nep-eff New Economics Papers
on Efficiency and Productivity
Issue of 2011‒08‒15
37 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN INDIAN BANKING By S. S. RAJAN; K. L. N. REDDY; V. N. PANDIT
  2. Comparing technical efficiency of organic and conventional coffee farms in Nepal using data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach By Poudel, Krishna Lal; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiwaki, Aya; Kano, Hideyuki
  3. Nonparametric approach for measuring the productivity change and assessing the water use efficiency in the irrigated areas of Tunisia By Chemak, Fraj
  4. EU farmsâ technical efficiency and productivity change in 1990 â 2006 By Bakucs, Zoltan; Ferto, Imre; Fogarasi, Jozsef; Latruffe, Laure; Desjeux, Yann; Matveev, Eduard; Marongiu, Sonia; Dolman, Mark; Soboh, Rafat
  5. Productive Efficiency in Water Usage: An Analysis of Differences among Citrus Producing Farms Sizes in Tunisia By Dhehibi, Boubaker
  6. Total Factor Productivity and the Efficiency of Rice Farms in Bangladesh: a Farm Level Panel Data Comparison of the Pre- and Post-Market Reform Period By Alam, Mohammad Jahangir; Begum, Ismat Ara; Rahman, Sanzidur; Buysse, Jeroen; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido
  7. INTA Chinandega Technology impact on the farm productivity of North Pacific Nicaragua, 2003-2009 By Zuniga Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto; Navarrere Blanco, Santos Angel
  8. Decomposing Total Factor Productivity Change of Cotton Cultivars (Barakat-90 and Barac (67)B) in the Gezira Scheme (1991 â 2007) Sudan By Bushara, Mohamed O.A.; Barakat, Hoyam E.
  9. Technical efficiency of olive oil manufacturing and efficacy of modernization programme in Tunisia By Kashiwagi, Kenichi; Mtimet, Nadhem; Zaibet, Lokman; Nagaki, Masakazu
  10. Measuring and Explaining Technical Efficiency of Dairy Farms: A Case Study of Smallholder Farms in East Africa By Gelan, Ayele; Muriithi, Beatrice
  11. Regional Efficiency Improvement by Means of Data Envelopment Analysis through Euclidean Distance Minimization including Fixed Input Factors – An Application to Tourist Regions in Italy By Soushi Suzuki; Peter Nijkamp; Piet Rietveld
  12. Effect of scale on water usersâ associationsâ performance in Tunisia: nonparametric model for scale elasticity calculation By Frija, Aymen; Buysse, Jeroen; Speelman, Stijn; Chebil, Ali; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido
  13. The association of agricultural information services and technical efficiency among maize producers in Kakamega, western Kenya By Nambiro, Elizabeth; Chianu, Jonas; Murage, Alice W.
  14. Technical efficiency and technology gaps in beef cattle production systems in Kenya: A stochastic metafrontier analysis By Otieno, David Jakinda; Hubbard, Lionel J.; Ruto, Eric
  15. Efficiency Effects Zimbabweâs Agricultural Mechanization and Fast Track Land Reform Programme: A Stochastic Frontier Approach By Chisango, F.F.T.; Obi, Ajuruchukwu
  16. A hybrid approach to efficiency measurement with empirical illustrations from education and health By Wagstaff, Adam; Wang, L. Choon
  17. Technological Innovation and Efficiency in the Nigerian Maize Sector: Parametric Stochastic and Non-parametic Distance Function Approaches By Aye, Goodness C.; Mungatana, Eric D.
  18. Impact of Off-farm Income on Farm Efficiency in Slovenia By Bojnec, Stefan; Ferto, Imre
  19. A Stepwise Projection Data Envelopment Analysis for Public Transport Operations in Japan By Soushi Suzuki; Peter Nijkamp
  20. Adoption of a New Maize and Production Efficiency in Western Kenya By Mignouna, D.B.; Mutabazi, K.D.S.; Senkondo, E.M.; Manyong, Victor M.
  21. Improved Technology and Land Productivity among Smallholder Cocoa Farmers in Ashanti Region, Ghana By Wiredu, A.N.; Mensah-Bonsu, Akwasi; Andah, E.K.; Fosu, K.Y.
  22. LAND TENURE SYSTEM, FARM SIZE, INNOVATION AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA By Eze, C.C.; Konkwo, S.O.; Orebiyi, J.S.; Kadiri, F.A.
  23. Spatial Autocorrelation and Verdoorn Law in Portugal By Vítor João Pereira Domingues Martinho
  24. The transformation of steering and governance in Higher Education: funding and evaluation as policy instruments. By Manello Alessandro
  25. Productivity Growth, Decoupling and Pollution Leakage By Cui, Cathy Xin; Hanley, Nick; McGregor, P. G. (Peter Gregor); Soo, Jung Ha; Swales, J. Kim; Turner, Karen; Yin, Ya Ping
  26. The Provision of Ecosystem Services by Agriculture â a Spatially Explicit DEA Approach By Kapfer, Martin; Hubner, Rico; Eckstein, Karin; Ziesel, Sigrid; Kantelhardt, Jochen
  27. Long-Term Barriers to the International Diffusion of Innovations By Enrico Spolaore; Romain Wacziarg
  28. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND TECHNOLOGY SPILLOVER-- AN EVALUATION ACROSS DIFFERENT CLUSTERS IN INDIA By Pami Dua; B. N. GOLDAR; SMRUTI RANJAN BEHERA
  29. Irrigation water use efficiency in collective irrigated schemes of Tunisia: determinants and potential irrigation cost reduction By Chebil, Ali; Frija, Aymen; Abdelkafi, Belhassen
  30. "Interregional mobility, productivity and the value of patents for prolific inventors in France, Germany and the U.K" By William Latham; Dmitry Volodin; Christian Le Bas; Riad Bouklia Hassane
  31. Dairy Cattle Productivity after the Post Election Crisis in Uasin Gishu District of Kenya By Korir, M.K.; Kibet, J.; Kipsat, Mary J.; Nyangweso, P.M.; Rirei, M.
