nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2014‒10‒13
fifty-two papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
London School of Economics

  1. 20% by 2020 - Energy Efficiency in Germany By Ulrike LEHR; Martin PEHNT; Christian LUTZ; Barabara SCHLOMANN; Friedrich SEEFELDT
  2. Tracking Progress Toward Sustainable Energy for All in Latin America and the Caribbean By Elisa Portale; Joeri de Wit
  3. Energy Services Market Development : Scaling Up Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Western Balkans By Dilip Limaye; Jas Singh; Kathrin Hofer
  4. Energy Conservation Policies, Growth and Trade Performance: Evidence of Feedback Hypothesis in Pakistan By Syed Ali Raza; Muhammad Shahbaz; Duc Khuong Nguyen
  5. Diffusion Potential of New Energy Efficient Technologies Under an Uncertain Environment By Nihal KARALI; Kemal SARICA
  6. Attributing Carbon Emissions to Functional Household Needs: a Pilot Framework For the UK By Angela Druckman; T. Jackson; E. Papathanasopoulou; P. Bradley
  7. How Nuclear Power Plants in Spain are reacting to the Massive Introduction of Renewable Energy By Margaret Armstrong; Asana Sasaki; Frederic Novel-Cattin; Alain Galli
  8. Restructuring the Nigerian Electricity Industry; A Partial Equilibrium Analysis By Isola Wakeel
  9. The Application of a Temporal Price Allocation Model to Time-of-Use Electricity Pricing Creation Date: 1992 By J. Salerian
  10. Natural Gas Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus: The Role of Exports, Capital and Labor in France By Muhammad Shahbaz; Sahbi Farhani; Mohammad Mafizur Rahman
  11. Strategic Storage and Market Power in the Natural Gas Market By Laure Durand-Viel
  12. Oil Boom, Chewing-Gum, and Oil Fund By Engin Sorhun
  13. Risk Analysis and Modeling of Contruction and Operation of Oil and Gas Pipelines in Pakistan By Sajjad Mubin; Uree Afanosovich Gariyainov
  14. Business Cycles and Oil Rich Economies - Hodrick Prescott Filtering Of Oil Revenues for Macroeconomic Modelling in Nigeria By Fred IKLAGA
  15. Business Cycles in Oil Exporting Countries: A Declining Role for Oil? By Salman Huseynov; Vugar Ahmadov
  16. An Empirical Assessment of the Effectiveness of Oil Taxes By Darko JUS; Christian BEERMANN; Markus ZIMMER
  17. Returns and Volatility of Eurozone Energy Stocks By Ulrich OBERNDORFER
  18. The Impact of Oil Price Behavior on the Poor in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province, Indonesia By Sofyan SYAHNUR; Klaus FROHBERG
  19. Coping with Oil Depletion in Yemen: A Quantitative Evaluation By Thilakaratna RANAWEERA; Srinivasan THIRUMALAI
  20. Macroeonomic Dynamics in Trinidad & Tobago: Implications for Monetary Policy in a Very Small Oil-Based Economy By WATSON Patrick
  21. Factors influencing the formation of corruption in oil-rich countries By Masoome Fouladi; Hedieh Setayesh; Yazdan Goudarzi-Farahani
  22. Detailed Data and Changes in Market Structure: The Move to Unmanned Gasoline Service Stations By Soetevent, Adriaan S.; Bruzikas, Tadas
  23. Finance, Foreign (Direct) Investment and Dutch Disease: The Case of Colombia By Alberto Botta; Antoine Godin; Marco Missaglia
  24. Energy from Sugarcane Bagasse under Electricity Rationing in Brazil: A Computable General Equilibrium Model By SCARAMUCCI José A.; PERIN Clovis; PULINO Petronio; BORDONI Orlando F.; DA CUNHA Marcelo P.; CORTEZ Luís A. B.
