitive ones and represent the market clearing price that would have been if the electricity market was competitive and the effects of unilateral market power were removed.
    Keywords: Market Power, Residual demand, Lerner Index, Transmission Congestion
    JEL: D43
    Date: 2015–12–01
  12. By: Harrison Fell (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Harrison Fell (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines)
    Keywords: corruption, electricty, reliability, quality of government, institutions, common-pool resource
    JEL: O1 Q4
    Date: 2015–12
  13. By: Yolande Hiriart (Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, CRESE, IUF); Lionel Thomas (Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, CRESE)
    Abstract: We study the potential conflict between cost minimization and investment in prevention for a risky venture. A natural monopoly is regulated i) for economic purposes; ii) because it can cause losses of substantial size to third parties (the environment or people). The regulator observes the production cost without being able to distinguish the initial type (an adverse selection parameter) from the effort (a moral hazard variable). In addition, the investment in prevention is non observable (another moral hazard variable) and the monopoly is protected by limited liability. We fully characterize the optimal regulation in this context of asymmetric information plus limited liability. We show that incentives to reduce cost and to invest in safety are always compatible. But, in some cases, higher rents have to be given up by the regulator.
    Keywords: Risk Regulation, Incentives, Moral Hazard, Adverse Selection, Insolvency
    JEL: L51 D82 Q58
    Date: 2015–12
  14. By: Pönkä, Harri
    Abstract: We study the role of real oil prices on the directional predictability of excess stock market returns in the U.S. and ten other countries using probit models. Previous studies have shown that oil price shocks have adverse effects on stock returns. We extend this literature by focusing on the sign component of excess returns. Our findings indicate that real oil prices are useful predictors of the direction of stock returns in a number of markets over and above commonly used predictors, but results vary substantially between countries. Interestingly, we find only limited evidence of asymmetric effects of oil price shocks.
    Keywords: Equity returns, Real oil prices, Sign predictability, Probit model
    JEL: C22 G12 G17 Q43 Q49
    Date: 2015–12–11
  15. By: Jean-Pierre Allegret; Cécile Couharde; Valérie Mignon; Tovonony Razafindrabe
    Abstract: While the oil currency property is clearly established from a theoretical viewpoint, its existence is less clear-cut in the empirical literature. We investigate the reasons for this apparent puzzle by studying the time-varying nature of the relationship between real effective exchange rates of five oil exporters and the real oil price in the aftermath of the oil price shocks of the last two decades. Accordingly, we rely on a time-varying parameter VAR specification which allows the responses of real exchange rates to different oil price shocks to evolve over time. We find that the reason of the mixed results obtained in the empirical literature is that oil currencies follow different hybrid models in the sense that oil countries' real exchange rates may be driven by one or several sources of oil price shocks that furthermore can vary over time. In addition to structural changes affecting oil countries, structural changes arising from the oil market itself through the various, time-varying sources of oil price shocks are found to be crucial.
    Keywords: oil currencies, oil shocks, Time-Varying Parameter VAR model.
    JEL: C32 F31 Q43
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Coon, Randal C.; Bangsund, Dean A.; Hodur, Nancy M.