  32. Recovering from conflict: an analysis of food production in Burundi By D'Haese, Marijke F.C.; Speelman, Stijn; Vandamme, Ellen; Nkunzimana, Tharcisse; Ndimubandi, Jean; D'Haese, Luc
  33. Resource Use Efficiency in Poultry Production in Bureti District, Kenya By Vincent, Ngâeno; Lagat, B.K.; Korir, M.K.; Ngeno, E.K.; Kipsat, Mary J.
  34. The impact of trade liberalisation on South African agricultural productivity By Teweldemedhin, M.Y.; van Schalkwyk, Herman D.
  35. The Political Economy of Project Preparation: An Empirical Analysis of World Bank Projects By Kilby, Christopher
  36. Data Envelopment Analysis e sistemi sanitari regionali italiani By Falavigna, Greta; Ippoliti, Roberto
  37. Forecasting Wheat Output and Profits from Cropping Systems Using Simulation Models in Uasin Gishu, Kenya By Nyangweso, P.M.; Odmori, Paul Okelo; Mapelu, M.Z.; Odhiambo, Mark O.

  1. By: S. S. RAJAN (Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning,Prasanthinilayam Campus,Anantapur District, (A.P.)); K. L. N. REDDY (Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning,Prasanthinilayam Campus,Anantapur District, (A.P.)); V. N. PANDIT (Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning,Prasanthinilayam Campus,Anantapur District, (A.P.))
    Abstract: This paper attempts to examine technical efficiency and productivity performance of Indian scheduled commercial banks, for the period 1979-2008. We model a multiple output/multiple input technology production frontier using semiparametric estimation methods. The endogenity of multiple outputs is addressed by semi parametric estimates in part by introducing multivariate kernel estimators for the joint distribution of the multiple outputs and correlated random effects. Output is measured as the rupee value of total loans and total investments at the end of the year. The estimates provide robust inferences of the productivity and efficiency gains due to economic reforms.
    Keywords: Banking, Frontier efficiency, Productivity
    JEL: E23 G21 D24
    Date: 2011–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cde:cdewps:199&r=eff
  2. By: Poudel, Krishna Lal; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiwaki, Aya; Kano, Hideyuki
    Abstract: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach used to estimate technical efficiency and followed by regressing the technical efficiency scores to farm specific characters under tobit regression model. Primary data was collected from random samples of 240 (120 from each) coffee famers. Mean technical efficiency score was 0.89 and 0.83 in organic and conventional coffee farming respectively. Farms operating under CRS, DRS and IRS were 31.67, 3.83 and 37.5% respectively in organic coffee and 29.17, 25 and 45.83% respectively in conventional farming areas. Tobit regression showed the variation in technical efficiency was related education, farm experience and training/extension services and excess to credit.
    Keywords: Production frontier, Resource use, Technical efficiency, Organic, Altitude, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2011–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc11:108949&r=eff
  3. By: Chemak, Fraj
    Abstract: In order to cope with the water scarcity, Tunisia has to manage efficiently the demand of the economic and social sectors mainly that of the agricultural irrigated activities. Within this context our investigation aims to analyze the technical efficiency, the water use efficiency and the dynamic of the productivity of the irrigated areas in the Sidi Bouzid region. Hence, farm surveys, regarding the cropping years 2003 and 2007, were carried out. We have assessed the technology performance using the Data Envelopment Analysis approach and we have computed the Malmquist index in order to characterize the productivity change. Our empirical findings showed that the technical efficiency of the farms has increased by 17% during this period leading to an improvement of the water use efficiency up to 22%. Both, the technical efficiency change as well as the technical change have contributed to this improvement. However, the farmers have to enhance further their irrigated practices in order to save more water. Indeed, in 2007, the water use efficiency was only 78%.
    Keywords: Irrigated Area, Technical Efficiency, Water Use Efficiency, Productivity Change, Data Envelopment Analysis, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, C14, Q12, Q25,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:97046&r=eff
  4. By: Bakucs, Zoltan; Ferto, Imre; Fogarasi, Jozsef; Latruffe, Laure; Desjeux, Yann; Matveev, Eduard; Marongiu, Sonia; Dolman, Mark; Soboh, Rafat
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse and compare various efficiency indicators for a number of European Union (EU) countries: Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands and Sweden. The availability of long period datasets between 1990 and 2006, allow us to concentrate on the long time trends in technical efficiency especially in Old Member States. This study is the first which may provide a comprehensive overview on the development in farm level efficiency across eight European countries. Our main results are the following. Generally, all countries have relatively high levels of mean technical efficiency ranging from 0.72 to 0.92 for both field crops and dairy farms. Interestingly the majority of countries have better performance in dairy sectors in terms of higher levels of mean efficiency than in field crop production. A slightly decreasing trend however may be observed for all countries. Technical Efficiency estimates are largely in line with those obtained by previous studies. Stability analysis revealed that in average 60% of farms maintain their efficiency ranking in two consecutive years, whilst 20% improve and 20% worsen their positions for all countries. However, these ratios slightly fluctuate around these values for one year to next year. Mobility analysis ranks countries according to the mobility of SFA scores within the distribution. Farms in New Member States are more mobile than those in EU15. Total productivity changes are analysed in two steps. First, we do not find a definite trend in total factor productivity changes. Second, we address the question whether total factor productivity changes converge or diverge over time. Using panel unit root tests our estimations reveal a convergence of productivity across old EU member countries during analysed period. Finally, we decompose the total factor productivity changes into its main elements. Field crop farm indicators generally present significantly higher volatility than dairy farms. Random effect panel regression of Total Factor Productivity Change on its components shows Technological Change as being the significant positive driver for crop farms, whilst Technical Efficiency Change followed by Technological Change are the most important for dairy farms. In addition we do not find significant impacts of CAP reforms in 1992 and 2000 on total productivity changes.
