nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2015‒01‒19
28 papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. The impact of the shale oil revolution on U.S. oil and gasoline prices By Kilian, Lutz
  2. Working Paper 10-14 - De prijs van elektriciteit en aardgas voor ondernemingen in België - Samenstelling, niveau en evolutie ten opzichte van de buurlanden By Jan van der Linden
  3. Effects of Oil Shocks on Oil-Importing Developing Economies: The Case of Georgia and Armenia By Lamazoshvili Beka
  4. Inter-temporal R&D and Capital Investment Portfolios for the Electricity Industry’s Low Carbon Future By Nidhi R. Santen; Mort D. Webster; David Popp; Ignacio Pérez-Arriaga
  5. Accidental Environmentalists? Californian Demand for Teslas and Solar Panels By Magali A. Delmas; Matthew E. Kahn; Stephen Locke
  6. Capturing and Storing Carbon : The World Bank's Role By Nataliya Kulichenko; Richard H. Zechter; Asad Ali Ahmed
  8. Residential energy consumption and conservation By Hårsman, Björn; Wahlström, Marie H.
  9. Green inventions and greenhouse gas emission dynamics: A close examination of provincial Italian data By Ding Weina; Marianna Gilli; Massimiliano Mazzanti; Francesco Nicolli
  10. Support Schemes for Renewable Electricity in the European Union: Producer Strategies and Competition By Luisa Dressler
  11. The Effect of Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards on Technology Adoption By Klier, Thomas H.; Linn, Joshua
  12. Oil Price Volatility and the Role of Speculation By Samya Beidas-Strom; Andrea Pescatori
  13. Enhancing flexibility and ensuring efficiency and security: Improving the electricity market in Brazil via a virtual reservoir model By Felipe A. Calabria; J. Tomé Saraiva; Jean-Michel Glachant
  14. Global Energy Use: Decoupling or Convergence? By Zsuzsanna Csereklyei; David I. Stern
  15. Capacity remuneration mechanisms in the European market: now but how? By Arthur Henriot; Jean-Michel Glachant
  16. Does Information Feedback from In-Home Devices Reduce Electricity Use? Evidence from a Field Experiment By Shahzeen Z. Attari; Gautam Gowrisankaran; Troy Simpson; Sabine M. Marx
  17. Inclusion of undesirable outputs in production technology modeling:The case of greenhouse gas emissions in French meat sheep farming By K Hervé Dakpo; Philippe Jeanneaux; Laure Latruffe
  18. Making the Most of Public Investment in MENA and CCA Oil-Exporting Countries By Maria A Albino-War; Svetlana Cerovic; Francesco Grigoli; Juan Flores; Javier Kapsoli; Haonan Qu; Yahia Said; Bahrom Shukurov; Martin Sommer; SeokHyun Yoon
  19. Oil Price Shocks and China’s Economy: Reactions of the Monetary Policy to Oil Price Shocks By Won Joong Kim; Shawkat Hammoudeh; Jun Seog Hyun; Rangan Gupta
  20. Derivatives pricing in energy markets: an infinite dimensional approach By Fred Espen Benth; Paul Kr\"uhner
  21. Breathing the Same Air? Measuring Air Pollution in Cities and Regions By Monica Brezzi; Daniel Sanchez-Serra
  22. Sequential Markets, Market Power and Arbitrage By Koichiro Ito; Mar Reguant
  23. What innovation policies for ecological transition? Powering the green innovation machine By Reinhilde Veugelers
  24. Greening Household Behaviour and Transport By Ilka Ehreke; Boris Jaeggi; Kay W. Axhausen
  25. Bayesian Estimation for Partially Linear Models with an Application to Household Gasoline Consumption By Haotian Chen; Xibin Zhang
  26. The Role of Employee Retention and Employee Productivity on the Performance of Oil & Gas Sector of Pakistan By Hunjra, Ahmed Imran; Raza, Hassan; Munir, Irfan Ullah
  27. The spatial curse of natural resources By Fabrizio Carmignani
  28. Greening Household Behaviour: Overview of Results from Econometric Analysis and Policy Implications By Ysé Serret; Zachary Brown

  1. By: Kilian, Lutz
    Abstract: This article examines how the shale oil revolution has shaped the evolution of U.S. crude oil and gasoline prices. It puts the evolution of shale oil production into historical perspective, highlights uncertainties about future shale oil production, and cautions against the view that the U.S. may become the next Saudi Arabia. It then reviews the role of the ban on U.S. crude oil exports, of capacity constraints in refining and transporting crude oil, of differences in the quality of conventional and unconventional crude oil, and of the recent regional fragmentation of the global market for crude oil for the determination of U.S. oil and gasoline prices. It discusses the reasons for the persistent wedge between U.S. crude oil prices and global crude oil prices in recent years and for the fact that domestic oil prices below global levels need not translate to lower U.S. gasoline prices. It explains why the shale oil revolution unlike the shale gas revolution is unlikely to stimulate a boom in oil-intensive manufacturing industries. It also explores the implications of shale oil production for the transmission of oil price shocks to the U.S. economy.