    Abstract: North Dakota’s economy can be measured using numerous economic variables. These variables include population, employment, personal income, per capita income, gross state product, and economic base. Economic base is defined as the value of goods and services exported from an economic unit. Economic base can also be called export base because industries (or “basic” economic sectors) earn income from outside the area. North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities that produce a good or service purchased by someone outside the economic unit. Economic theory suggests that these basic industries bring dollars into the economic unit and these dollars are spent and re-spent in the economy. This results in “non-basic” sectors which exist to serve and support the “basic sectors.” Information presented in this report comes from an ongoing data set used to measure North Dakota’s economy. These data show the change in the size and composition of the state’s economy over time. In this analysis, the level of economic activity is presented in terms of nominal (current) dollars and real (constant) dollars. Nominal dollars represent the value in terms of the purchasing power for each respective year, while constant dollars have the effects of economy-wide inflation removed. Time-series data are often presented in constant dollar values and the growth over time is termed “real” growth. North Dakota’s economy has significant growth in recent years. Since 1990, the state’s economic base has grown from $13.2 billion to $45.9 billion (in constant 2013 dollar values). North Dakota’s economy has typically been reliant on natural resource industries such as agriculture, coal, and oil and natural gas. These industries have provided the impetus for the recent growth in the state’s economy. From 1990 to 2013, the economic base for agriculture grew from $4.9 billion to $10.1 billion (in constant 2013 dollars). This increase was the result of high agricultural commodity prices and favorable production conditions. However, the growth in the petroleum industry has outpaced agriculture. The economic base for the petroleum industry increased from $1.3 billion to $17.4 billion (in constant 2013 dollars) from 2000 to 2013. During this period, the other sectors of the North Dakota economy were also growing, but at a more moderate pace. Much of the economic growth from the petroleum industry has been geographically concentrated, whereas, growth in the agricultural sector has been wide-spread throughout North Dakota. Economic growth by State Planning Region varies significantly across the state. In recent years, oil producing regions have experienced much faster growth in their economic base. It is possible 2013 could be a short-term peak in the North Dakota economy as agricultural and crude oil prices have been declining. Using economic base analysis to document the North Dakota economy could provide valuable insight on how the state’s economy will respond to a changing economic climate.
    Keywords: North Dakota, economic base, export base theory, natural resource industries, constant dollars, current dollars, commodity prices, basic sector industries, Agribusiness, Financial Economics, Production Economics, Public Economics,
    Date: 2015–09
  17. By: Peter Maniloff (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Sul-Ki Lee (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines)
    Keywords: Ethanol, biofuels, food price shocks, food security
    Date: 2015–12
  18. By: Harrison Fell (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Daniel T. Kaffine (Department of Economics, University of Colorado)
    Date: 2015–12
  19. By: Tobias Baltensperger; Rudolf M. F\"uchslin; Pius Kr\"utli; John Lygeros
    Abstract: The recently announced Energy Union by the European Commission is the most recent step in a series of developments aiming at integrating the EU's gas markets to increase social welfare (SW) and security of gas supply. Based on a spatial partial equilibrium model, we analyze the changes in consumption, prices, and SW up to 2022 induced by the infrastructure expansions planned for this period. We find that wholesale prices decrease slightly and converge at Western European levels, the potential of suppliers to exert market power decreases significantly, and consumer surplus increases by 15.9% in the EU. Our results allow us to distinguish three categories of projects: (i) New gas sources developed and brought to the EU markets. These projects decrease prices and increase SW in a large number of countries. The only project in this category is the Trans-Anatolian Gas Pipeline; (ii) Existing gas sources made available to additional countries. This leads to an increase of SW in the newly connected countries, and a decrease everywhere else. These projects mainly involve pipeline and regasification terminal capacity enhancements; (iii) Projects with a marginal effect on the (fully functioning) market. Most storage expansion projects fall into this category, plus the recently announced Turkish Stream. Our results indicate that if all proposed infrastructure projects are realized, the EU's single market will become a reality in 2019. However, we also find that SW can only be increased significantly for the EU as a whole if new gas sources become accessible. Consequently, we suggest that the EU should emphasize on measures to increase the available volumes, in particular once the integration of the market is completed. At the same time, efficiency gains, albeit decreasing SW, help to improve the situation of consumers and decrease the dependency of the EU as a whole on external suppliers.
