nep-eff New Economics Papers
on Efficiency and Productivity
Issue of 2022‒01‒31
eleven papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Animal welfare and production efficiency in German pork production By Uehleke, Reinhard; Seifert, Stefan; Hüttel, Silke
  2. Financial Frictions, Firm Dynamics and the Aggregate Economy: Insights from Richer Productivity Processes By Ruiz-García, J. C.
  3. Complementarities in capital formation and production: Tangible and intangible assets across Europe By Thum-Thysen, Anna; Voigt, Peter; Weiss, Christoph
  4. Labor productivity, real wages, and employment: evidence from a panel of OECD economies over 1960-2019 By Manuel David Cruz
  5. Estimation of a production function with domestic and foreign capital stock By Ziesemer, Thomas
  6. Impact of financial development on bank profitability By Ozili, Peterson K; Ndah, Honour
  7. How efficient is the European Union? An indicator based approach to the energy efficiency gap By Chlechowitz, Mara
  8. A Generalized Uzawa Growth Theorem and Capital-Augmenting Technological Change By Gregory Casey; Ryo Horii
  9. Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance: An Empirical Literature Review By Sonia Boukattaya; Zyed Achour; Zeineb Hlioui
  10. Cost functions are nonconvex in the outputs when the technology is nonconvex: convexification is not harmless By Kristiaan Kerstens; Ignace van de Woestyne
  11. Impact of Corporate Governance on Performance: A Study of Listed Firms in Pakistan By Ali, Amjad; Alim, Wajid; Ahmed, Jawad; Nisar, Sabahat

  1. By: Uehleke, Reinhard; Seifert, Stefan; Hüttel, Silke
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2020–09–18
  2. By: Ruiz-García, J. C.
    Abstract: How do financial frictions affect firm dynamics, allocation of resources across firms, and aggregate productivity and output? Is the nature of productivity shocks that firms face primary for the effects of financial frictions? I first use a comprehensive dataset of Spanish firms from 1999 to 2014 to estimate non-parametrically the firm productivity dynamics. I find that the productivity process is non-linear, as persistence and shock variability depend on past productivity, and productivity shocks are non-Gaussian. These dynamics differ from the ones implied by a standard AR(1) process, commonly used in the firm dynamics literature. I then build a model of firm dynamics with financial frictions in which productivity shocks are non-linear and non-Gaussian. The model is consistent with a host of evidence on firm dynamics, financial frictions, and firms’ financial behaviour. In the model economy, financial frictions affect the firm life cycle. Without financial frictions, the size of an entrant firm will be three times larger. Furthermore, profit accumulation, which allows firms to overcome financial frictions, is slow, and it only speeds up when firms are mature. As a consequence, the average exiting firm is smaller than it would be without financial frictions. The aggregate consequences of financial frictions are significant. They result in misallocation of capital and reduce aggregate productivity by 16%. This figure is only 8% if productivity dynamics evolve according to a standard AR(1) process.
    Keywords: Firm Dynamics, Non-Linear Productivity Process, Financial Frictions, Misallocation
    JEL: E22 G32 O16
    Date: 2021–08–03
  3. By: Thum-Thysen, Anna; Voigt, Peter; Weiss, Christoph
    Abstract: This paper investigates capital formation with a view at various tangible and intangible assets across Europe. Using novel datasets both at macro and firm level, we estimate translog production functions to assess complementarities at different aggregation levels. At macro-level, our evidence suggests complementarities between tangibles and intangibles and between National Accounts and non-National Accounts intangibles. Using firm-level data, we explore more disaggregated asset classes and find that investing simultaneously in software, training of employees, and business process improvements is associated with better firm performance. Our analysis demonstrates that policy support that aims at stimulating investment only in certain assets may fall short in unlocking its own full potential. The emphasis should rather be on addressing investment bottlenecks arising from market imperfections, while remaining non-discriminatory with a view at what sort of capital deepening is envisaged and leaving it to the firm to find the most appropriate mix of assets.
    Keywords: intangible capital,asset complementarities,labour productivity,investment,innovation
    JEL: E01 E22 O34 O4
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Manuel David Cruz
    Abstract: This study empirically investigates the relationship between labor productivity (LP), average real wage (RW), and employment (EMP). The paper's main goal is to provide a test of competing theories of growth and income distribution. Standard theory predicts that real wages should increase following increases in labor productivity. Alternative theories and efficiency wage theories suggest that it is the distribution that causes changes in labor productivity. Theory delivers ambiguous predictions regarding the ultimate effects on employment, which can be either negative if factor substitution prevails or positive if higher wages and higher output per worker generate additional aggregate demand and, therefore, employment. I study a panel of 25 OECD economies over 1960-2019, using several approaches: 1) ECM, DOLS, FMOLS, and ARDL regressions with exogenous and endogenous variables, and 2) a VECM exercise as a robustness check. First, there is a long-run relationship between these variables when LP and RW are considered dependent variables. Second, EMP cannot be explained statistically by LP and RW in the long run: it is weakly exogenous, implying that OECD economies as a group have been, on average labor-constrained in the last six decades. Third, I find a positive two-way causality between LP and RW in both the long and short run, supporting the induced technical change, efficiency wages, and bargaining theories over the neoclassical theory. Fourth, concerning the LP-EMP nexus, in the long run, the results show a negative association, statistically significant for the single-equation estimates from EMP to LP in most specifications. Fifth, there is a positive effect running from EMP to RW in most specifications, statistically significant only in the single-equation. Sixth, both LP positively affects EMP, and RW negatively impacts EMP in the short run.