    Keywords: Production Economics,
    Date: 2011–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc11:108773&r=eff
  5. By: Dhehibi, Boubaker
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to measure productive efficiency of irrigation water efficiency based on the concept of technical efficiency and compared among different sizes farms. The proposed methodology is applied to a randomly selected sample of 144 citrus growing farms located in Nabeul (Tunisia) and differentiated by size (small, medium and large farms). A stochastic production frontier approach, based on Battese and Coelliâs (1995) inefficiency effect model, is used to obtain farm-specific estimates of technical and irrigation water efficiency. The last step of the analysis consists on the identification of the factors influencing irrigation water efficiency differentials across citrus growing farms on the basis on a second-stage regression approach. Empirical results show that estimated mean technical efficiency ranges from a minimum of 12.82% to a maximum of 90.69% with an average estimate of 67.73%. This result means that 32.3% increase in production is possible with the present state of technology and unchanged input uses, if technical inefficiency is completely removed. Thus, improving technical efficiency will result to significant increases in framerâs revenue and profit. On the other hand, mean irrigation water efficiency is found to be 53%, which is much lower than technical efficiency and also exhibits greater variability ranging from 1.6% to 98.87%. The estimated mean irrigation water efficiency implies that the observed quantity of marketable citrus could have been maintained by using the observed values of other inputs while using 47.0% less of irrigation water. This means that farmerâs can achieve significant savings in water use by improving the utilisation of irrigation system and by utilizing more advanced irrigation technologies.
    Keywords: Water Efficiency, stochastic frontier production function, small, medium and large citrus farms, Tunisia, Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:97328&r=eff
  6. By: Alam, Mohammad Jahangir; Begum, Ismat Ara; Rahman, Sanzidur; Buysse, Jeroen; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido
    Abstract: The market reform policy in agriculture and the trade liberalization during the early 1990s has led to structural changes in the agricultural sector of Bangladesh. The question of whether market reform policies in Bangladesh facilitated rice production is examined in this paper. This paper uses stochastic frontier production function to measure total factor productivity (TFP), technical change, and technical efficiency change covering the period of pre-market reform (1987) and post-market reform (2000 and 2004). To fulfill the objective, the study used panel data of 73 same farm households from a field survey of 1987â1988, 1999-2000 and 2003-04. It is evident from the study results that over time period (1987-2004), the TFP increased (31.76%) only due to upward shift in the technology. Technological change increased 59.99% in post reform period. However, although TFP increased substantial inefficiencies remain in Bangladesh rice sector. Technical efficiency change (-34.46%) developed negatively over the years of study at farm level. Market reform policy has negative impact on technical efficiency change but positive in technical change and TFP change although all are declining over the time period. Therefore, government policies need for further reform of domestic market and trade policies focusing on institutional changes, tariff and nontariff barriers in order to develop a competitive environment in rice sector.
    Keywords: Farm Management,
    Date: 2011–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc11:108948&r=eff
  7. By: Zuniga Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto; Navarrere Blanco, Santos Angel
    Abstract: This article is the first working paper of the Researching Center for Agricultural Sciences and Applied Economic. It is a contribution for the INTA Nicaragua.
    Keywords: Total Factor Productivity Growth, Malmquist Index, Data Envelopment Analysis, INTA-Chinandega Technology, Panel Data., Agricultural and Food Policy, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, D: 24, O: 32, Q: 16.,
    Date: 2011–07–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:naunwp:109312&r=eff
  8. By: Bushara, Mohamed O.A.; Barakat, Hoyam E.
    Abstract: The main objective of this paper was to decompose Total Factor Productivity Change (TFPCH) of cotton cultivars Barakat-90 and Barac(67)B in the Gezira scheme in 1991-2007, based on Data Envelopment Analysis Program (DEAP) Software Version 2.1, using model of inputâoriented Malmquist indices Total Factor Productivity (TFP). This model could give meaningful results regarding technological and economic behavior relationship over time using balance panel data on Barac(67)B and Barakat-90 cultivars, Relevant secondary data were collected and analyzed to meet the stated objectives. This paper was aimed to decompose TFPCH into two components Technological Change (TECH) and Technical Efficiency Change (EFCH) and the latter was further divided into Scale Efficiency Change (SEFCH) and Pure Efficiency Change (PEFCH). The methodology allowed the recovery of various efficiency and productivity measures. The paper was mainly to answer the questions related to technical efficiency, scale efficiency and productivity changes. In the study on cotton cultivars, the innovation was improving up and down of TECH over time. Scale inefficiency was the main problem in efficiency analysis and mainly due to production operating at increasing returns to scale in Barac(67)B and Barakat-90 operating at constant return to scale. TFPCH was -1.3%, the contribution of EFCH was -1.6% and TECH was 0.30%, the main problem was efficiency change and this was mainly due to scale inefficiency, Barac(67)B contributed to this negative at an average annual rate -3.3%. This implying that the Barac(67)B was ailing due to efficiency change. The study has recommended, substantial improvement in knowledge about productivity and efficiency using scientific approaches, the scheme administration should take full advantage of Barac(67)B cultivar to be extensively grown, Barakat-90 requires further investigation benefiting from technological innovation, additional, improvement in agricultural processing to increase the value added, and the benefit of scientific breakthrough in agricultural science are also recommended.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:96648&r=eff
  9. By: Kashiwagi, Kenichi; Mtimet, Nadhem; Zaibet, Lokman; Nagaki, Masakazu
    Abstract: This study investigates firm level technical efficiency of production and its determinants in a sample of 137 olive oil manufacturing firms in Tunisia using a stochastic frontier production model applied to cross-section data. Results indicate that technical efficiency of production in the sample of olive oil manufacturing firms investigated ranges from a minimum of 47.1% to a maximum 99.5% with an average technical efficiency estimate of 86.5%. This implies olive oil manufacturing firms in Tunisia can increase their production on average by 13.5% through more efficient use of technology and production inputs. The fact that 93 firms represented more than 64.4% of the sample hit more than 80% of technical efficiency score implies the efficacy of modernization programme implemented in Tunisia. The estimated coefficients in the technical inefficiency effects model indicate that level of technology, frequent use of computer and internet, the ownerâs age, the share of skilled labour, the employment of management staff, and the input sourcing by the own production have a significant and positive effect on technical efficiency. On the other hand, negative relationships are found between technical efficiency and entrepreneur dummy variable, continuous relationship with the suppliers in the same district, and with the private sector and trader as customers. These results imply that the adoption of new technology, accumulation of skill and knowledge as well as stable input sourcing contribute to improve the technical efficiency of olive oil manufacturing.