    Date: 2015–12
  20. By: Florian Grosset; Phu Nguyen-Van
    Abstract: Cet article étudie la relation entre consommation d’énergie par habitant et revenu par habitant, ainsi que les déterminants de cette relation, sur un échantillon de données de panel de 29 pays d’Afrique subsaharienne observés sur la période 1980-2011. Notre spécificité est la prise en compte explicite de l’hétérogénéité entre pays à l’aide d’un modèle de données de panel à coefficients hétérogènes. Les résultats montrent que la relation énergie-revenu est effectivement très hétérogène, et que la courbe de Kuznets environnementale existe dans seulement 4 pays. Cette hétérogénéité est également observée dans les effets des variables affectant cette relation.
    Keywords: Consommation d’énergie, courbe de Kuznets environnementale, modèle à coefficients hétérogènes, données de panel.
    JEL: C23 O55 Q40
    Date: 2015
  21. By: Paunić, Alida
    Abstract: With rising GDP/capita, population increase on the world scale further rise in energy demand is expected. Today’s division on rich north and poor south has added one more category: countries that are endowed with non renewable energy potentials, one that work actively on implementation of renewables and those who do have natural potential and slow to incorporate renewable due to financial, economical, war, other obstacles. Although it is said that energy should be available to all people, and strategy of diversification and security is actively promoted one more aspect even in the most developed world is not tackled: better interrelation, trade, electrical market transparent in all forms (all renewable, nonrenewable part of bills are visible), easy change and substitution of electrical source, and weak social policy to one that lives under lower income brackets. Austria as highly developed country can serve as educative source, and with reaching its own renewable potentials gain additional strength in exporting clean energy (hydroelectrically plants, wind etc.).
    Keywords: Energy, renewable,non renewable,hydroelectric potential, innovation
    JEL: H00 Q20 Q30 Q40
    Date: 2015–12–12
  22. By: Eléazar Zerbo (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - UN - Université de Nantes)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of energy effciency, international trade and financial development on long-run income per capita growth of six Sub-Sahara African (SSA) countries, namely Botswana, Cameroon, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa and Togo. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound approach to cointegration is applied with (possible) structural breaks to examine both the short-term and long-term effects. Furthermore, generalized forecast error variance decomposition is applied to decompose the forecast variance of GDP per capita attributable to the selected independent variables. The long-term results show that trade openness and financial development affect positively and significantly income per capita in South Africa and Kenya, respectively. A compelling evidence of energy effciency involvement in growth is found in Togo. The short-term estimations highlight the significant role of investment and energy in output process in virtually all the countries and the role of trade openness in South Africa and Togo. The findings also provide major policy implications for sustainable economic growth in SSA countries.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Energy, Trade openness, Financial development, Cointegration, Sub- Saharan Africa
    Date: 2015–12–05
  23. By: Andor, Mark
    Abstract: Die in Deutschland im Zuge der Energiewende eingeführten bzw. intensivierten politischen Maßnahmen (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz – EEG) haben vorwiegend die verstärkte Nutzung der erneuerbaren Energien und die effizientere Nutzung von Energie zum Ziel. Damit geht nicht nur eine technologische Transformation des Energiesystems auf allen Ebenen der Energiebereitstellung und des Verbrauchs einher, sondern vielfach auch eine Verteuerung des Energiekonsums. Das RWI hat daher Reformvorschläge für eine effiziente und nachhaltige Energiepolitik erarbeitet.
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Poppen, Silvia
    Abstract: Energiegenossenschaften leisten einen entscheidenden Beitrag zur Einbindung der Bevölkerung bei der Umsetzung von Energieprojekten. Dieses Arbeitspapier stellt erste Ergebnisse einer im Mai/Juni 2015 durchgeführten Mitgliederbefragung in Energiegenossenschaften vor. Dabei zeigt sich, dass sowohl energie- als auch genossenschaftsbezogene Mitgliedschaftsmotive positiv von den Mitgliedern eingeschätzt werden. Energiebezogene Aspekte scheinen allerdings stärker in die Mitgliedschaftsentscheidung einzufließen, als genossenschaftsbezogene Aspekte. Die Mitglieder der Energiegenossenschaften stehen einer Ausweitung des Tätigkeitsfeldes der eigenen Energiegenossenschaft, z. B. auf das Angebot von Stromlieferverträgen, grundsätzlich positiv gegenüber. Bezüglich der Selbstwahrnehmung der Mitglieder zeigt sich, dass ein großer Anteil der Mitglieder, sich in der Rolle eines Eigentümers sieht. Dies spiegelt sich in einem hohen Anteil von Mitgliedern wider, die ihre Mitwirkungs- und Kontrollrechte bewusst ausüben. Dennoch möchte sich mehr als ein Viertel der Mitglieder noch stärker in die eigene Energiegenossenschaft einbringen, als es ihnen aktuell möglich ist.