    Keywords: Labor productivity, real wages, employment, OECD
    JEL: E12 E24 O47 O50
    Date: 2022–01
  5. By: Ziesemer, Thomas (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We estimate a Cobb-Douglas production function distinguishing between a domestic and a foreign capital stock built from data of imported machinery and transport equipment for Brazil. The preferred regression uses log levels estimated by GMM-HAC. Results are that the elasticity of production of foreign capital is about 40% of that of domestic capital, the function has constant returns to scale in capital and labour variables, and human capital and technical change are also highly productive
    Keywords: time-series, estimation, production function, open economy, Brazil
    JEL: C22 C51 E23 F43 O54
    Date: 2022–01–10
  6. By: Ozili, Peterson K; Ndah, Honour
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine whether financial development is an important determinant of bank profitability. Using the robust ordinary least square and the generalized method of moments regression methodology, we find a significant negative relationship between the financial system deposits to GDP ratio and the non-interest income of Nigerian banks. This indicates that higher financial system deposits to GDP depresses the non-interest income of Nigerian banks. The result implies that the larger the size of the Nigerian financial system, the lower the profitability of banks in Nigeria. Also, we observe that bank concentration, nonperforming loans, cost efficiency and the level of inflation are significant determinants of the profitability of Nigerian banks.
    Keywords: Bank profitability, financial development, banks, return on assets, return on equity, Nigeria, financial system, bank concentration, economic growth, size of financial system, domestic credit to private sector
    JEL: F38 G20 G21 G28
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Chlechowitz, Mara
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Gregory Casey; Ryo Horii
    Abstract: We prove a generalized, multi-factor version of the Uzawa steady-state growth theorem. The theorem implies that neoclassical growth models need at least three factors of production to be consistent with empirical evidence on both the capital-labor elasticity of substitution and the existence of capital-augmenting technical change. We also build and calibrate a three-factor endogenous growth model with directed technical change and show that it converges to a balanced growth path that is consistent with the empirical evidence. Our results indicate that natural resources including land and directed technical change play a central role in explaining balanced growth.
    Date: 2022–01
  9. By: Sonia Boukattaya (ISG - Institut Supérieur de Gestion de Tunis); Zyed Achour; Zeineb Hlioui
    Abstract: This study aims to present a literature review of recent studies on the relationship between environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP) and to provide a path for future researches. Using content analysis method, a total of 88 papers published in renowned journals, over the period 2015-2021, were selected in the review. Several findings have been made: first, the majority of researches have focused on the CSR's "social impact" hypothesis on CFP; the reverse relationship seems to have been overlooked. Second, the contested results are likely to be attributable both to differences in research contexts and CSR' laws but also to biases relating to the operationalization of CSR concept and CFP proxies retained. Finally, several arguments are advanced arguing for an indirect link between CSR and CFP. Future research should, therefore, pay attention to the different contingent variables that are likely to affect the studied relationship.
    Keywords: Literature review,Corporate social responsibility,ESG performance,Firm performance,Firm value
    Date: 2021–11–30
  10. By: Kristiaan Kerstens (LEM - Lille économie management - UMR 9221 - UA - Université d'Artois - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Ignace van de Woestyne
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Ali, Amjad; Alim, Wajid; Ahmed, Jawad; Nisar, Sabahat
    Abstract: The objective of this exploration is to show the relationships among corporate governance tools (Board size, board independence, CEO status, Board Education, and Established Years of the firm) and firm performance which is determined by Return on Asset (ROA). Quantitative data is used to discover the association between the variables. The top seventy-five companies registered on the Pakistan Stock Exchange involving the period from 2010 to 2019 are taken as a sample. The research found that there is a connection between the performance of the firm with the overall extent of directors, board independence, and average education of board representatives. Insignificant results came for CEO duality and established years of the firm. The result predicted that an increase in total board members and average education of board members will increase firm performance (ROA) whereas a reduction in board independence will reduce firm performance (ROA) which explains the importance of corporate governance for the success of firm performance. Unlike previous studies, this study tried to find a long-term influence of corporate governance on firm performance by analyzing five different variables for the listed firms of Pakistan. The study provides the importance of corporate governance tools and their effectiveness for the success of organizations, especially in Pakistan.
    Keywords: Corporate Governance; Firm Performance; Pakistan; ROA; CEO Duality; Board Size; Board Independence; Board Education
    JEL: G3 G30
    Date: 2021

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