  25. General Equilibrium Analysis of Bio-Energy Options By Adolf STROOMBERGEN; Peter HALL
  26. The Construction of an Updated Economic Database for Energy Studies: an Application to the Brazilian Sugarcane Agroindustry By José A. Scaramucci; Marcelo P. Cunha
  27. An Energy Economy Interaction Model for Egypt - Results of alternative Price Reform Policies By Motaz KHORSHID
  28. Lower Energy Costs and the WA Economy: A general equilibrium analysis Creation Date: 2000 By K.W. Clements
  29. Energy Costs in the WA Minerals Industry Creation Date: 1999 By K.W. Clements; Q. Ye
  30. Constructing an Energy-Disaggregated Social Accounting Matrix for Turkey By Dizem Ertac Varoglu; Ali Bayar
  31. Pricing and hedging of energy spread options and volatility modulated Volterra processes By Fred Espen Benth; Hanna Zdanowicz
  32. Caught between necessity and feasibility By Bedi, A.S.; Pellegrini, L.; Tasciotti, L.
  33. Limiting CO2 Emissions in a Federal System: Understanding and Mitigating the Cost of U.S. Climate Policy At the State Level By Ian Sue Wing
  34. Decomposition Analysis of CO2 Emissions from Passenger Cars: The cases of Greece and Denmark By Katerina PAPAGIANNAKI; Danae DIAKOULAKI
  35. International Emissions Trading as a Climate Change Policy. Considering a Fine: An Analysis Applying a Multi Agent Model By Ken’ichi MATSUMOTO
  36. Italian trade and direct investment in North Africa By Riccardo Settimo
  37. Selective reporting and the social cost of carbon By Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana; Janda, Karel; Zilberman, David
  38. Evaluation of Carbon Abatement Policies with Assistance to Carbon Intensive Industries in Japan By Azusa Okagawa; Kanemi Ban
  39. Alternative Options in the Design of a CO2 Tradeable Emission Permits Scheme in Turkey By SAHIN Sebnem; PRATLONG Florent
  40. Tradable Emission Permits & Environmental Maintenance in an Overlapping Generations General Equilibrium Model By Jules-Eric TCHAPCHET TCHOUTO
  41. Reconsidering Intergenerational Cost-Benefit Analysis of Climate Change: An Endogenous Abatement Approach By KAVUNCU Y. Okan
  42. Modelling a Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Emissions in the Catalan Economy: The NAMEA Approach By Laia PIÉ DOLS; Maria LLOP LLOP
  43. Environmental regulatory stringency and the market for abatement goods and services in China By Jing Lan; Alistair Munro
  44. CSR in an Asymmetric Duopoly with Environmental Externalities By Luca Lambertini; Arsen Palestini; Alessandro Tampieri
  45. Modelling CO2 Price Pass-Through in Imperfectly Competitive Power Markets By Francesco Gulli; Liliya Chernyav´ska
  46. Modeling Impact of Greenhouse Gases Emission Limiting Policy on Technology Conversion By Jan GADOMSKI; Zbigniew NAHORSKI
  47. Is Market Power as “Hot Air” undermining the Effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol? By PRATLONG Florent; VAN REGEMORTER Denise; ZAGAMÉ Paul
  48. A scaleable approach to emissions-innovation record linkage By Mark Huberty; Amma Serwaah; Georg Zachmann
  49. Optimal Enforcement Policy and Firm´s Decisions on R&D and Emissions By Fatih Karanfil; Bilge Ozturk
  50. Tax Preferences for Environmental Goals: Use, Limitations and Preferred Practices By James Greene; Nils Axel Braathen
  51. Real Option Analysis of Response to Climate Policy under Uncertain Endogenous and Exogenous Technological Progress By Oleg Lugovoy; Elena Strukova; Alexander Golub
  52. Application of TIMES Model for Russian Post2012 Climate Policy Scenario By Oleg Lugovoy; Alexander Golub; Inna Gritsevich

  1. By: Ulrike LEHR; Martin PEHNT; Christian LUTZ; Barabara SCHLOMANN; Friedrich SEEFELDT
  2. By: Elisa Portale; Joeri de Wit
    Keywords: Energy - Energy Demand Energy - Energy and Environment Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy - Energy Production and Transportation Environment - Environment and Energy Efficiency
    Date: 2014–09
  3. By: Dilip Limaye; Jas Singh; Kathrin Hofer