    Abstract: The integration of the population in the implementation of energy projects is one of the main contributions of energy cooperatives. This working paper presents first results of a survey which was carried out in May/June 2015 among members of energy cooperatives. The findings indicate that energy related membership motives are even more important for the membership decision than motives which are related to the cooperative organization form. The members of energy cooperatives support the extension of activities - even in case of their own energy cooperative. The majority of the members perceive themselves as the owner of the energy cooperative. This is reflected in a high share of members who exercise their participation and control rights in general meetings. Nevertheless, a great number of members want to participate more in their own energy cooperative than currently possible.
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Hohnhold, Kai
    Abstract: Die ambitionierten Klimaschutzziele der deutschen Bundesregierung in Bezug auf die Reduktion der CO2-Emissionen sind nur mit Hilfe einer Steigerung der Energieeffizienz zu erreichen. Doch um eine Verbesserung in diesem Gebiet herbeiführen zu können, ist es notwendig, die aktuelle Situation zu erfassen und zu analysieren, um in einem nächsten Schritt Einsparpotenziale identifizieren und quantifizieren zu können. Die vorliegende Arbeit hat daher zum Ziel Kennzahlen für den mittelständischen Einzelhandel zu berechnen, Verbrauchstrukturen aufzudecken und Einsparpotenziale aufzuzeigen. Hierfür werden 172 Energieberatungsberichte aus den fünf Einzelhandelbranchen Apotheken, Elektronikeinzelhandel, Lebensmitteleinzelhandel, Möbeleinzelhandel sowie Mode- und Sportartikeleinzelhandel ausgewertet. In der Untersuchung werden Verbrauchsstrukturen aufgedeckt und die aktuelle Situation erfasst. Des Weiteren kann festgestellt werden, dass in allen untersuchten Branchen Energieeinsparpotenziale sowie folglich auch Möglichkeiten zur Reduzierung der Energiekostenbelastung der Einzelhändler vorliegen und in welchen Bereichen diese zu finden sind.
    Abstract: The ambitious climate protection targets of the German Federal Government regarding to the reduction of CO2 emissions can only be reached by an increase of the energy efficiency. However, to be able to effect an improvement in this subject, it is necessary to detect and analyze the current situation in order to identify and quantify potential savings in a next step. Hence, the goals of this study are to calculate performance indicators for medium-sized retailers, to uncover patterns of consumption and to identify potential savings. For this purpose 172 energy consulting reports from five different retail industries are evaluated. These include pharmacies, electronic retailing, food retailing, furniture retailing as well as fashion and sporting goods retailing. In the investigation consumption structures are revealed and the current situation is seized. Furthermore it can be determined that in all investigated retail industries energy saving potentials as well as possibilities for the reduction of the energy cost load of the retailers are present and in which these are to be found.
    Date: 2015
  26. By: Huijie Yan (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS & EHESS)
    Abstract: The goal of sustainable development is far from being achieved in China. In this context, this paper aims to provide an overview of China’s energy, environment and health policies over the past 30 years and discuss whether the previous policies have fully integrated the energy, environment and health issues in its sustainable development agenda. From the overview, we observe that the energy policies accelerating energy industrial upgrading, stimulating development of new energy sources, deregulating energy pricing mechanism, promoting energy saving and seizing the opportunity of green growth are conducive to an improvement of environmental conditions and public health in China. However, the environmental policies are not effectively implemented and subsequently they could not succeed in reducing environmental risks on public health and putting pressure on enterprises to efficiently use energy. The health policies have not taken real actions to focus with any specificity on energy-induced or pollution-induced health problems.
