New Economics Papers
on Efficiency and Productivity
Issue of 2014‒01‒10
seven papers chosen by

  1. Eco-Efficiency and Eco-Productivity change over time in a multisectoral economic system By Mikuláš Luptáèik; Bernhard Mahlberg
  2. Data Envelopment Analysis for Measuring of Economic Growth in Terms of Welfare Beyond GDP By Martin Lábaj; Mikuláš Luptáèik; Eduard Nežinský
  3. Efficiency of transport infrastructure and ICT development By Yoon, Chang-Ho; Na, Kyoung-Youn
  4. The Effects of Biased Technological Changes on Total Factor Productivity: A Rejoinder and New Empirical Evidence By Cristiano Antonelli; Francesco Quatraro
  5. Beyond inducement in climate change: Does environmental performance spur environmental technologies? By Claudia Ghisetti; Francesco Quatraro
  6. Biased Technological Change and the Relative Abundance of Natural Resources By John Boyce

  1. By: Mikuláš Luptáèik (University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of National Economy, Department of Economic Policy); Bernhard Mahlberg
    Abstract: We measure eco-efficiency of an economy by means of an augmented Leontief input-output model extended by constraints for primary inputs. Using a multi-objective optimization model the eco-efficiency frontier of the economy is generated. The results of these multi-objective optimization problems define eco-efficient virtual decision making units (DMUs). The eco-efficiency is obtained as a solution of a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model with virtual DMUs defining the potential and a DMU describing the actual performance of the economy. In this paper the procedure is extended to an intertemporal approach in the spirit of the Luenberger productivity indicator. This indicator permits decomposing eco-productivity change into eco-efficiency change and eco-technical change. The indicator is then further decompounded in a way that enables us to examine the contributions of individual production factors, undesirable as well as desirable outputs to eco-productivity change over time. For illustration purposes the proposed model is applied to investigate eco-productivity growth of the Austrian economy.
    Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Luenberger Indicator, Multi-Objective Optimization, Neoclassical Growth Accounting
    JEL: C67 O47 Q53 Q57
    Date: 2013–07–17
  2. By: Martin Lábaj (University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of National Economy, Department of Economic Policy); Mikuláš Luptáèik (University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of National Economy, Department of Economic Policy); Eduard Nežinský (University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of National Economy, Department of Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Recent discussions on the definition of growth in terms of welfare beyond GDP suggest that it is of urgent need to develop new approaches for measuring the economic performance of the firms and national economies. The new concepts should take into account simultaneously economic as well as social and environmental goals. We first discuss several approaches to productivity measures. Then we extend the Data Envelopment Analysis models for environment to measure the so called eco-efficiency and for social indicators to take into account the social performance. For an illustration, we perform the analysis of 30 European countries in the year 2010. In the last section we discuss the possibilities of inter-temporal analysis of proposed models and of their use in ex-ante evaluation of different policy scenarios.
    Keywords: eco-efficiency, data envelopment analysis, beyond GDP
    JEL: C43 C61 O47
    Date: 2013–01–20
  3. By: Yoon, Chang-Ho; Na, Kyoung-Youn
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of ICT growth on the productivity effects of transportation infrastructure. Using dynamic panel data of OECD member countries, the study finds econometrically meaningful results on examining the complementarity between ICT and transportation infrastructures. The network effect of growth of motorway infrastructure in advanced countries tends to accelerate when the ICT network grows beyond a certain threshold level. --
    Keywords: Intelligent Transport System,ICT convergence,productivity growth,complementarity
    JEL: O47 O38
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Cristiano Antonelli (University of Torino; BRICK); Francesco Quatraro (University of Nice Sophia Antipolis; GREDEG CNRS; BRICK)
    Abstract: The paper by Ji and Wang (2013) calls new attention on the analysis of the effects of the direction of technological change. The aim of this paper is to better articulate and test the theoretical arguments that the direction of technological changes has specific effects on the efficiency of the production process and to study the incentives and the processes that lead to its introduction. The decomposition of total factor productivity growth into the bias and the shift effects enables to articulate the hypothesis that the types of technological change whether more neutral or more biased reflect the variety of the innovation processes at work. The evidence of a large sample of European regions tests the hypothesis that regional innovations systems with a strong science base are better able to introduce neutral technological changes while regional innovation systems that rely more upon learning processes and tacit knowledge favor the introduction of directed technologies a form of meta-substitution that aims at exploiting the opportunities provided by the most intensive use of locally abundant factors.
    Keywords: Biased Technological Change, Mobility, European Regions, GMM System, Transition Probability
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2014–01
  5. By: Claudia Ghisetti (Département des sciences économiques - Università di Bologna); Francesco Quatraro (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis [UNS])
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the debate on the inducement of environmental innovations by analysing the extent to which endogenous inducement mechanisms spur the generation of greener technologies in contexts characterized by weak exogenous inducement pressures. In the presence of a fragile environmental regulatory framework, inducement can indeed be endogenous and environmental innovations may be spurred by firms' reactions to their direct or related environmental performance. Cross-sector analysis focuses on a panel of Italian regions, over the time span 2003-2007, and is conducted by implementing zero-inflated regression models for count data variables. The empirical results suggest that in a context characterized by a weak regulatory framework, such as the Italian one, environmental performance has significant and complementary within- and between-sector effects on the generation of green technologies.
    Keywords: Green technologies; Environmental Performance; Regional NAMEA; Technological innovation; Knowledge production function
    Date: 2013–12–02
  6. By: John Boyce (University of Calgary)
    Abstract: This paper documents that natural resources that are more abundant have higher production, lower prices, higher primary industry revenues, and higher R&D. These empirical facts are explained by a model of biased technological change in which relatively more abundant resources attract greater R&D because the return from obtaining a patent is higher in larger markets. Resource specific R&D may be targeted either towards upstream extraction technologies or towards downstream production technologies, and R&D is subject to diminishing knowledge spillovers and diminishing productivity of labor. The estimated elasticity of substitution between natural resources is greater than one, implying that natural resources are substitutes in production. Declining real resource prices in the face of rising resource production are explained by the increasing productivity of labor as knowledge stocks grow.
    Date: 2013–01–21
  7. By: Mikhail Miklyaev (Cambridge Resources International Inc., USA, Eastern Mediterranean University, Mersin 10, Turkey); Glenn Jenkins (Department of Economics, Queen's University, Canada, Eastern Mediterranean University, Mersin 10, Turkey)
    Abstract: The study evaluates economic and financial returns of the shift from indigenous type of breed to cross-breed dairy cattle for milk production. Ethiopia is characterised by the high cost of cross-breed heifers making the transition for the poor households almost impossible without a support from the government or international donors. The deterministic cost-benefit analysis revealed a very positive net present value of the activity. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the main risk factors affecting the households. In addition the design of the study allowed to use the sensitivity analysis to identify the economic feasibility of a wide range of the government or donors support interventions in the dairy value chain. These include the estimation of the economic benefits of the sexed semen provision, veterinary access, feed cost reduction and improved artificial insemination services. The additional analysis was performed to compare economic returns of the farms with and without fodder production.
    Keywords: Ethiopia, High-lands, cost-benefit analysis, investment appraisal, stakeholder analysis, distributive analysis, dairy farm establishment, productivity enhancement interventions, cross-breed cattle, indigenous cattle, herd projections, sexed semen, artificial insemination, low-cost feed concentrates, pro-poor interventions, chronic food insecurity, poverty reduction, sustainable development.
    JEL: D31 D61 D62 F35 Q01 Q12
    Date: 2013–12

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