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Access to Finance Energy - Energy Demand Public Sector Economics Energy - Energy Production and Transportation Banks and Banking Reform Public Sector Development
    Date: 2014–05
  4. By: Syed Ali Raza; Muhammad Shahbaz; Duc Khuong Nguyen
    Abstract: This study investigates the energy-growth-trade nexus in Pakistan by using the annual time series data for the period of 1973-2011. Our main results show: i) the presence of long-run link between energy consumption and trade performance; ii) positive impact of gross domestic product, exports, and imports on energy consumption; iii) bidirectional causal relationship between exports and energy consumption, and also between imports and energy demand; and iv) bidirectional causality between gross domestic product and energy consumption points to the presence of feedback hypothesis in Pakistan. We therefore note that energy conservation policies will reduce the trade performance which in turn leads to the decline in economic growth in Pakistan. The present study may guide policymakers in formulating a conclusive energy and trade policies for sustainable growth for long span of time.
    Keywords: Energy, trade, growth, Pakistan
    JEL: Q43 F10 F43 C22
    Date: 2014–09–25
  5. By: Nihal KARALI; Kemal SARICA
  6. By: Angela Druckman; T. Jackson; E. Papathanasopoulou; P. Bradley
  7. By: Margaret Armstrong (CERNA - Centre d'économie industrielle - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Asana Sasaki (ENPC - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC)); Frederic Novel-Cattin (RENAULT SAS - RENAULT); Alain Galli (CERNA - Centre d'économie industrielle - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the evolution of the bidding strategies of nuclear power plants on the Spanish day-ahead auction market, over the 11-year period from 2002 until December 2012. During that time the proportion of renewable energy especially wind and solar power increased dramatically. At the outset the nuclear plants offered almost all their production at zero cost; by the end, several were offering about 5% of their production at about 91 euro per MWh compared to the market ceiling price of 180.3 euro per MWh. This change in bidding strategy effectively increased the average wholesale price of electricity, leading to an overall increase in the revenues to power sellers of about $200 million euros per year in 2010 -2012, compared to what it would have been had they offered all their production at zero -cost. These results have important policy implications for regulatory authorities.
    Keywords: Strategic bidding ; Market power ; Day-ahead market ; Wholesale electricity market
    Date: 2014–09–23
  8. By: Isola Wakeel
  9. By: J. Salerian
  10. By: Muhammad Shahbaz; Sahbi Farhani; Mohammad Mafizur Rahman
    Abstract: The present study investigates the relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth using Cobb-Douglas production function by incorporating exports, capital and labor as additional factors of production. We applied the ARDL bounds testing approach to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The VECM Granger approach is implemented to detect the direction of causal relation between the variables. Our results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results indicate that natural gas consumption, exports, capital and labor are contributing factors to domestic production and hence economic growth in case of France. The causality analysis indicates that feedback hypothesis is validated between gas consumption and economic growth which implies that adoption of energy conservation policies should be discouraged. The bidirectional causality is also found between exports and economic growth, gas consumption and exports, capital and energy consumption, exports and capital. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive energy policy to sustain economic growth for long span of time in case of France.