    Keywords: olive oil manufacturing, stochastic frontier production function, technical efficiency, modernization programme, Tunisia, Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:96195&r=eff
  10. By: Gelan, Ayele; Muriithi, Beatrice
    Abstract: Replaced with revised version of paper 11/18/10.
    Keywords: Dairy farms, efficiency scores, Data Envelopment Analysis, fractional regression, returns to scale, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:96187&r=eff
  11. By: Soushi Suzuki (Sapporo University, Sapporo, Japan); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam); Piet Rietveld (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: Standard Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is characterized by uniform proportional input reduction or output augmentation in calculating improvement projections. This paper develops a new Euclidean Distance Minimization model in the context of DEA in order to derive a more appropriate efficiency-improving projection model by means of a weighted projection function. The model is extended to the situation where some factor inputs are fixed, for instance, due to lumpiness or natural constraints. The extended DEA model is illustrated in the context of regional planning by using a data set on Italian tourist destination regions.
    Keywords: Euclidean Distance Minimization (EDM); Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Multiple Objective Quadratic Programming (MOQP); efficiency improving projection; tourist efficiency
    JEL: D61 L83 R15
    Date: 2011–08–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20110110&r=eff
  12. By: Frija, Aymen; Buysse, Jeroen; Speelman, Stijn; Chebil, Ali; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido
    Abstract: The paper aims to investigate the economies of scale of Water Usersâ Associations (WUA) in Tunisia. During the last years there has been a lot of discussion in Tunisia about the optimal size of WUAs, which allows more efficient management of the water resources at the local level. In this work we propose to see if the size of the WUA in the governorate of Nabeul (Central-Eastern part of Tunisia) would have to increase or decrease in order to maximize their efficiency. Apart from this qualification we also quantify the scale efficiency and scale elasticity of the WUA using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models. The results show that the output space (volume of water distributed and number of ha managed and irrigated) of the WUA that attain a high level of scale efficiency is highly diverse, indicating that the number of ha irrigated and the volume of water distributed are not explaining the differences in the scale efficiency of WUA. The calculation of scale elasticity of the WUA shows that 41% of the WUA are operating at decreasing returns to scale (DRS) while 16% and 43% operate at constant (CRS) and increasing (IRS) returns to scale, respectively. The scale orientation was found to be depending on the output density rather than on the output size. Thus, WUA located in more irrigation-intensified areas were found to be IRS oriented. WUA operating at CRS were found to have the minimum costs, which is in line with the theoretical predictions that suggest that the average productivity is maximized when the scale efficiency is equal to 1.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:95982&r=eff
  13. By: Nambiro, Elizabeth; Chianu, Jonas; Murage, Alice W.
    Abstract: Maize is the staple food for most Kenyan households, and grown in almost all the farming systems. Due to diminishing farm sizes in Kakamega District, crop productivity and the efficiency of farming systems are of great concern. This paper aims to provide empirical evidence on the links between efficiency in maize production and access to soil-related agricultural information services. Using cluster sampling, a total of 154 farmers in Kakamega District were interviewed. A 2âstep estimation technique (Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Tobit model) were used to evaluate the technical efficiencies among the farmers and the factors explaining the estimated efficiency scores. Data was disaggregated into farmers with and those without access to soil-related agricultural information services. The results shows that farmers with access to soil-related agricultural information services were more technically efficient (average technical efficiency of 90%) in maize production compared to those without access to information (technical efficiency at 70%). Given the significant role that access to soil-related agricultural information services play on technical efficiency in maize production in the study area, the paper recommends improvements in farmers access to this important resources through: (i) the strengthening of the formal and informal agricultural extension services, (ii) a stronger linkage among agricultural research, agricultural extension, and farm level activities; and (iii) policy support for increased distribution of soil management inputs.
    Keywords: Maize, Soil information, Technical efficiency, Tobit analysis, DEA, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:95961&r=eff
  14. By: Otieno, David Jakinda; Hubbard, Lionel J.; Ruto, Eric
    Abstract: In this study the stochastic metafrontier method is used to investigate technical efficiency and technology gaps across three main beef cattle production systems in Kenya. Results show that there is significant inefficiency in nomadic and agro-pastoral systems. Further, in contrast with ranches, these two systems were found to have lower technology gap ratios. The average pooled technical efficiency was estimated to be 0.69, which suggests that there is considerable scope to improve beef production in Kenya
    Keywords: Technical efficiency, technology gap, beef cattle, production systems, stochastic metafrontier, Kenya., Livestock Production/Industries, D24, O32, Q18,
    Date: 2011–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc11:108947&r=eff
  15. By: Chisango, F.F.T.; Obi, Ajuruchukwu
    Abstract: A development goal pursued by the Zimbabwean government even before the much-maligned fast track land reform programme (FTLRP) was expansion of agricultural production through agricultural mechanization. This goal has been pursued through the acquisition and use of tractors by arable crop farmers in communal and resettlement state land delineated during the period following the launch of the FTLRP. This research project investigated the combined impacts of mechanization and an unplanned land reform on agricultural productivity in the Bindura district of Zimbabwe. The existing land policy and the issue of technical efficiency in agricultural productivity are assumed to be the drivers of the programme. It is likely that these issues will be important considerations in determining the sustainability of the mechanization policy. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select 90 farmers in the study area and structured questionnaires were used to collect demographic, investment and production data which were subsequently fitted by means of the Stochastic Frontier Model. Results revealed that mechanization was an important factor in the performance of the farmers who participated in the programme. The results also suggest that availability of land and access to production resources are crucial to farm productivity. Despite these, overall production and productivity remain low and the hyperinflationary situation triggered by supply constraints are only beginning to slightly ease. As the national unity government grapples with the huge task to restore growth in the Zimbabwean economy, it is important that these issues are borne in mind.
