nep-eff New Economics Papers
on Efficiency and Productivity
Issue of 2019‒10‒28
five papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Eco-efficiency analysis in generalized IO models: Methods and examples By Gurgul, Henryk; Lach, Łukasz
  2. Sectoral reallocations, Real estate shocks, and productivity divergence in Europe By Thomas Grjebine; Jérôme Héricourt; Fabien Tripier
  3. Does Technological Investment Have an Impact on Outward Foreign Direct Investment? A Microeconometric Analysis on Indian Manufacturing Firms By Nazrina Haque
  5. Does Employee Happiness Have an Impact on Productivity? By Clément S. Bellet; Jan-Emmanuel De Neve; George Ward

  1. By: Gurgul, Henryk; Lach, Łukasz
    Abstract: Performance assessment in the presence of undesirable outputs, such as pollutant emissions, is usually modelled within the framework of data envelopment analysis (DEA). In this paper we propose a new approach to measuring eco-efficiency in generalized input-output (gIO) models which may be used as a supplementary method to traditional DEA. Unlike DEA this approach takes into account detailed data on intersectoral flows in supply- and demand-driven gIO models. We focus on cases of traditional and sector-size-adjusted measures of interindustry linkages in gIO models and in each case we suggest respective indices of eco-efficiency and prove their usefulness in policymaking. In order to illustrate possible applications of the new approach we conduct an empirical analysis aimed at identifying the eco-efficient sectors based on the 1995 and 2009 national input-output tables and environmental accounts for Poland which are provided by the World Input Output Data (WIOD) database.
    Keywords: generalized input-output models, intersectoral linkages, eco-efficiency, nonlinear optimization
    JEL: C5 O1 Q3
    Date: 2019–01–01
  2. By: Thomas Grjebine; Jérôme Héricourt; Fabien Tripier
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of sectoral reallocations in the divergence of productivity in Europe, based on a database for 33 sectors and 14 countries between 1995 and 2015. Using the contribution of sectoral productivity growth to Total Factor Productivity (TFP) at the country level, we highlight that variations in the relative size of sectors - less productive sectors growing relatively to more productive ones - have been at the origin of variable productivity losses in main European countries. Parallel to this divergence, European countries experienced heterogeneous real estate price dynamics, which took the form, in some economies, of massive boom-bust cycles. We investigate real estate shocks as a potential source of sectoral reallocations through a collateral mechanism. These shocks turn out to be a strong driver of productivity divergence between European countries.
    Keywords: Productivity;Sectoral Reallocations
    JEL: D22 F45 R30
    Date: 2019–09
  3. By: Nazrina Haque (BRAC University, Dhaka)
    Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to look for characteristics that determine Outward FDI with microeocnometric techniques on firm level data. Many studies have explored different dimensions of trade but little trace has been found on outward FDI which is an important channel of global exposure. To explore this area, this paper works with firm level data of Indian manufacturing firm after trade liberalization, aiming to investigate the relationship between technological investment and outward FDI. As the study is dealing with limit observation in the dependent variable, implies estimating the model with censored data, the best approach to estimate the model could have been with Tobit model. The first model is the standard Tobit model, taking the intensity of outward FDI as dependent variable and technological investment with other control variables as independent variables along with time and year dummy. It showed, there is a significant and positive relation between technological investment and outward FDI. Other characteristics were found statistically significant in choosing outward FDI. This standard Tobit model did not account for potential endogeneity, which was controlled in model 2 by taking one year lag of all independent variables. After controlling for possible endogeneity the impact of technological investment on outward FDI was persistent along with some other characteristics. The third model was considered the best approach in this paper, as it controlled for possible unobserved heterogeneity. Time averages of all the independent variables were taken as control to account for unobserved heterogeneity that is correlated with the independent variables. This approach works as fixed effect in the model. However, there could be other unobserved heterogeneity which are not correlated with the independent variables, in order to control for that, this model also considers random effect along with fixed effect approach. This model is predicted to be the most robust one among the other models. The results show that, technological investment has a statistical and positive impact on outward FDI. Along with that, investment in knowledge has a statistically significant positive impact on outward FDI. Unlike them, age, size and profit have negative impact on outward FDI. To have more robust results, this paper expands the model using tobit-double hurdle estimation.
    Keywords: Firm level, Microeconometric Analysis, Outward FDI
    JEL: C34 D22 C33
    Date: 2019–10
  4. By: Aniceth Kato Mpanju (Tanzania Institute of Accountancy)
    Abstract: The major purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of microfinance services on SME?s performance in Dar-es-Salaam region, Tanzania. Using a sample of 350 SMEs, the study adopted a descriptive-correlation research design an econometric analysis using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 24. The results show that microfinance services in the form of financial intermediation and enterprise development had to a large extent adequate to small and medium-sized entrepreneurs. Then from above analysis we may conclude that there existed a strong relationship between the extent of microfinance services and the performance of SMEs and that microfinance services influenced the performance of the SMEs in the Dar-es-Salaam region.
    Keywords: Microfinance services, SMEs, Microfinance institutions, Financial literacy and enterprise development
    JEL: G29
    Date: 2019–10
  5. By: Clément S. Bellet; Jan-Emmanuel De Neve; George Ward
    Abstract: This article provides quasi-experimental evidence on the relationship between employee happiness and productivity in the field. We study the universe of call center sales workers at British Telecom (BT), one of the United Kingdom's largest private employers. We measure their happiness over a 6-month period using a novel weekly survey instrument, and link these reports with highly detailed administrative data on workplace behaviors and various measures of employee performance. We show that workers make around 13% more sales in weeks where they report being happy compared to weeks when they are unhappy. Exploiting exogenous variation in employee happiness arising from weather shocks local to each of the 11 call centers, we document a strong causal effect of happiness on labor productivity. These effects are driven by workers making more calls per hour, adhering more closely to their workflow schedule, and converting more calls into sales when they are happier. No effects are found in our setting of happiness on various measures of high-frequency labor supply such as attendance and break taking.
    Keywords: happiness, productivity
    JEL: D03 J24 M5 I31
    Date: 2019–10

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