    Keywords: Exports, Gas Consumption, Growth, France
    Date: 2014–09–25
  11. By: Laure Durand-Viel
  12. By: Engin Sorhun
  13. By: Sajjad Mubin; Uree Afanosovich Gariyainov
  14. By: Fred IKLAGA
  15. By: Salman Huseynov; Vugar Ahmadov
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate business cycle regularities in oil exporting countries. We ask the question whether oil exporting countries are all alike or whether economic fluctuations and the response dynamics of macroeconomic variables are similar. Besides we also test for the possible sources of economic fluctuations and whether the oil is the main culprit behind business cycles in oil exporting countries. In this paper, we use different empirical methodologies to gain insights about the nature of the business cycles in the oil exporting countries. First, we draw on annual data to document stylized facts on economic fluctuations in these economies. Second, we also use principle component analysis and extract principle component of the panel on economic variables of the countries under the study. Third, we invoke to the methodology proposed by Giannone, Lenza and Primiceri (2012) to analyze impulse-response functions of GDP, household consumption, government expenditure, investment and import in 13 oil exporting countries under the study. In this study, we investigate the nature and possible sources of economic fluctuations in oil exporting countries using principle component and impulse-response analysis. The principal component analysis shows that the first two components can be statistically significantly explained by world GDP, but not by oil prices. We further develop our study using impulse-response analysis and find that a global demand shock is as important as oil supply and oil demand shocks in determining the dynamics of macroeconomic variables of interest. Though previous studies in this field underline the importance of institutional factors, we find that rising global political and economic integration can play a critical role in explaining business cycles of these economies. With increasing integration into the world economic system, oil exporting countries have become more susceptible to world business cycles, the sources of economic fluctuations have become more diversified, and consequently, the role of oil has declined over time. These results have crucial policy implications for the role of the fiscal and monetary policy in managing economic fluctuations in these economies.
    Keywords: Oil Exporting Countries (Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Russia, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Venezuela), Monetary issues, Energy
    Date: 2014–10–01
  16. By: Darko JUS; Christian BEERMANN; Markus ZIMMER
  17. By: Ulrich OBERNDORFER
  18. By: Sofyan SYAHNUR; Klaus FROHBERG
  19. By: Thilakaratna RANAWEERA; Srinivasan THIRUMALAI
  20. By: WATSON Patrick
  21. By: Masoome Fouladi; Hedieh Setayesh; Yazdan Goudarzi-Farahani
    Abstract: Corruption undermines economic development and therefore it is one of the major factors hindering economic growth and political stability, especially in the developing countries. Studies in recent years show that countries with rich natural resources have the potential to shape corruption. Several studies have been done about this subject and different factors have been considered that most important are mechanisms for transparency, good management, good governance, human development and the degree of state dependence on oil revenues. This paper examines the factors affecting the level of corruption in 31 oil countries. This study uses GMM method and the period of time is 2000 to 2010 The results indicate that the size of the oil sector, government size, inflation, private sector debt, liquidity and democracy have a direct relationship with the level of corruption in these countries. However, the added value of the agricultural and industrial sectors and human development, relationships are reversed. So that with an increase in these indicators, the level of corruption in these countries has declined.
    Keywords: Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Canada, China, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Andvnzhy, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Mexico, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, United Arabic Emirates, United Kingdom, America, Venezuela and Vietnam., Other issues, Socio-economic development
    Date: 2014–10–01
  22. By: Soetevent, Adriaan S.; Bruzikas, Tadas (Groningen University)
    Abstract: We illustrate the impact of detailed data in empirical economic research by considering how the increased data availability has changed the scope and focus of studies on retail gasoline pricing. We show how high-volume, high-frequency price data help to identify and explain long-term trends using original data for the Dutch retail gasoline market. We find that 22% of the observed increase in the highway/off-highway price gap can be explained by the trend towards more unmanned stations;another 13% can be explained by major-to-non-major re-brandings. In one of the first applications of event study analysis to non-financial price data, we show that the adjustment to the new, lower price level is almost immediate in case ofmanned-to-unmanned conversions but takes one to two months in case of major-to-non-major rebrandings. The impact of both events is asymmetric with no measurable price impact of changes in the opposite direction.
