nep-eff New Economics Papers
on Efficiency and Productivity
Issue of 2010‒12‒04
fifteen papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Deforestation Impact on the Household Sustainable Local Development: Nicaragua case, 1998-2005. By Zuniga Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto
  2. US Residential Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency: A Stochastic Demand Frontier Approach By Massimo Filippini; Lester C Hunt
  3. Capital Misallocation and Aggregate Factor Productivity By Costas Azariadis; Leo Kaas
  4. Consumption Ozone-Depleting Substances Impact in Central American GDAP: An Input Oriented Malmquist DEA Index By Zuniga Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto
  5. Does Schumpeterian Creative Destruction Lead to Higher Productivity? The effects of firms’ entry By Carlos Carreira; Paulino Teixeira
  6. The Spanish technnical change: A regional and a dynamic analysis (1994-2007) By Ana Karina Alfaro; José Javier Núñez Velázquez
  7. The Missing Food Problem: How Low Agricultural Imports Contribute to International Income and Productivity Differences By Trevor Tombe
  8. Vertical Integration and Efficiency: an application to the Italian Machine Tool Industry. By Fabio Pieri; Enrico Zaninotto
  9. The Dynamics of Labour Productivity across Italian Provinces: Convergence and Polarization By Davide Fiaschi; Lisa Gianmoena; Angela Parenti
  10. Organizational capital and firm performance. Empirical evidence for European firms By Claudia Tronconi; Giuseppe Vittucci Marzetti
  11. Enterprise performance, privatization and the role of ownership in Bulgaria By Tatahi, Motasam
  12. Enterprise performance, privatization and the role of ownership in Belgium By Tatahi, Motasam
  13. Enterprise performance, privatization and the role of ownership in Austria By Tatahi, Motasam
  14. Enterprise performance, privatization and the role of ownership in Finland By Tatahi, Motasam
  15. Enterprise performance, privatization and the role of ownership in Germany By Tatahi, Motasam

  1. By: Zuniga Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto
    Abstract: CENTRAL AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, CAU V INTERNATIONAL MEETING OF THE ENCUENTRO JOURNAL
    Keywords: LSMS Survey, MECOVI, Technical Efficiency, Stochastic Frontier, Sustainable Local Development., Environmental Economics and Policy, Productivity Analysis, Q: 56, Q: 58.,
    Date: 2010–11–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miscpa:96911&r=eff
  2. By: Massimo Filippini (Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (cepe), ETH Zurich and Department of Economics, University of Lugano); Lester C Hunt (Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey)
    Abstract: This paper estimates a US ‘frontier’ residential aggregate energy demand function using panel data for 48 ‘states’ over the period 1995 to 2006 using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Utilizing an econometric energy demand model, the (in) efficiency of each state is modelled and it is argued that this represents a measure of the inefficient use of residential energy in each state (i.e. ‘waste energy’). This underlying efficiency for the US is therefore observed for each state as well as the relative efficiency across the states. Moreover, the analysis suggests that energy intensity is not necessarily a good indicator of energy efficiency, whereas by controlling for a range of economic and other factors, the measure of energy efficiency obtained via this approach is. This is a novel approach to model residential energy demand and efficiency and it is arguably particularly relevant given current US energy policy discussions related to energy efficiency.
    Keywords: Energy demand; US residential energy demand; efficiency and frontier analysis; state energy efficiency.
    JEL: D D2 Q Q4 Q5
    Date: 2010–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sur:seedps:130&r=eff
  3. By: Costas Azariadis (Department of Economics, Washington University, St. Louis MO, USA; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis (RCEA), Rimini, Italy); Leo Kaas (Department of Economics, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany)
    Keywords: D90, E32, O47
    Date: 2010–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rim:rimwps:39_10&r=eff
  4. By: Zuniga Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto
    Abstract: Contribution to Second Congress Rural Development.
    Keywords: Malmquist DEA Index, GDAP, ODS, hydrochlorofluorocabons (HCFCs), methyl bromide (Methyl Bromide), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Environmental Economics and Policy, Productivity Analysis, Q51, O47.,
    Date: 2010–11–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miscpa:96677&r=eff
  5. By: Carlos Carreira (GEMF/Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal); Paulino Teixeira (GEMF/Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the impact of newly created firms on industry productivity growth. Our central hypothesis is that there are two potential effects of new firms on productivity growth: a direct effect, as entrants may be relatively more productive than established firms; and an indirect effect, through increased competitive pressure that stimulates incumbents to elevate their productivity in order to survive. The results of the decomposition exercise of aggregate productivity growth suggest that the direct contribution of entry is small. In turn, the regression analysis on the effect of entry on productivity growth of incumbents indicates that the higher is the former, the higher is the latter, which is equivalent to say that the greater is the competitive pressure generated by new entrants, the higher is the expected aggregate productivity level.