    Keywords: Energy, Environment, Health, China
    JEL: Q48 Q53 Q58 I18
    Date: 2015–11–10
  27. By: Yahya F. Anouti (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Carol A. Dahl (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines)
    Keywords: transport policy, energy demand, subsidy, externalities, gasoline, diesel
    Date: 2015–12
  28. By: Guy Meunier (Ecole Polytechnique [Palaiseau] - Ecole Polytechnique, INRA- UR1303 ALISS)
    Abstract: We study a situation in which two goods jointly generate an externality but only one of them is regulated. Unilateral regulation of greenhouse gas emissions and related carbon leakage is a well known example. We compare tax and quantity instruments under uncertainty à la Weitzman (1974). Because of the uncertainty surrounding the unregulated good, the external cost is stochastic with both instruments. Whether the unregulated good quantity is more or less variable under a tax or under a quota depends on the degree of substitutability and the correlation between uncertainties on private valuations. In case of a positive correlation and imperfect substitution, a tax better stabilize the unregulated good quantity and can therefore dominate a quota when the slope of the external cost associated to the unregulated good is large. In a specification, relevant for leakage, it is shown that if uncertainty about the unregulated good (imports) is large, a tax might be preferable to a quota, regardless of the convexity of the external cost.
    Keywords: Environmental regulation, Tax , Quotas, Multi-pollutant, Carbon leakage
    Date: 2015–12–11
  29. By: Andreas Karpf (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics); Antoine Mandel (Paris School of Economics - Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Stefano Battiston (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the European Emission Trading System (ETS) from a network perspective. It is shown that the network exhibits a strong core-periphery structure also reflected in the network formation process. Due to a lack of centralized market places, operators of installations which fall under the EU ETS regulations have to resort to local networks or financial intermediaries if they want to participate in the market. This undermines the central idea of the ETS to exploit marginal abatement costs
    Keywords: network; emission market; ETS; network topology
    JEL: L14 D85 Q56
    Date: 2015–11
  30. By: Massimiliano Mazzanti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy); Antonio Musolesi (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy)
    Abstract: The paper assesses the eect of the 1992 United Nations Rio Convention on environment and development and other unknown structural time breaks on the long-run carbon dioxide-economic development relationship for dierent groups of advanced countries. Using an interrupted time series approach, three patterns of the dynamics of carbon dioxide are obtained: one is market-led, one is market- and policy-led, and one is more development-oriented.