    Keywords: Technical Constraints, Market Access, Agricultural Development, Induced Innovation Model, The Stochastic Frontier model, The Productive Efficiency and Mandate of Extension, Farm Management,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:97066&r=eff
  16. By: Wagstaff, Adam; Wang, L. Choon
    Abstract: Inefficiency is commonplace, yet exercises aimed at improving provider performance efforts to date to measure inefficiency and use it in benchmarking exercises have not been altogether satisfactory. This paper proposes a new approach that blends the themes of Data Envelopment Analysis and the Stochastic Frontier Approach to measure overall efficiency. The hybrid approach nonparametrically estimates inefficiency by comparing actual performance with comparable real-life"best practice"on the frontier and could be useful in exercises aimed at improving provider performance. Four applications in the education and health sectors are used to illustrate the features and strengths of this hybrid approach.
    Keywords: Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Health Systems Development&Reform,Tertiary Education,Disease Control&Prevention,Education For All
    Date: 2011–08–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5751&r=eff
  17. By: Aye, Goodness C.; Mungatana, Eric D.
    Abstract: The current food crisis all over the globe has necessitated alternative policy actions by various stakeholders in almost all countries of the world. Consequently, efforts are focused on increased investment in agricultural research and development. The study evaluates impact of technological innovations on estimates of technical, allocative and cost efficiency from a parametric stochastic and non-parametric distance functions. Inefficiency effects are modelled in a second stage endogeniety-corrected Tobit regression model as a function of technological innovation and other policy variables. The results from both approaches show there is substantial technical, allocative and cost inefficiency in maize production and that analysis of technical, allocative and cost efficiency with respect to technological innovation and other policy factors are robust. Our results show that policies aimed at maize technology development and their timely dissemination, improvement in education, access to credit and extension among others could promote technical, allocative and cost efficiency, reduce yield variability, enhance farm income, food security and reduce poverty in Nigeria.
    Keywords: technology, efficiency, maize, parametric, non-parametric, distance function, Nigeria, Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:95965&r=eff
  18. By: Bojnec, Stefan; Ferto, Imre
    Abstract: The paper investigates the impact of off-farm income on farm technical efficiency for the Slovenian Farm Accountancy Data Network farms in the years 2004-2008. Farm stochastic frontier time-varying decay inefficiency is positively associated with total utilised agricultural areas and total labour input, and vice versa with intermediate consumption and fixed assets. We find a positive association between farm technical efficiency and the off-farm income. Farm technical efficiency has increased steadily over time, the process, which was led by the off-farm spill over effect and most efficient farms. Farm technical efficiency is also positively associated with economic farm size, while association with subsidies is mixed depending on the estimation procedure. Quantile regression confirms the positive and significant associations between farm technical efficiency and off-farm income, and between farm technical efficiency and farm economic size, as well as also the positive association between farm technical efficiency and subsidies, but the results are sensitive by quantiles.
    Keywords: Off-farm income, Stochastic frontier analysis, Panel regression, Quantile regression, Slovenia, Farm Management,
    Date: 2011–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc11:108945&r=eff
  19. By: Soushi Suzuki (Hokkai-Gakuen University, Sapporo, Japan); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: With tightening budgets and increasingly critical reviews of public expenditure, there is a need for a careful analysis of the performance of public bodies in terms of an efficient execution of their tasks. These questions show up everywhere in the public domain, for instance, in the provision of medical facilities, the operation of postal services, or the supply of public transport. A standard tool to judge the efficiency of such agencies is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In the past years, much progress has been made to extend this approach in various directions. Examples are the Distance Friction Minimization (DFM) model and the Context-Dependent (CD) model. The DFM model is based on a generalized distance friction function and serves to improve the performance of a Decision Making Unit (DMU) by identifying the most appropriate movement towards the efficiency frontier surface. Standard DEA models use a uniform proportional input reduction (or a uniform proportional output increase) in the improvement projections, but the DFM approach aims to enhance efficiency strategies by introducing a weighted projection function. This approach may address both input reduction and output increase as a strategy of a DMU. A suitable form of multidimensional projection functions is given by a Multiple Objective Quadratic Programming (MOQP) model using a Euclidean distance. Likewise, the CD model yields efficient frontiers in different levels, while it is based on a level-by-level improvement projection. The present paper will first offer a new integrated DEA tool – emerging from a blend of the DFM and CD model using the Charnes-Cooper-Rhodes (CCR) method - in order to design a stepwise efficiency-improving projection model for a conventional DEA. The above-mentioned stepwise-projection model is illustrated on the basis of an application to the efficiency analysis of public transport operations in Japan.
    Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Stepwise projection,Distance Friction Minimization
    JEL: L91 N75 C01
    Date: 2011–08–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dgr:uvatin:20110113&r=eff
  20. By: Mignouna, D.B.; Mutabazi, K.D.S.; Senkondo, E.M.; Manyong, Victor M.
    Abstract: Declining yields of maize as a result of Striga infestation has necessitated a new technology known as Imazapyr-resistant maize (IRM) to contain the problem. As a result, research and development initiatives with substantial participation of the private sector to transfer this new technology to farmers have been made in western Kenya. This study therefore assesses the adoption of IRM variety and efficiency levels of farmers in western Kenya. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 600 households from Nyanza and Western provinces for this study. Tobit model and stochastic production frontier analysis were the analytical methods. Results show that age, education, maize production gap, risk, contact with extension agents, lack of seeds, membership in social group, effective pathway for IRM dissemination and compatibility of the technology are the variables that were found to be significant (P<0.05) in shaping the decisions of households on whether to adopt or not. The study reveals that the mean technical efficiency of maize production of sampled farmers is 70% indicating some inefficiencies of maize production in western Kenya. Also, adoption of IRM significantly increased frontier maize output (P<0.01); household size decreased inefficiency along with farm size. It was recommended that efforts to increase adoption of IRM for enhanced farm efficiency should focus on farmersâ education, farming experience and access to information and farm basic inputs.