    Date: 2014
  23. By: Alberto Botta (Department of Political and Social Sciences, University of Pavia and Department of Law and Economics, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria); Antoine Godin (University of Limerick); Marco Missaglia (Universidad Nacional de Colombia)
    Abstract: In the recent years the Colombian economy grew relatively rapidly, but it was a biased growth. The energy sector (the locomotora minero-energetica, to use the rhetorical expression of President Juan Manuel Santos) grew much faster than the rest of the economy. The manufacturing sector registered a negative rate of growth. These are the symptoms of the well-known “Dutch disease” and the case of Colombia has been already widely analyzed in the literature. In this paper, we investigate a different reason why an economy may suffer from an expansion of the mining sector. In particular, we want to shed some light on the financial side of the economy and its links with a resource-boom. We can observe several unsustainable dynamics: (i) a traditional Dutch Disease due to a large increase in mining exports and a significant exchange rate appreciation, (ii) a massive increase in foreign direct investment (FDI), particularly in the mining sector (iii) a rather passive monetary policy, aiming at increasing purchasing power via exchange rate appreciation, (iv) recently, a large dividends distribution from Colombia to the rest of the world and the accumulation of mounting financial liabilities. The paper shows why these dynamics may be interpreted as a case of financial Dutch disease and constitute a potential danger for the stability of the Colombian economy. Some policy recommendations are discussed.
    Keywords: Colombia, Dutch Disease, Balance of Payments
    JEL: F40 F21 F32
    Date: 2014–09
  24. By: SCARAMUCCI José A.; PERIN Clovis; PULINO Petronio; BORDONI Orlando F.; DA CUNHA Marcelo P.; CORTEZ Luís A. B.
  25. By: Adolf STROOMBERGEN; Peter HALL
  26. By: José A. Scaramucci; Marcelo P. Cunha
  27. By: Motaz KHORSHID
  28. By: K.W. Clements
  29. By: K.W. Clements; Q. Ye
  30. By: Dizem Ertac Varoglu; Ali Bayar
    Abstract: This paper outlines how a 2011 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) with a rich disaggregation in the energy sectors is constructed for Turkey. The disaggregated SAM incorporates 38 production activities, 9 of which produce energy, 33 commodities, 2 factors of production as labor and capital, three institutional accounts as firms, households, and the government, a separate account for commodity and production taxes, a capital account, and finally the rest of the world (ROW) account. The data is extracted from a diverse range of sources including the Turkish Statistical Institute, Eurostat, OECD, and the International Energy Agency among others.  The cross-entropy method has been used to balance both the aggregated and the disaggregated versions of the SAM. The SAM is the core element of the database of the dynamic CGE model currently being developed for Turkey for climate change, energy, and green growth issues. See above See above
    Keywords: Turkey, Energy and environmental policy, General equilibrium modeling
    JEL: C67 C68 D57 D58
    Date: 2014–07–03
  31. By: Fred Espen Benth; Hanna Zdanowicz
    Abstract: We derive the price of a spread option based on two assets which follow a bivariate volatility modulated Volterra process dynamics. Such a price dynamics is particularly relevant in energy markets, modelling for example the spot price of power and gas. Volatility modulated Volterra processes are in general not semimartingales, but contain several special cases of interest in energy markets like for example continuous-time autoregressive moving average processes. Based on a change of measure, we obtain a pricing expression based on a univariate Fourier transform of the payoff function and the characteristic function of the price dynamics. Moreover, the spread option price can be expressed in terms of the forward prices on the underlying dynamics assets. We compute a linear system of equations for the quadratic hedge for the spread option in terms of a portfolio of underlying forward contracts.
    Date: 2014–09
  32. By: Bedi, A.S.; Pellegrini, L.; Tasciotti, L.
    Abstract: Dependence on biomass, especially wood, to meet domestic energy needs raises several socio-environmental concerns. In contrast, cattle manure, which may be used to generate biogas, is considered a cleaner and cheaper source of energy. Despite the existence of several initiatives to promote biogas, systematic analyses of the effects of such initiatives are limited. This paper provides such an analysis. We use data from rural Rwanda to examine the effects of access to bio digesters on energy-related expenditures and consumption of traditional fuels. We find that participation in Rwanda’s National Domestic Biogas Programme leads to substantial reductions in firewood use and yields large savings. However, a cost-benefit analysis reveals that the attractiveness of participating in the biogas programme is hampered by a long payback period.