    Keywords: Carbon Kuznets curves, UN Rio convention, policy events, oil shocks, intervention analysis, structural breaks
    JEL: C22 Q53
    Date: 2015–12
  31. By: Shahbaz, Muhammad; Loganathan, Nanthakumar; Muzaffar, Ahmed Taneem; Ahmed, Khalid; Jabran, Muhammad Ali
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of urbanisation on CO2 emissions by applying the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) in the case of Malaysia over the period of 1970Q1-2011Q4. Empirically, after testing the integrating properties of the variables using unit root test, we applied the Bayer-Hanck combined cointegration approach to examine the cointegration relationship between the variables. Further, we tested the robustness of long-run relationship in the presence of structural breaks using ARDL bounds testing approach. The causal relationship between the variables is investigated by applying the VECM Granger causality test. Our results validate the existence of cointegration in the presence of structural breaks. The empirical results exposed that economic growth is a major contributor to CO2 emissions. Besides, energy consumption raises emissions intensity and capital stock boosts energy consumption. Trade openness leads affluence and hence increases CO2 emissions. More importantly, we find that the relationship between urbanisation and CO2 emissions is U-shaped i.e. urbanisation initially reduces CO2 emissions, but after a threshold level, it increases CO2 emissions. The causality analysis suggests that the urbanization Granger causes CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: Urbanisation, Energy, Malaysia
    JEL: C01
    Date: 2015–12–04
  32. By: Brian C. Murray (Duke University); Peter T. Maniloff (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Evan M. Murray (Duke University)
    Date: 2015–12
  33. By: Jared C. Carbone (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Nicholas Rivers (University of Ottawa)
    Keywords: competitiveness, leakage, policy, carbon tax, climate change, computable general equilibrium
    JEL: C68 Q52 Q54
    Date: 2015–05
  34. By: Dumbrell, Nikki P.; Kragt, Marit E.; Biggs, Jody; Meier, Elizabeth; Thorburn, Peter
    Abstract: Management practices that reduce greenhouse gas emissions from farms or increase on-farm carbon storage can contribute to climate change mitigation. Farmers, however, are only likely to adopt new management practices if they contribute to farm profitability. We use the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate how different cropping practices contribute to greenhouse gas abatement at case study farms in different grain growing regions across Australia. The APSIM simulations were subsequently used to calculate farm gross margins and conduct whole-farm economic modelling to estimate the costs of abatement under different management practices. Integrating detailed biophysical and economic analyses enables us to demonstrate the difference in potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions across agricultural environments. We show this for two case study farms in different grain growing regions, where we found both positive and negative relationships between greenhouse gas abatement and profitability for the management practices. This diversity in potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions across agricultural environments must be recognised in order to understand the role agriculture can play in climate change mitigation, and understand the implications of any potential future changes to include the industry in carbon pricing policies.
    Keywords: Whole-farm economics, APSIM, nitrous oxide, carbon sequestration, climate change mitigation, grain farms, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Q12, Q54,
    Date: 2015–11–20
  35. By: Marcelo Caffera, Alejandro Lagomarsino (Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales y Economía, Universidad de Montevideo)
    Abstract: This paper fills a gap in the literature by providing empirical estimates of the effect that enforcement actions by municipal and national authorities have on the level of both reported and actual emissions (as measured by sampling inspections) of industrial plants. In a regulatory framework where non-complying is ubiquitous and most violations are not followed by a sanction, we provide evidence consistent with under-reporting of BOD discharges by industrial plants. Previous empirical analyses on environmental enforcement either did not deal with this question or were not able to find such evidence.
    Date: 2014
  36. By: Edward J. Balistreri (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines); Christoph Bohringer (Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg); Thomas F. Rutherford (University of Wisconsin)
    Keywords: Heterogeneous firms, carbon leakage, competitive effects
    Date: 2015
  37. By: Dominique Thronicker (Division of Economics, University of Stirling); Ian Lange (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines)
    Keywords: Carbon Capture and Storage, Regression Analysis, Carbon Policy, Technological Change
    JEL: L51 Q5 H3
    Date: 2015–12
  38. By: Reif, Christiane; Schenker, Oliver
    Abstract: The research conducted at the Research Department "Environmental and Resource Economics, Environmental Management" at ZEW provides a better understanding of environmental policy instruments, national sensitivities, and strategies for overcoming the impediments to global climate policy. The findings of this research can be subsumed by the following key messages: Even in situations of uncertainty, early and credible commitments like "intended nationally determined contributions" (INDCs) serve as important signals for future climate cooperation (Dannenberg et al. 2015). Given that situations and needs vary among countries, discussions on minimum participation rules can be expected to remain controversial among key players (Kesternich forthcoming). Coordinated emission reductions through the linking of different emission trading systems reduce the price tag of global climate policy goals (Hübler et al. 2014). Funding from industrialised countries for adaptation measures in developing countries - a potentially important part of a fair and effective global climate agreement - can be driven by the funders' own self-interest and motivated by international trade (Schenker and Stephan 2014).
    Date: 2015

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