    Keywords: shale oil,unconventional oil,tight oil,infrastructure,export ban,refining,U.S. oil independence,oil sands,capacity constraints,oil trade
    JEL: Q43
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Jan van der Linden
    Abstract: In 2012 ever growing prices of electricity and natural gas compelled the federal governmentto take measures to better control these prices, and thus improve Belgian competitiveness. This studyexplores the evolution of the prices of electricity and natural gas for enterprises in Belgium and threeneighbouring countries. It is done for 2007 - 2014 and using energy price data from Eurostat and someother sources. The average electricity prices in Belgium have long been the second highest of the fourcountries, but the price increases were less strong than in Germany and France. That’s why today theprices are moderate to low, suggesting that the measures must have been effective. During the wholeperiod since 2007, the prices of natural gas were relatively low. Still, attention should be paid to theprices, in particular those of electricity. This is of uttermost importance for energy-intensivemanufacturing. All for countries grant discounts on energy levies, in some cases even on networktariffs. The position energy-intensive manufacturing in Belgium may therefore be less favourable thanwould be suggested by the average prices. Hence, it remains important to analyse energy prices forenergy-intensive manufacturing.
    JEL: L94 L95
    Date: 2014–12–18
  3. By: Lamazoshvili Beka
    Abstract: We study the impact of oil price fluctuations on oil-importing developing economies focusing on Armenia and Georgia as examples of a small open economy. Our analysis takes into account the underlying sources of the increase in oil prices and the structure of energy flows. Our objective is to understand the role of oil price jumps in the context of endogeneity of oil prices to global economic activity and to identify the key channels of transmission (compared to the developed countries). Using the methodology of Kilian (2009a), we decompose the oil price shocks based on the original source of the increase. We conclude that accounting for underlying reasons for the increase in oil prices in the world energy markets is important for understanding the impact of oil shocks on the small open economies under study. The identified responses of key macroeconomic variables suggest that demand channel may be an important transmission factor. Given the high share of food items in the CPI of the developing economies under study, increased world real activity is likely to translate into increased food prices directly as well as indirectly through higher oil prices. The structure of energy flows and the politics of natural gas matter for the transmission of oil shocks.
    JEL: C32 E32 Q43
    Date: 2014–11–24
  4. By: Nidhi R. Santen; Mort D. Webster; David Popp; Ignacio Pérez-Arriaga
    Abstract: This paper explores cost-effective low-carbon R&D and capital investment portfolios for the electricity generation sector through 2060. We present a novel method for long-term planning by combining an economic model of endogenous non-linear technical change and a generation capacity planning model with key features of the electricity system. The model captures the complementary nature of technologies in the power sector; physical integration constraints; and the opportunity to build new knowledge capital as a non-linear function of R&D and accumulated knowledge, which reflects the diminishing marginal returns to research characteristic of the energy innovation process. We show portfolios for future scenarios with and without carbon emission limits, and demonstrate the importance of including various features by comparing results from a reference version of the model to results from alternative versions that omit these features. Our results caution that using economic frameworks that do not incorporate critical electricity and innovation system features may over- or under-estimate the value of emerging technologies, and therefore the cost-effectiveness of R&D opportunities.
    JEL: Q40 Q42 Q55
    Date: 2014–12
  5. By: Magali A. Delmas; Matthew E. Kahn; Stephen Locke
    Abstract: In the absence of a national carbon tax, household driving and electricity consumption impose social costs. Suburbanites drive more and consume more electricity than center city residents. If more suburbanites purchase electric vehicles (EV) and install solar panels, then their greenhouse gas emissions would sharply decrease. Using several data sets from California, we study the demand for electric vehicles and solar panels. We focus on the Tesla given its status as the highest quality EV. We investigate the joint distribution of the stock returns of Tesla and leading solar panel sellers to test for whether investors anticipate a complementarity in sales between these products. Finally, we use current and past vehicle quality and price data to explore trends in EV quality improvements due to industry competition between brands.
