New Economics Papers
on Efficiency and Productivity
Issue of 2013‒05‒24
five papers chosen by

  1. Production efficiency of family farms and business farms in the Brazilian regions By Imori, Denise; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; Postali, Fernando Antonio Slaibe
  2. Do Effecient Dairy Producers Purchase Quota By Elskamp, Rebecca; Hailu, Getu
  3. R&D Investment and Productivity: A comparative study of Japanese and Korean firms By YoungGak KIM; ITO Keiko
  4. Management of Science, Serendipity, and Research Performance: Evidence from Scientists' Survey By Murayama, Kota; Nirei, Makoto; Shimizu, Hiroshi
  5. Dynamic Models of R&D, Innovation and Productivity: Panel Data Evidence for Dutch and French Manufacturing By Wladimir Raymond; Jacques Mairesse; Pierre Mohnen; Franz Palm

  1. By: Imori, Denise; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; Postali, Fernando Antonio Slaibe
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the technical efficiency of farms in Brazil and its regions, based on the data from the 2006 Census of Agriculture. More specifically, it seeks to compare the technical efficiency of family farms in relation to business farms, considering the regional differences in the country. To do so, one simultaneously estimated, under different assumptions, stochastic production frontiers and inefficiency effects models. Thus, it was possible to measure the technical efficiency of farms, as well as analyze the influence of factors related to the production environment, allowing the indication of public policies aimed at improving the performance of producers. In the empirical estimation, it was observed, as expected, lower technical efficiency for family farms. In regional terms, with respect to the technical efficiency of business farms, the South region of Brazil stood out, also presenting, along with the Midwest region, the highest efficiency rates for family farms, on average. Regarding the influence of production environment, it was found that formal education and access to credit are noteworthy as important factors for the technical efficiency of Brazilian agriculture.
    Keywords: Census of agriculture; Econometrics; Agriculture economics
    JEL: D24 Q12 R11
    Date: 2012–11–07
  2. By: Elskamp, Rebecca; Hailu, Getu
    Abstract: We examine the effect of farm level cost and scale efficiencies on dairy quota exchanges in Ontario. A constrained profit maximization framework is used to illustrate the role of cost efficiency in quota exchanges (i.e., sales and purchases). Using a multinomial logit model, where net quota buyers and net quota sellers are identified our empirical results indicate that variations in cost efficiency do not have a significant effect on purchases milk production quota, whereas scale efficiency does. Younger farmers, farms with underutilized barns space and farms with a recent history of quota purchase tend to buy milk production quota.
    Keywords: dairy, cost efficiency, scale efficiency, quota transfers, supply management, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Demand and Price Analysis, Farm Management,
    Date: 2013–03
  3. By: YoungGak KIM; ITO Keiko
    Abstract: In this paper, using a large-scale dataset covering both Japanese and Korean firms, we examine the differences in performance and research and development (R&D) activities between them. We find that Japanese firms tend to be more productive in terms of total factor productivity (TFP), and that the productivity gap has not been narrowing in most industries. However, Korean firms are superior in terms of labor productivity and profitability. On the other hand, in recent years, Korean firms on average have tended to have a higher R&D intensity. In particular, smaller Korean firms have been actively increasing their R&D expenditures.<br />We also find that the rate of return on R&D for large/productive firms is much higher in Korea, while that for small/less productive firms does not significantly differ. The relatively low rate of return for small/less productive firms may explain why Korea's average TFP level is not catching up with that of Japan. On the other hand, the rate of return on R&D for large firms is low in Japan, warranting further investigation on the factors underlying this.
    Date: 2013–05
  4. By: Murayama, Kota; Nirei, Makoto; Shimizu, Hiroshi
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of management style on research performance in science. If a managerial role is played by a leading scientist in the research team, that is considered management-research integration. If not, we consider that management and research are separated. We found that separating the managerial and research role has a positive effect on the number of papers published for that research project. In contrast, management-research integration is positively associated with the quality of the paper through allowing researchers to pursue serendipitous findings. These results show the trade-off between research efficiency and quality in science via who plays the managerial role and the leading research role.
    Keywords: science, serendipity, productivity, research management
    Date: 2013–05
  5. By: Wladimir Raymond; Jacques Mairesse; Pierre Mohnen; Franz Palm
    Abstract: This paper introduces dynamics in the R&D to innovation and innovation to productivity relationships, which have mostly been estimated on cross-sectional data. It considers four nonlinear dynamic simultaneous equations models that include individual effects and idiosyncratic errors correlated across equations and that differ in the way innovation enters the conditional mean of labor productivity: through an observed binary indicator, an observed intensity variable or through the continuous latent variables that correspond to the observed occurrence or intensity. It estimates these models by full information maximum likelihood using two unbalanced panels of Dutch and French manufacturing firms from three waves of the Community Innovation Survey. The results provide evidence of robust unidirectional causality from innovation to productivity and of stronger persistence in productivity than in innovation. <P>Dans ce papier, nous introduisons de la dynamique dans le modèle Crépon-Duguet-Mairesse (CDM), à la fois entre la R-D et l’innovation et entre l’innovation et la productivité. Le modèle CDM a généralement été estimé sur des données en coupe transversale. Nous proposons quatre modèles dynamiques à équations simultanées avec des effets individuels et des effets idiosyncratiques corrélés entre équations. Ces modèles diffèrent dans la façon dont l’innovation apparaît dans l’équation de productivité : à travers une variable binaire ou une variable continue, et à travers une mesure observée ou une mesure latente de l’innovation. Les modèles sont estimés par maximum de vraisemblance sur des données panel d’entreprises françaises et néerlandaises provenant de trois vagues des enquêtes communautaires d’innovation. Les résultats sont robustes et montrent que la causalité est unidirectionnelle allant de l’innovation à la productivité, et que la persistance est plus forte dans la productivité que dans l’innovation.
    Keywords: R&D, Innovation, Productivity, Panel data, Dynamics, Simultaneous equations, R-D, innovation, productivité, données panel, dynamique, équations simultanées
    Date: 2013–05–01

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