nep-ene New Economics Papers
on Energy Economics
Issue of 2006‒09‒23
four papers chosen by
Roger Fouquet
Imperial College, UK

  1. Energy Expenses in Households with Different Standards of Living By Anton Laur; Koidu Tenno; Mare Viies
  2. Assessing Russia’s Non-fuel Trade Elasticities: Does the Russian Economy React "Normally" to Exchange Rate Movements? By Christian Gianella; Corinne Chanteloup
  3. Variety of technological trajectories in low emission vehicles (LEVs): a patent data analysis By Vanessa OLTRA (E3i-IFReDE-GRES); Maïder SAINT-JEAN (E3i-IFReDE-GRES)
  4. Shocks, sensitivity and resilience: Tracking The Economic Impacts Of Environmental Disaster On Assets In Ethiopia And Honduras By Carter, Michael R.; Little, Peter D.; Mogues, Tewodaj; Negatu, Workneh

  1. By: Anton Laur (Centre for Economic Research at Tallinn University of Technology); Koidu Tenno (Centre for Economic Research at Tallinn University of Technology); Mare Viies (Centre for Economic Research at Tallinn University of Technology)
    Abstract: This article provides results of an analysis of energy expenses in households with different income and expenditure levels. The authors have used the Statistical Office of Estonia Household Income and Expenditure Survey data for the period 2000-2005. The analysis was conducted across household income deciles, expenditure deciles and also across regions (counties). For background information the authors have examined the development of electricity consumption and electricity price trends. Price dynamics of boiler fuels used in energy enterprises in the period 2000-2005 have also been analysed, with the main focus on price trends of renewable energy sources. The structure of Estonian households’ dwelling expenditure has been compared to Finland’s respective data in 2003
    Keywords: energy expenses, household member, income and expenditure deciles, dwelling expenses, energy prices, renewable energy sources
    JEL: D1 D31 E31 P22 Q43
    Date: 2006
  2. By: Christian Gianella; Corinne Chanteloup
    Abstract: This paper attempts to assess the impact of exchange rate movements on Russian import and nonfuel export performance, using an error correction model. The estimation of trade equations shows that long-run price elasticities for imports and non-fuel exports are close to 0.6 and 0.7 respectively, hence relatively similar to those obtained for OECD countries. The Marshall-Lerner condition clearly holds. More precisely, we find that a 10% real appreciation (depreciation) of the currency leads on average to a non-fuel current account deterioration (improvement) of around 1% of GDP. Moreover, the short-term dynamics of the error correction model indicate that the response of the trade balance to exchange rate shocks is rapid, the adjustment being almost complete after one quarter. Finally, the evolution of import prices and non-fuel export prices of Russia, relatively to its competitors on domestic and third markets, suggests that the Russian economy lost already in 2004 the price-competitiveness advantage it had gained after the 1998 crisis. <P>Évaluation des élasticités-prix du commerce extérieur hors hydrocarbures en Russie : L'économie russe réagit-elle "normalement" aux mouvements de taux de change ? <BR>Cette étude vise à évaluer l'impact des mouvements du taux de change sur les importations et les exportations hors hydrocarbures de la Russie, à partir d'un modèle à correction d'erreur. Les estimations d'équation de commerce extérieur montrent que les élasticités-prix de long terme pour les importations et les exportations hors hydrocarbures se situent respectivement autour de 0.6 et 0.7, soit des valeurs similaires à celles obtenues pour les pays membres de l'OCDE. La condition de Marshall-Lerner est clairement vérifiée. Plus précisément, une appréciation (dépréciation) réelle de 10% du taux de change conduit à une dégradation (amélioration) de la balance courante hors produits pétroliers d'environ 1%. Par ailleurs, la dynamique de court terme du modèle à correction d'erreur indique que la réponse de la balance commerciale aux chocs sur le taux de change est rapide, l'ajustement étant quasiment achevé après un trimestre. Enfin, l'évolution des prix à l'import et à l'export -- hors hydrocarbures -- de la Russie, relativement à de ses concurrents sur les marchés domestiques et tiers, suggère que l'économie russe a épuisé dès 2004 l'avantage de compétitivité-prix qu'elle avait gagné après la crise de 1998.
    Keywords: exchange rates, taux de change, Russia, Russie, foreign trade, non-fuel trade balance, price elasticities, price-competitiveness, commerce extérieur, balance commerciale hors hydrocarbures, élasticité-prix, compétitivité-prix
    JEL: C22 F19 O11 P27
    Date: 2006–09–04
  3. By: Vanessa OLTRA (E3i-IFReDE-GRES); Maïder SAINT-JEAN (E3i-IFReDE-GRES)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the diversity of engine technologies for Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs) that are developed by car manufacturers in order to substitute for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicle. Our purpose is to analyse the competition between the various technologies for LEVs as well as the innovative strategy of car manufacturers. We first propose to define and to represent these technological trajectories in order to compare their performances and to identify their strength and weaknesses. The technological bottlenecks, the barriers to the adoption of these alternative engine technologies as well as the features of this technological competition are underlined. We then use a patent data analysis to study the patent portfolios of the main car manufacturers in these technologies on the period from 1990 to 2005. The dynamics of patents applied by car manufacturers gives insight on the competition among technologies and on the strategy of firms. This analysis emphasises the progressive diversification of firms patent portfolios over the whole set of engine technologies and the differentiated strategic positioning of car manufacturers according to countries.
    Keywords: Low emission vehicles; environmental innovation; technological competition; patent data
    JEL: O33 Q55 L62
    Date: 2006
  4. By: Carter, Michael R.; Little, Peter D.; Mogues, Tewodaj; Negatu, Workneh
    Abstract: "Droughts, hurricanes and other environmental shocks punctuate the lives of poor and vulnerable populations in many parts of the world. The direct impacts can be horrific, but what are the longer-term effects of such shocks on households and their livelihoods? Under what circumstances, and for what types of households, will shocks push households into poverty traps from which recovery is not possible? In an effort to answer these questions, this paper analyses the asset dynamics of Ethiopian and Honduran households in the wake of severe environmental shocks. While the patterns are different across countries, both reveal worlds in which the poorest households struggle most with shocks, adopting coping strategies which are costly in terms of both short term and long term well-being. There is some evidence that shocks threaten long term poverty traps and that they tend to militate against any tendency of the poor to catch up with wealthier households. Policy implications are discussed in terms of access to markets and the design of government safety net programs." Authors' Abstract
    Keywords: Environmental disasters, Economic situation, Impact evaluation, Droughts, Vulnerability, households, Livelihoods, Poverty, coping strategies, Safety nets, Government policy,
    Date: 2006

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