    JEL: Q42 Q5 Q54 R4
    Date: 2014–12
  6. By: Nataliya Kulichenko; Richard H. Zechter; Asad Ali Ahmed
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Climate Change Economics Energy - Energy Production and Transportation Environment - Environment and Energy Efficiency Energy - Energy and Environment
    Date: 2014–12
  7. By: Slobodan Cvetanoviæ, Miljan Jovanoviæ (University of Niš, Faculty of Economics)
    Abstract: The increasing use of renewable energy sources is of great importance in the light of the imperatives of the realisation of the sustainable development concept, as the paradigm of the economic, environmental, and social development. It is, therefore, important that the Republic of Serbia follows the model of the European Union, and establish an appropriate regulatory framework for their use. One of the most important aspects of the regulatory framework of the use of renewable energy sources is related to the existence of economic incentives for their growing use. In the group of economic stimuli to the increased use of renewable energy sources, the central place belongs to the obligation to purchase electricity from preferential producers at feed-in tariffs.
    Keywords: renewable energy sources, regulatory framework, financial incentives, feed-in tariffs
    JEL: Q40 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2014–09
  8. By: Hårsman, Björn (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Wahlström, Marie H. (Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: The Swedish energy performance certificates for single family housing provide rich information on energy consumption and various physical attributes. They also include estimates of the energy conservation potentials resulting from implementing cost-efficient energy saving measures. By matching the certificates issued for single family houses in 2009 and 2010, with data from other sources we have created a unique data-base which can be used to explore a wide variety of questions related to energy consumption and conservation. One aim of this paper is to assess the role for energy consumption played by socio-economic characteristics of the residents as compared to physical attributes of the house. Another is to estimate the influence of housing attributes and climate on the “engineering estimates” of the conservation potentials and analyze to what extent the two estimated relationships are consistent. Our results show that while the quantitative impact of physical attributes dominate the energy use for heating and cooling, the opposite holds for the consumption of household electricity. The assessed conservation potential, amounting to 15 percent of the energy consumption, is significantly related to both the housing attributes and the energy consumption. The results also indicate a need to improve the information provided by the performance certificates.
    Keywords: Energy consumption; Energy conservation; Single family housing; Energy performance certificates; Household characteristics
    JEL: D12 Q28 R31
    Date: 2014–12–18
  9. By: Ding Weina (Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.); Marianna Gilli (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy.); Massimiliano Mazzanti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy.); Francesco Nicolli (IRCReS-CNR, Italy; Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy.)
    Abstract: Eco-innovation plays a crucial role in reducing carbon emissions. Exploiting the consolidated IPAT / STIRPAT framework, this paper studies whether a relationship exists between green technological change and both CO2 emissions and emission efficiency (CO2/VA), exploiting a rich panel covering 95 Italian provinces from 1990-2010. The main regression results suggest that green technology has not yet played a significant role in promoting environmental protection, although it significantly improved significantly environmental productivity. Notably, this result is not driven by regional differences, and the main evidence is consistent among different areas of the country.
    Keywords: CO2 emission, Technological Change, Green Patents, IPAT, Environmental Performance
    JEL: Q53 Q55
    Date: 2014–12
  10. By: Luisa Dressler
    Keywords: oligopoly; forward market; renewable electricity; feed-in tariff; premium
    JEL: G13 L13 L98 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2014–12
  11. By: Klier, Thomas H. (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago); Linn, Joshua (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: Many countries are tightening passenger vehicle fuel economy standards. The literature on passenger vehicle standards has used structural models to estimate their welfare effects. This paper provides the first empirical evidence on the effects of recently tightened fuel economy standards on technology adoption. Specifically, it investigates changes in the rate and direction of technology adoption, that is, the extent to which technology is used to increase fuel economy at the expense of other vehicle attributes. We find that recent U.S. and European standards have both increased the rate of technology adoption and affected the direction of technology adoption. Producers reduced horsepower and torque compared to a counterfactual in which fuel economy standards remained unchanged. We estimate opportunity costs from reduced horsepower and torque to be of similar magnitude as the gains from fuel savings.