    Keywords: Energy policy, renewable energy, biogas, Rwanda
    Date: 2014–07–30
  33. By: Ian Sue Wing
  35. By: Ken’ichi MATSUMOTO
  36. By: Riccardo Settimo (Banca d'Italia)
    Abstract: More than three years since the events of the Arab Spring, the five North African countries – Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia are still going through a difficult transition. This study provides an overview of Italian trade and direct investment in the region. The main stylized facts are the following: (1) among the countries of the European Union, Italy is the region’s largest trading partner; (2) the region is a crucial source of energy, supplying 31 per cent of the oil and 44 per cent of the natural gas that Italy imports; (3) compared with the EU average, Italian exports are specialized in refined petroleum products and capital goods. The primary objective of Italian firms’ direct investment in North African countries is to enter new markets rather than to secure lower production costs.
    Keywords: international trade, foreign direct investment (FDI), North Africa
    JEL: F10 F21 F50 O55
    Date: 2014–09
  37. By: Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana (University of California, Berkeley. Dept of agricultural and resource economics); Janda, Karel; Zilberman, David (University of California, Berkeley. Dept of agricultural and resource economics)
    Abstract: We examine potential selective reporting in the literature on the social cost of carbon (SCC) by conducting a meta-analysis of 809 estimates of the SCC reported in 101 studies. Our results indicate that estimates for which the 95% confidence interval includes zero are less likely to be reported than estimates excluding negative values of the SCC, which creates an upward bias in the literature. The evidence for selective reporting is stronger for studies published in peer-reviewed journals than for unpublished papers. We show that the findings are not driven by the asymmetry of condence intervals surrounding the SCC and are robust to controlling for various characteristics of study design and to alternative definitions of confidence intervals. Our estimates of the mean reported SCC corrected for the selective reporting bias are imprecise and range between 0 and 130 USD per ton of carbon in 2010 prices for emission year 2015.
    Keywords: social cost of carbon, climate policy, integrated assessment models, meta-analysis, selective reporting, publication bias
    JEL: C83 Q54
    Date: 2014–08
  38. By: Azusa Okagawa; Kanemi Ban
  39. By: SAHIN Sebnem; PRATLONG Florent
  40. By: Jules-Eric TCHAPCHET TCHOUTO
  41. By: KAVUNCU Y. Okan
  42. By: Laia PIÉ DOLS; Maria LLOP LLOP
  43. By: Jing Lan (College of Public Administration, Nanjing Agricultural University); Alistair Munro (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)
    Abstract: We provide an examination of the linkage between environmental regulation stringency and the demand for and supply of abatement goods and services. To that end we construct a five-equation simultaneous model that links environmental regulation stringency to abatement output through various underlying simultaneous mechanisms. This system is then estimated using a panel of 679 eco-firms in 78 industrial Chinese cities during the implementation period of collection and use of pollution discharge fees (promulgated by the Chinese State Council) from 2003 to 2007. We find that higher fees are generally associated with higher abatement supply but for some industries – notably wastewater treatment – there is evidence of ‘output restriction’, meaning that higher charges lead to a reduction in supply for established firms.
    Date: 2014–10
  44. By: Luca Lambertini (Department of Economics, University of Bologna); Arsen Palestini (MEMOTEF, Sappienza university of Rome); Alessandro Tampieri (CREA, Université de Luxembourg)
    Abstract: We investigate a linear state differential game describing an asymmetric Cournot duo- poly with capacity accumulation à la Ramsey and a negative environmental externality (pollution), in which one of the firms has adopted corporate social responsibility (CSR) in its statute, and therefore includes consumer surplus and the environmental effects of production in its objective function. If the market is sufficiently large, the CSR firm sells more, accumulates more capital and earns higher profits than its profit-seeking rival.