    Keywords: IRM technology, efficiency, stochastic production frontier, Tobit model, Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:96160&r=eff
  21. By: Wiredu, A.N.; Mensah-Bonsu, Akwasi; Andah, E.K.; Fosu, K.Y.
    Abstract: The study assessed the effect of improved technology on land productivity of smallholder cocoa farmers in Ashanti Region, Ghana. With data from 366 smallholders cocoa farmers productivity was shown to be linearly related to and the use of improved cocoa technology in the study area. Both the decision to use improved technologies and the proportion of cocoa land allocated to cocoa production are all significant determinants of increased productivity. In addition, farm level factors characteristics as well as idiosyncrasies are shown to affect productivity. These including age, household size, participation in programs related to cocoa production, access to virgin lands, size of cocoa farm, labour resource use and nativity affect productivity at various levels of significance. Strategies to improve the productivity of the smallholder cocoa farmers must include the promotion of improved cocoa technologies as it evidently enhances productivity of the smallholders. These must not come alone but with appropriate training on their use.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:97073&r=eff
  22. By: Eze, C.C.; Konkwo, S.O.; Orebiyi, J.S.; Kadiri, F.A.
    Abstract: This study examined land tenure systems, farm sizes, agricultural productivity and innovation in Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socio-economic characteristics of farmers, estimated the farm size of the farmers, identified reasons for not practicing mechanized farming, identified different innovations available to the farmers and identified the factors that affected agricultural productivity . Five communities were chosen randomly and from each of these communities, twenty farmers were randomly chosen. Data were collected, collated and analyzed using relevant techniques such as means, percentages, frequency distribution and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that 85% of the respondents practiced individual land tenure system alone. It was also revealed that the laws of inheritance and increase in population led to the subdivision and fragmentation of existing farmland in such a manner that the sizes of farm holdings discouraged agricultural commercialization. Also, it was found that fragmentation led to a great distance between the plot which increased the waste in man-hour and energy. It was also shown that mechanization of agriculture was impracticable under land fragmentation and adoption of modern innovation was reduced since just 35.0% of the respondents claimed to have adopted other forms of innovation. Lastly, the null hypothesis was rejected concluding that socio-economic factors affected the farmerâs productivity in the area. It was recommended that formation of cooperatives by farmers is an imperative in farm land consolidation of the scattered farm holdings into economic size to encourage large scale operation and bulk input sourcing and procurement.
    Keywords: land Tenure system, farm size, Agricultural productivity, innovation, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2011–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc11:108934&r=eff
  23. By: Vítor João Pereira Domingues Martinho (Centro de Estudos em Educação, Tecnologias e Saúde (CI&DETS))
    Abstract: This study analyses, through cross-section estimation methods, the influence of spatial effects in productivity (product per worker), at economic sectors level of the NUTs III of mainland Portugal, from 1995 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2005 (taking in count the data availability and the Portuguese and European context), considering the Verdoorn relationship. From the analyses of the data, by using Moran I statistics, it is stated that productivity is subject to a positive spatial autocorrelation (productivity of each of the regions develops in a similar manner to each of the neighbouring regions), above all in services. The total sectors of all regional economy present, also, indicators of being subject to positive autocorrelation in productivity. Bearing in mind the results of estimations, it can been that the effects of spatial spillovers, spatial lags (measuring spatial autocorrelation through the spatially lagged dependent variable) and spatial error (measuring spatial autocorrelation through the spatially lagged error terms), influence the Verdoorn relationship when it is applied to the economic sectors of Portuguese regions. The results obtained for the two periods are different, as expected, and are better in second period, because, essentially, the European and national public supports.
    Keywords: Spatial Econometrics, Economic Growth, Productivity Analysis, Regional Development
    JEL: C21 O40 O47 R58
    Date: 2011–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ver:wpaper:11/2011&r=eff
  24. By: Manello Alessandro (University of Bergamo and Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, Moncalieri (TO), Italy)
    Abstract: this research presents an extension of the directional distance function model to measure performances for firms which produce a large number of pollutants and operate in different industrial sectors. I use this methodology to estimate productivity indexes on a sample of Italian firms that were forced to declare their emissions to the European Pollution Release and Transfer Register in 2007. A proxy for the environmental regulation’s cost is derived and results show a significant impact in term of potential value added lost. Estimations also reveal differences in mean environmental performances among industries; furthermore, the effect of pollution control follows the same path.
    Keywords: Directional distance function, Environmental regulation, Polluting industries
    JEL: Q50 Q52 Q56
    Date: 2011–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:csc:cerisp:201103&r=eff
  25. By: Cui, Cathy Xin; Hanley, Nick; McGregor, P. G. (Peter Gregor); Soo, Jung Ha; Swales, J. Kim; Turner, Karen; Yin, Ya Ping
    Abstract: This paper examines the issue of decoupling economic growth and pollution through growth driven by productivity improvements; and the extent to which pollution effects spill over national borders. Focus is widened from conventional production measures of pollution to a consumption accounting principle (carbon footprints). This adds a useful dimension to understanding pollution leakage effects. Using an interregional empirical general equilibrium framework, we consider the impacts of productivity growth in one region in that region and a neighbour linked through trade in goods and services and in the factor of production that is targeted with the productivity improvement (here through interregional migration of labour). The key finding is that while economic growth resulting from the productivity improvement in one region is accompanied by increased absolute pollution levels across both regions, positive competitiveness effects lead to a reduction in imports and pollution embodied therein to both regions from the rest of the world.
    Keywords: carbon footprints; pollution leakage; economic growth; factor mobility; labour productivity
    Date: 2011–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:stl:stledp:2011-13&r=eff
  26. By: Kapfer, Martin; Hubner, Rico; Eckstein, Karin; Ziesel, Sigrid; Kantelhardt, Jochen
    Abstract: According to the concept of ecosystem services, agriculture not only provides commodities but also cultural and regulating services. While it is easy to value commodity production by market prices, the valuation of cultural and regulating services is complex because of their public good character. Non-parametric approaches such as the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) allow for estimating the contribution of agriculture to such services. However, it is not enough to know the extent of ecosystem services provided; it is also necessary to be aware of which farmers provide these services and where they are provided. In this paper, we suggest a plot-specific approach combining GIS analysis and DEA models. This allows a spatially explicit assessment of agricultural land use for different subject matters such as ecology and the contribution of a single plot to landscape diversity. The approach is undertaken in a marginal low-mountain region in Germany on 95 farms involving more than 5,800 plots. The results show the spatial distribution of externalities supplied by agriculture and the degree of segregation between âproduction areasâ and âprotection areasâ. The results also allow a deeper understanding of the spatial impact of policy measures on the provision of ecosystem services by agriculture.