    Keywords: passenger vehicles; U.S. greenhouse gas emissions rate standards; European carbon dioxide emissions rate standards; technology adoption
    JEL: L62 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2014–09–01
  12. By: Samya Beidas-Strom; Andrea Pescatori
    Abstract: How much does speculation contribute to oil price volatility? We revisit this contentious question by estimating a sign-restricted structural vector autoregression (SVAR). First, using a simple storage model, we show that revisions to expectations regarding oil market fundamentals and the effect of mispricing in oil derivative markets can be observationally equivalent in a SVAR model of the world oil market à la Kilian and Murphy (2013), since both imply a positive co-movement of oil prices and inventories. Second, we impose additional restrictions on the set of admissible models embodying the assumption that the impact from noise trading shocks in oil derivative markets is temporary. Our additional restrictions effectively put a bound on the contribution of speculation to short-term oil price volatility (lying between 3 and 22 percent). This estimated short-run impact is smaller than that of flow demand shocks but possibly larger than that of flow supply shocks.
    Keywords: Oil prices;Commodity price shocks;Vector autoregression;Econometric models;oil and the business cycle; crude oil speculation and inventories; demand and supply shocks; oil price volatility; vector autoregression (VAR)
    Date: 2014–12–12
  13. By: Felipe A. Calabria; J. Tomé Saraiva; Jean-Michel Glachant
    Abstract: The Brazilian electricity market has certain particularities that contribute to considerably distinguish it from other markets. With a continental interconnected transmission system in which around 70% of the total installed capacity comes from hydropower plants, this electricity market recently passed through two large institutional reforms and it currently contains a number special features together with other usual market instruments. Nevertheless, the conciliation between the commercial commitments of the market participants and the physical dispatch is not smooth. Moreover, the Brazilian short-term market is a mechanism to settle differences rather than a market, and the electricity short-term market price and the schedule dispatch are not determined through the interaction between market participants. This paper focuses on these problems, discusses some dilemmas that have to be faced if a more conventional market oriented approach is to be adopted, and proposes a solution in order to address these issues. Pointing towards the enhancing of the flexibility for market participants to bear their contracts, while still ensuring the efficient use of the energy resources and maintaining the current level of the security of supply, this new framework was designed based on a virtual reservoir model.
    Keywords: Brazilian electricity market, market design, virtual reservoir model
    Date: 2014–09
  14. By: Zsuzsanna Csereklyei (Geschwister Scholl Institute of Political Science, Ludwig-Maximilians-UniversitŠt Munich); David I. Stern (Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University)
    Abstract: We examine the key factors driving change in energy use globally over the past four decades. Our econometric approach is robust to the presence of unit roots, unobserved time effects, and spatial effects. We test for both strong decoupling where economic growth has less effect on energy use as income increases, and weak decoupling where energy use declines over time in richer countries, ceteris paribus. Our key findings are that the growth of per capita energy use has been primarily driven by economic growth, convergence in energy intensity, and weak decoupling. There is no sign of strong decoupling.
    Keywords: energy consumption, convergence, decoupling
    JEL: Q43 O13
    Date: 2014–12
  15. By: Arthur Henriot; Jean-Michel Glachant
    Abstract: This article addresses the functioning of capacity remuneration mechanisms (CRMs) in an integrated European electricity market featuring a high share of intermittent renewable energy sources. We first highlight the close ties between flexibility provision and generation adequacy, and explain why these two issues must be considered concomitantly when developing CRMs. We then show that while Member States have different needs, addressing security of supply in a purely national way will be expensive. We finally identify three prerequisites for a workable Europeanization of national generation adequacy mechanisms: a consistent assessment of adequacy needs and cross-border resources, a dedicated method to allocate risks and remuneration of cross-border resources contribution, and a definition of rights over the system resources at times of extreme scarcity.
    Keywords: Capacity remuneration mechanisms, Security of Supply, Flexibility, Integrated Energy Market
    Date: 2014–09
  16. By: Shahzeen Z. Attari; Gautam Gowrisankaran; Troy Simpson; Sabine M. Marx
    Abstract: There is limited evidence of behavioral changes resulting from electricity information feedback. Using a randomized control trial from a New York apartment building, we study long-term effects of information feedback from “Modlet” in-home devices, which provide near-real-time plug-level information. We find a 12–23% decrease in electricity use for treatment apartments, concentrated among individuals reporting higher willingness-to-pay for an energy monitoring system. Decrease in overall electricity use is similar among treatment apartments which received Modlets and those which declined Modlets, and does not specifically occur for outlets with Modlets. This decrease may be due to a Hawthorne or salience effect.