    Keywords: Capital accumulation, asymmetric duopoly, dynamic games
    JEL: C73 H23 L13 O31
    Date: 2014
  45. By: Francesco Gulli; Liliya Chernyav´ska
  46. By: Jan GADOMSKI; Zbigniew NAHORSKI
  47. By: PRATLONG Florent; VAN REGEMORTER Denise; ZAGAMÉ Paul
  48. By: Mark Huberty; Amma Serwaah; Georg Zachmann
    Abstract: PATSTAT has patent applications as its focus. This means it lacks information on the applicants and/or the inventors. In order to have more information on the applicants, we link PATSTAT to the CITL database. This way the patenting behavior can be linked to climate policy. Because of the structure of the data, we can adapt the de-duplication algorithm to use it as a matching tool, retaining all of its advantages. Source code on Github. Download data.
    Date: 2014–09
  49. By: Fatih Karanfil; Bilge Ozturk
  50. By: James Greene; Nils Axel Braathen
    Abstract: This paper reviews the use of tax preferences to achieve environmental policy objectives. Tax preferences involve using the tax system to adjust relative prices with a view to influencing producer or consumer behaviour in favour of goods or services that are considered to be environmentally beneficial. They take various forms, typically a partial or total exemption from a specified tax. Because tax preferences help to avoid or reduce costs for businesses or consumers, there are often pressures on governments to favour them over other instruments. As a result, they are sometimes used inappropriately, typically to address negative externalities for which they are not well suited. The paper suggests that the comparative advantage of tax preferences is in providing support for positive externalities, that is situations in which a subsidy would help to deliver more social benefits than would otherwise be the case. When designing tax preferences, care must be taken to ensure that they do not encourage technological lock-in, provide perverse incentives for environmentally harmful activities (the rebound effect), or reward producers or consumers for actions they would have taken anyway. Since tax preferences are a form of subsidy, they should be subject to the same degree of scrutiny and oversight as other forms of public expenditure. Ce document examine la question du recours aux avantages fiscaux pour atteindre les objectifs de la politique de l’environnement. Les avantages fiscaux consistent à utiliser le système fiscal pour ajuster les prix relatifs afin d’influencer le comportement des producteurs ou des consommateurs en faveur de biens ou de services considérés comme bénéfiques pour l’environnement. Ils prennent diverses formes, le plus souvent une exemption totale ou partielle d’une taxe particulière. Étant donné que les avantages fiscaux contribuent à éviter ou réduire les coûts pour les entreprises ou les consommateurs, des pressions sont souvent exercées sur les pouvoirs publics pour qu’ils les préfèrent à d’autres instruments. Aussi sont-ils parfois utilisés à mauvais escient, généralement pour traiter des externalités négatives pour lesquelles ils sont mal adaptés. Ce document tend à montrer que l’avantage comparatif de ces instruments réside dans le soutien qu’ils apportent aux externalités positives, à savoir les situations dans lesquelles une subvention aiderait à procurer plus d’avantages pour la collectivité que ce ne serait le cas autrement. Pour concevoir des avantages fiscaux, il faut veiller à ce qu’ils n’encouragent pas le verrouillage technologique, ne créent pas d’incitations perverses en faveur d’activités dommageables pour l’environnement (effet rebond), ou ne récompensent pas les producteurs ou les consommateurs pour des actions qu’ils auraient entreprises de toute façon. Étant donné que les avantages fiscaux sont une forme de subvention, il convient de les surveiller d’aussi près que les autres formes de dépenses publiques.
    Keywords: environmentally motivated tax preferences, tax induced behaviour, environmental effects, avantages fiscaux motivés par des considérations environnementales, comportement influencé par l’impôt, effets environnementaux
    JEL: H20 H23 H25 H30 Q58
    Date: 2014–10–07
  51. By: Oleg Lugovoy; Elena Strukova; Alexander Golub
  52. By: Oleg Lugovoy; Alexander Golub; Inna Gritsevich

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