    Keywords: Agricultural land use, data envelopment, environment-oriented technical efficiency, landscape-appearance-oriented technical efficiency, Land Economics/Use, Q12, Q26, Q57,
    Date: 2011–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc11:108954&r=eff
  27. By: Enrico Spolaore; Romain Wacziarg
    Abstract: We document an empirical relationship between the cross-country adoption of technologies and the degree of long-term historical relatedness between human populations. Historical relatedness is measured using genetic distance, a measure of the time since two populations’ last common ancestors. We find that the measure of human relatedness that is relevant to explain international technology diffusion is genetic distance relative to the world technological frontier (“relative frontier distance”). This evidence is consistent with long-term historical relatedness acting as a barrier to technology adoption: societies that are more distant from the technological frontier tend to face higher imitation costs. The results can help explain current differences in total factor productivity and income per capita across countries.
    JEL: F43 O33 O57
    Date: 2011–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:17271&r=eff
  28. By: Pami Dua (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, Delhi, India); B. N. GOLDAR (V.K.R.V. Rao Centre for Studies in Globalization Institute of Economic Growth Delhi); SMRUTI RANJAN BEHERA (Department of Economics Shyamlal College, University of Delhi,Delhi)
    Abstract: The paper attempts to explore the technology spillover effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Indian manufacturing industries across different selected clusters in India. To measure the spillover effect to domestic firms in a particular cluster, a model is used that combines an innovative production function with a conventional production function. The model parameter estimates provide an evaluation of the technology spillovers in a cluster and the inter-cluster spillovers taking place in various regions. The empirical findings reveal significant variations across clusters in regard to spillovers. While some clusters benefit from foreign firm presence and technological stock within the cluster, a more commonly observed pattern is that domestic firms in a cluster gain from the presence of foreign firms in other clusters of the region and spillovers from technological stock in the regions. In some clusters, productivity enhancing effects of investment climates is visible, but in several others there is no such effect.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment; Technology Spillover; Clusters; Firm location
    JEL: O41 O1 L6 R12
    Date: 2011–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cde:cdewps:200&r=eff
  29. By: Chebil, Ali; Frija, Aymen; Abdelkafi, Belhassen
    Abstract: This study aims first to measure the farm specific irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE), through non parametric DEA model; and second to evaluate the potential irrigation cost reductions and identify the main factors causing variations in IWUE among the sample farms. Cross sectional data collected from a sample of 75 farms participating in the WaDImena project in Nadhour region (northern Tunisia) was used for this aim. The results showed that the average level of IWUE across the farm sample was around 61.2% under variable returns to scale (VRS) assumption. However, the estimated mean irrigation water technical cost efficiency (ITCE) is much higher than IWUE. Farmers would be able to reduce their actual cost by 5% under VRS by adjusting irrigation water to its efficient level. This low level of cost reductions is consistent with the existing literature about IWUE in Tunisia. Moreover, education level of farmers, access to credit and agricultural extension service showed a positive relationship with the IWUE in our case study.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:96158&r=eff
  30. By: William Latham (Department of Economics,University of Delaware); Dmitry Volodin (Department of Economics,University of Delaware); Christian Le Bas (Laboratoire d'Économie de la Firme et des Institutions, Université Lumière Lyon); Riad Bouklia Hassane (Laboratoire d'Économie de la Firme et des Institutions, Université Lumière Lyon)
    Abstract: Regional creative resources include inventors. Policies conducive to inventors’ productivity or attracting productive inventors promote regional development. We build on prior work on inventor mobility and productivity, analyzing German, French and British patents filed in the US by 7,500 “prolific” inventors (fifteen or more inventions). We measure inventor mobility across regions, companies and technologies. We analyze the relationships among mobility, productivity and value. We find geographic mobility increases inventor productivity in the UK and France but not in Germany and geographic mobility is not related to the value of inventions except in Germany where it has a negative effect.
    Keywords: Patents, inventor mobility, prolific inventors
    JEL: O31 R58
    Date: 2011
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dlw:wpaper:11-06.&r=eff
  31. By: Korir, M.K.; Kibet, J.; Kipsat, Mary J.; Nyangweso, P.M.; Rirei, M.
    Abstract: The dairy sub sector is one of the most important of the agricultural sub sectors in Kenya, contributing to 5% of Kenyaâs GDP. The estimated annual consumption of milk stands at 3.1 billion litres. Although there was a steady agricultural growth to about 6% between 2003 and 2007, other emerging challenges as high production costs have emerged. These were compounded by the post election crisis (PEC) after the disputed Presidential elections which saw the looting of property including livestock, leading to a decline in the sector. The objective of the study was to determine the dairy productivity after the PEC. The survey was done in four designated project areas namely, Turbo, Kapseret, Kessess and Ainabkoi. Primary data was collected by use of structured questionnaires from 194 systematically selected farmers. The data was then analyzed by use of the SPSS. The results show that 67.53% of the farmers had lactating cows; the average number being 1.2 cows. The numbers of all the livestock categories (lactating, dry, bulls and steers, and calves) reduced after the PEC. Despite a higher mean production of 10.67 lts/day for pure breeds, this was not significantly different from the average production of 7.38 lts/day among the crosses. This implied that the milk production potential of pure bred dairy cattle was yet to be exploited. It is recommended that development agencies focus on all production and management initiatives to enable farmers exploit existing potential.
    Keywords: Dairy productivity, Uasin Gishu, Kenya, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:96177&r=eff
  32. By: D'Haese, Marijke F.C.; Speelman, Stijn; Vandamme, Ellen; Nkunzimana, Tharcisse; Ndimubandi, Jean; D'Haese, Luc
    Abstract: This paper deals with the devastating food insecurity in two densely populated provinces in the north of Burundi as a result of overpopulation and low production capacity in the aftermath of conflict. We compare data that was collected in the Ngozi and Muyinga Province in 2007 with data of households interviewed on the same hills in 1996. Households live from subsistence farming, erratic surplus sales, sales of coffee and banana and occasional off- and non-farm work. We find that not only did production levels decrease but also total factor productivity (Malmquist indices calculated with DEA approach) dropped in 83% of the hills between 1996 and 2007.