    JEL: D03 D12 L94 Q30 Q40 Q54
    Date: 2014–12
  17. By: K Hervé Dakpo; Philippe Jeanneaux; Laure Latruffe
    Abstract: We consider different models that assess eco-efficiency in the perspective of production frontier estimation. These models span from the ones that consider bad outputs as inputs, or as outputs under the weak disposability assumption, or under the weak G-disposability and the materials balance principles, or under the modeling of multiple sub-technologies like the by-production model, or under the natural and managerial disposability concepts. These models are confronted to livestock farming data (meat sheep) and greenhouse gas pollution in French grassland areas, to discuss their suitability in eco-efficiency measurement. A major contribution is that we propose a new version of the by-production approach by augmenting it with ‘interdependence constraints’. Although all models considered here confirm the existence of large improvement potentials, all except the by-production model converge to the same results as in the case where undesirable outputs are treated as inputs. By contrast, the by-production model with interdependence provides more realistic results than the other models.
    Keywords: eco-efficiency, bad outputs; materials balance principles, weak G-disposability, by-production technology, natural and managerial disposability, greenhouse gas emissions, meat sheep farming
    JEL: C61 Q12 Q53
    Date: 2014
  18. By: Maria A Albino-War; Svetlana Cerovic; Francesco Grigoli; Juan Flores; Javier Kapsoli; Haonan Qu; Yahia Said; Bahrom Shukurov; Martin Sommer; SeokHyun Yoon
    Abstract: Over the past decade, rising oil prices have translated into high levels of public investment in most MENA and CCA oil exporters. This has prompted questions about the efficiency of public investment in generating growth and closing infrastructure gaps, as well as concerns about fiscal vulnerabilities. When public investment is inefficient, higher levels of spending may simply lead to larger budget deficits, without sufficiency increasing the quantity or quality of public infrastructure in support of economic growth. This paper examines the efficiency of public investment in the MENA and CCA oil exporters using several techniques, including a novel application of the efficiency frontier analysis, estimates of unit investment costs, and assessments of public investment processes. The analysis confirms that these oil exporters have substantial room to improve public investment efficiency. Reforms in the public financial and investment management systems are needed to achieve this objective.
    Keywords: Public investment;Middle East and Central Asia;North Africa;Central Asia and the Caucasus;Expenditure efficiency;Infrastructure;Transportation;Oil exporting countries;Public investment efficiency, natural resources, oil exporters, resource wealth management
    Date: 2014–11–12
  19. By: Won Joong Kim (Department of Economics, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea); Shawkat Hammoudeh (LeBow College of Business, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA); Jun Seog Hyun (Department of Economics, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea); Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)
    Abstract: The paper empirically analyzes the effect of oil price shocks on China’s economy with special interest in the response of the Chinese interest rate to those shocks. Using different econometric models, i) a time-varying parameter structural vector autoregression (TVP SVAR) model with short-run identifying restrictions, ii) a structural VAR (SVAR) model with the short-run identifying restrictions, and iii) a VAR model with ordering-free generalized impulse response VAR (GIR VAR), we find the response of the Chinese interest rate to the oil shocks is not only time-varying but also showing quite different signs of responses. Specifically, in the earlier sample period (1992:4-2001:10), the interest rate shows a negative response to the oil shock, while in the latter period (2001:11-2014:5) it shows a positive response to the shock. Given the negative response of the world oil production to an oil price shock in the earlier period, the shock is identified as a negative supply shock or a precautionary demand shock, thereby the negative response the interest rate the oil shock is deemed as economy-boosting. The positive response of interest rate the oil shock in the later period, given that this shock is identified as a positive world oil demand shock, gives evidence that stabilization of inflation is one of the main objectives of China’s monetary authority, even though the current main objective of the monetary policy is characterized as “maintaining the stability of the value of the currency and thereby promoting economic growth.” Finally, the variance decomposition results reveal that the oil price shock becomes an increasingly important source in the volatility of China’s interest rate.
    Keywords: Oil price shock, China’s monetary policy, TVP SVAR, SVAR, generalized impulse response
    JEL: C32 E52 O13 O53 Q43
    Date: 2014–12
  20. By: Fred Espen Benth; Paul Kr\"uhner
    Abstract: Based on forward curves modelled as Hilbert-space valued processes, we analyse the pricing of various options relevant in energy markets. In particular, we connect empirical evidence about energy forward prices known from the literature to propose stochastic models. Forward prices can be represented as linear functions on a Hilbert space, and options can thus be viewed as derivatives on the whole curve. The value of these options are computed under various specifications, in addition to their deltas. In a second part, cross-commodity models are investigated, leading to a study of square integrable random variables with values in a "two-dimensional" Hilbert space. We analyse the covariance operator and representations of such variables, as well as presenting applications to pricing of spread and energy quanto options.
    Date: 2014–12
  21. By: Monica Brezzi; Daniel Sanchez-Serra
    Abstract: This paper presents a new set of estimates of exposure to air pollution (fine particulate matter - PM2.5) at the city, regional and national levels for the 34 OECD countries, and at the regional and national levels for Brazil, China, India, Russia and South Africa. The estimates are developed by the computation of satellite-based observations. They have the advantage of providing consistent values of the magnitude and spatial distribution of air pollution to be compared across and within countries and over time. The paper also explores the association between shape of cities (population density, share of built-up area, extension of the hinterlands, etc.) and air pollution. The estimates of air pollution at (TL2) regional level have been used in the newly released OECD Regional Well-Being Database as a measure of the environmental dimension.
    Keywords: health, air pollution, urban form, sub-national disparities
    JEL: Q53 Q56
    Date: 2014–12–22
  22. By: Koichiro Ito; Mar Reguant
    Abstract: We develop a theoretical framework to characterize strategic behavior in sequential markets under imperfect competition and limited arbitrage. Our theory predicts that these two elements can generate a systematic price premium. We test the model predictions using micro-data from the Iberian electricity market. We show that the observed price differences and firm behavior are consistent with the model. Finally, we quantify the welfare effects of arbitrage using a structural model. In our setting, we show that full arbitrage is not necessarily welfare-enhancing in the presence of market power, reducing consumer costs but decreasing productive efficiency.
    JEL: D43 L13 L94 Q40
    Date: 2014–12
  23. By: Reinhilde Veugelers
    Abstract: In this contribution we describe how green policies should be designed to activate private innovation forces for ecological transitions. We look at the evidence on the current deployment of green policies and the current performance of the private green innovation machine. We try to assess how strong which types of government interventions have and can be to power the green innovation machine. An important insight from the economic analysis of the effectiveness of the public intervention for green innovations, is the complementarity between policy instruments, requiring an adequate policy mix of instruments, rather than a focus on individual instruments. The evidence provides little support for the efficacy of single instruments, like subsidies, when used in isolation. For the EU, this is perhaps the biggest challenge for its green technology policy: the lack of a sufficiently high carbon price. And as the evidence has shown that the world of green science and technologies is an emerging global, multipolar one, with many geographically dispersed sources in the various green scientific fields and technologies, coordination of green policies internationally should therefore be high on the policy agenda.
    Keywords: Ecological innovation, Economic growth path, Globalisation, Green jobs, Innovation, Innovation policy, New technologies, Patents, Policy options, Research, Socio-ecological transition
    JEL: O31 O38
    Date: 2014–12
  24. By: Ilka Ehreke; Boris Jaeggi; Kay W. Axhausen
    Abstract: This report focuses on personal transport choices. It presents the results of follow-up analysis of the 2011 OECD Survey on Environmental Policy and Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC) survey where econometric techniques are applied. The report complements the overview of the survey data provided in the publication OECD (2014). The objective of the analysis is to understand the determinants of household choices in the following areas: the use of alternative modes of transportation car ownership, willingness-to-pay for an electric vehicles and the relative importance of environmental factors when buying a car. The results indicate that the choice of non-motorized modes of transportation is strongly correlated with the proximity of the destination and that attitudinal variables play only a minor role. The same is true for the use of public transport. Households that say that they trust information about environmental impact of products, are better educated about impact of private transport and are in favour of government actions to reduce CO2, tend to have a higher willingness to pay for electric vehicles.<BR>Ce rapport porte sur le choix du mode de transport personnel. Il présente les résultats de travaux d’analyse qui s’inscrivent dans le prolongement de l’enquête sur la politique de l’environnement et le comportement individuel (EPIC) réalisée par l’OCDE en 2011, et qui ont donné lieu à l’application de techniques économétriques. Ce rapport complète la synthèse des données de l’enquête présentée dans l’ouvrage OCDE (2014). L’analyse vise à cerner les déterminants des choix effectués par les ménages concernant les aspects suivants : utilisation de moyens de déplacement alternatifs, motorisation, consentement à payer pour acquérir un véhicule électrique et importance relative des facteurs environnementaux lors de l’achat d’une voiture. Il en ressort que le recours à des modes de transport non motorisés est étroitement lié à la proximité de la destination et que les variables comportementales ne jouent qu’un rôle mineur. Il en va de même en ce qui concerne l’utilisation des transports publics. On relève généralement un consentement à payer pour acquérir un véhicule électrique supérieur chez les ménages qui déclarent faire confiance aux informations ayant trait à l’impact environnemental des produits, qui sont mieux sensibilisés aux répercussions du transport privé et qui sont favorables aux mesures prises par les pouvoirs publics afin de réduire les émissions de CO2.