    Keywords: food security, post-conflict, Central Africa, Burundi, subsistence farming, poverty trap, International Development,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:96829&r=eff
  33. By: Vincent, Ngâeno; Lagat, B.K.; Korir, M.K.; Ngeno, E.K.; Kipsat, Mary J.
    Abstract: Poultry production is one of the most important economic activities to the smallholder farmers of Kenya. However, constraints are evident which have resulted in low production of poultry and poultry products to meet population demand and for socio-economic sustainability of the livelihoods. The objective of the study was to determine resource use efficiency, optimal production levels, production systems of small-scale poultry farmers in Bureti district, Kenya. Primary data were obtained using a set of structured questionnaires from 300 representative farmers drawn from the study area using cross-sectional sampling techniques. Data were analyzed by Cobb-Douglas production function. The results showed that the resources used in poultry production were underutilized while others were over utilized. The efficiency indicators for poultry feeds (0.0603) showed that poultry feeds were inefficiently used. Labour efficiency indicator (-0.091) showed that farmers were not only grossly inefficient in the use of the resource but also over utilized it while the efficiency indicator (60.86) for poultry equipment implied the resource was inefficiently utilized. It is recommended that farmers should use inputs more efficiently (particularly feeds which were being inefficiently utilized) by reducing their levels of employment.
    Keywords: Economic Efficiency, Resource Use Efficiency, Small-Holder Poultry Farmers, Kenya, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:97094&r=eff
  34. By: Teweldemedhin, M.Y.; van Schalkwyk, Herman D.
    Abstract: This study attempts to examine the empirical relationship between trade and total factor productivity (TFP) in the agricultural sector using both cross -sectiona, (across nine agricultural commodities), and time -series analysis. The Error Correction Model of ordinary least square (OLS) results from the cross -sectional analysis confirm that export shares and capital formation were found to be positive and significant; whereas, import shares and real exchange rate were found to be related negatively. However, the net effect of export and import shares had a positive effect. This implies that trade liberalisation causes productivity gains. Moreover, the time -series analysis goes in the same direction as the cross -sectional results, showing that there is a robust relationship among TFP, degree of openness, and capital formation. Whereas, debt was found to be inversely related, this implies that agricultural industries / farmers lack debt management skills.
    Keywords: TFP, OLS, Trade liberalization or degree of openness, capital formation, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:95963&r=eff
  35. By: Kilby, Christopher (Department of Economics and Statistics, Villanova School of Business, Villanova University)
    Abstract: In the last few years, numerous econometric studies have unearthed evidence of donor influence over the geographic distribution of funds from international financial institutions (IFIs). Scholars are now beginning to use quantitative methods to delve into the details of donor influence to understand better how IFIs function and to guide institutional reform. The evidence suggests that donors influence both the amount of funds committed (the number and size of loans) and the disbursement of committed funds. This paper advances the literature by applying stochastic frontier analysis to a novel data source to examine factors that affect how quickly World Bank projects proceed from identification to approval, i.e., how long it takes to prepare a project. Accelerated preparation is one explanation for how the World Bank might increase the number of loans to a recipient member country within a fixed time frame, for example in response to that country siding with powerful donor countries on important UN votes or while that country occupies an elected seat on the UN Security Council or the World Bank Executive Board.
    Keywords: Donor Influence; Project Preparation; Stochastic Frontier Analysis; United States; UN voting; World Bank
    JEL: F35 F53 O19
    Date: 2011–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:vil:papers:14&r=eff
  36. By: Falavigna, Greta; Ippoliti, Roberto
    Abstract: Il presente lavoro intende in prima battuta analizzare l'efficienza dei sistemi sanitari regionali sulla base della qualità percepita dai pazienti. Quest'ultima è stata calcolata sulla mobilità interregionale: flusso dei pazienti extra-regione (immigrati o mobilità positiva) confrontato con il flusso di quelli della regione stessa che escono per andare a farsi curare in un'altra (emigrati o mobilità passiva). Si ipotizza infatti che le persone si spostino dove percepiscono che la qualità sia migliore tenendo in considerazione la possibile influenza della rete sociale. Dopo aver ottenuto uno score di efficienza per ogni sistema sanitario regionale attraverso la metodologia della Data Envelopment Analysis è stato effettuato uno studio econometrico per verificare un'ulteriore ipotesi: può l'efficienza sanitaria regionale, così come concepita in questo lavoro, essere influenzata dal peso del settore pubblico? I risultati ottenuti suggeriscono che effettivamente il processo di privatizzazione della sanità regionale non porta a miglioramenti nel livello di qualità percepita dai pazienti.
    Keywords: analisi regionale; efficienza; DEA; sistema sanitario; regional analysis; efficiency; DEA; medical care system
    JEL: I11 I12 L15 C14
    Date: 2011–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:uca:ucapdv:159&r=eff
  37. By: Nyangweso, P.M.; Odmori, Paul Okelo; Mapelu, M.Z.; Odhiambo, Mark O.
    Abstract: Simulation models have been used successfully to forecast productivity of cropping systems under various weather, management and policy scenarios. These models have helped farmers make efficient resource allocation decisions. However, in Kenya simulation models have not been used extensively and more specifically in modeling large scale cropping systems. The study aimed at forecasting productivity and profitability of wheat cropping systems in Uasin Gishu district, Kenya. Both primary and secondary data were used. Both time series and cross-sectional data for variables of interest were collected and complemented by a survey of 20 wheat farmers who were systematically selected to verify information obtained from secondary sources. Cropping Systems simulation model and Monte Carlo simulation were used to determine wheat output and profits under alternative price scenarios. Even though, simulated yields overestimated actual field wheat yield both at the district and across the four agro-ecological zones, the deviation from the actual field yield was marginal. It is recommended that Cropsyst and Monte Carlo models be included among a bundle of tools for decision making. Further research is also required to test the two models under different locations, diverse soil types, varied management styles and different scales of production.
    Keywords: Wheat, cropping system, simulation, forecasting, productivity, profits, Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae10:95960&r=eff

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