    JEL: C51 D11 D12 R41 R48
    Date: 2014–12–11
  25. By: Haotian Chen; Xibin Zhang
    Abstract: A partially linear model is often estimated in a two-stage procedure, which involves estimating the nonlinear component conditional on initially estimated linear coefficients. We propose a sampling procedure that aims to simultaneously estimate the linear coefficients and bandwidths involved in the Nadaraya-Watson estimator of the nonlinear component. The performance of this sampling procedure is demonstrated through Monte Carlo simulation studies. The proposed sampling algorithm is applied to partially linear models of gasoline consumption based on the US household survey data. In contrary to implausible price effect reported in the literature, we find negative price effect on household gasoline consumption.
    Keywords: backfitting least squares, bandwidth, household income, price elasticity, profile least squares, random-walk Metropolis
    JEL: C11 C13 C14 Q41
    Date: 2014
  26. By: Hunjra, Ahmed Imran; Raza, Hassan; Munir, Irfan Ullah
    Abstract: Purpose: Human resource management practices are essential for managers to be followed that need to be implemented and new processes that continuously be practised by different level of employees. The objective of this study is to examine the association between the employee retention, and employee development along with organizational performance. Methodology: A five point Likert scale was used and 205 responses were processed. Findings: The results of the study show that employee retention as well as employee productivity are significantly related to organizational performance. Recommendations: The employees’ outcomes can serve as a valuable predictor to the employee satisfaction for organization.
    Keywords: Retention, Productivity, Organizational Performance, HRM
    JEL: M1 M12 M16
    Date: 2014–11–02
  27. By: Fabrizio Carmignani
    Keywords: Spatial resource curse, income regressions, growth regressions
    JEL: O13 C31 O11 O40
    Date: 2014–05
  28. By: Ysé Serret; Zachary Brown
    Abstract: The second round of the OECD Survey on Environmental Policy for Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC) was implemented in 2011. A publication providing an overview of the survey data from over 12 000 households in eleven countries (Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Israel, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) is available.1 Follow-up econometric analyses were conducted in each of the thematic areas covered (energy, food, transport, waste and water), as well as on cross-domain comparisons in environmental attitudes and behaviours.2 This report presents a synthesis of main results from econometric analysis using the data from the 2011 EPIC survey, as well as policy implications.<BR>La deuxième édition de l'enquête de l'OCDE sur la politique de l'environnement et le comportement individuel (EPIC) a été réalisée en 2011. Une publication offrant une première vue d’ensemble des données recueillies auprès de plus de 12 000 ménages dans onze pays (Australie, Canada, Chili, Corée, Espagne, France, Israël, Japon, Pays-Bas, Suède et Suisse) est disponible.3 Des analyses économétriques complémentaires ont ensuite été effectuées dans chacun des domaines thématiques considérés (énergie, alimentation, transports, déchets et eau). Les attitudes et les comportements vis-à-vis de l’environnement ont par ailleurs fait l’objet de comparaisons transversales.4 Ce rapport présente une synthèse des principaux résultats des analyses économétriques réalisées à partir des données de l'enquête de 2011 ainsi que les implications pour les politiques publiques.
    Date: 2014–12–12

This nep-ene issue is ©2015 by Roger Fouquet. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.