    Keywords: Entry, Firm dynamics, Productivity growth, Competition effect
    JEL: L11 L16 L25 O12 O47 L60
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gmf:wpaper:2010-20&r=eff
  6. By: Ana Karina Alfaro (Departamento de Estadística, Estructura y O.E.I. Universidad de Alcalá.); José Javier Núñez Velázquez (Departamento de Estadística, Estructura y O.E.I. Universidad de Alcalá.)
    Abstract: Studying wage dispersion, many researchers have found that the skill premium (the ratio of skilled workers’ wages to unskilled ones) has increased after 1979 in many developed countries, when there was a very sharp increase in the supply of skilled workers. The recent consensus is that technical change favours skilled workers, replacing tasks previously performed by the unskilled and exacerbating inequality. In the Spanish case, Nuñez and Alfaro (2009) have found evidences of a decline in the wage premium during the nineties. So, in this paper, we distinguish between skilled and unskilled workers differentiating the efficiency units of both types of workers. Moreover, we calculate the Spanish technology frontier and the technology differences between the Spanish Regions in 2006 and we analyze the evolution of the Spanish technology frontier over 1994-2007, testing the kind of technical change. In addition, a coherent Spanish wage micro-data base is achieved, using data from Eurostat: ECHP and EU-SILC.
    Keywords: Technological frontiers, technological differences, technical change, skills
    JEL: J24 O14 O33
    Date: 2010
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:alc:alcamo:1002&r=eff
  7. By: Trevor Tombe
    Abstract: This paper finds an important relationship between the international food trade and cross-country income and productivity differences. Poor countries have low labour productivity in agriculture relative to other sectors, yet predominantly consume domestically-produced food. To understand these observations, I describe and exploit a general equilibrium model of international trade to: (1) measure sectoral productivity and trade costs across countries; and (2) quantify the impact of low poor-country food imports on international income and productivity gaps. Specifically, I expand on Yi and Zhang [2010] and modify an Eaton-Kortum trade model to incorporate multiple sectors, non-homothetic preferences, and labour mobility costs. With this model, I estimate PPP-adjusted productivity from observed bilateral trade data, avoiding problematic price and employment data in poor countries that direct output-per-worker estimates require. I find reasonable trade barriers and labour mobility costs account for the low poor-country imports despite their low productivity. Through various counterfactual experiments, I quantify how easing import barriers and labour mobility costs increases imports and within-agriculture specialization, shuts down low productivity domestic food producers, and lowers the gap between rich and poor countries. I also find an interaction between domestic labour-market distortions and trade barriers not found in the existing dual-economy literature, which largely abstracts from open-economy considerations. Overall, I account for one-third of the aggregate labour productivity gap between rich and poor countries and for nearly half the gap in agriculture.
    Keywords: Food Problem, Dual Economy Model, Trade, Agriculture, Productivity
    JEL: F1 F41 O11
    Date: 2010–11–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tor:tecipa:tecipa-416&r=eff
  8. By: Fabio Pieri; Enrico Zaninotto (DISA, Faculty of Economics, Trento University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between firm efficiency and vertical integration in the Italian machine tool (MT) industry. A theoretical model of entry and competition within an industry has been set up. In this model firms can choose either to be vertically integrated or not: the most efficientfirms self-select in being vertically integrated, while less efficientfirms prefer a disintegrated structure and they both coexist in equilibrium. In the second part of the paper the relationship between efficiency and vertical integration has been tested using a stochastic frontier framework in an novel panel dataset including around 500 MT builders. The theoretical prediction is confirmed: outsourcing seems a rational choice for less efficient firms to make positive operating profits and stay in the market; on the other hand, more efficient firms exploit their efficiency advantage to control a greater part of the production chain, possibly benefiting from greater coordination among different phases and tailored intermediate inputs.
    Keywords: vertical integration; technical efficiency; firm heterogeneity; heteroskedastic frontier model
    JEL: D24 L23 L25 L64
    Date: 2010–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:trt:disawp:1006&r=eff
  9. By: Davide Fiaschi; Lisa Gianmoena; Angela Parenti
    Abstract: This paper analyses the dynamics of labour productivity across Italian Provinces in the period 1995-2006. Inequality decreased but a clear pattern of polarization emerged, with the formation of a cluster of high-productive provinces in the North and Center-West of Italy and a cluster of low-productive provinces in the South and in the Center-East. A core of provinces belonging to ?ve regions (Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany and Lazio) appears to bene?t of a higher growth of productivity. This regional component favoured both inequality and polarization, while the initial level of productivity decreased inequality but increased polarization.
    Keywords: distribution dynamics, spatial dependence, output composition, entrepreneurial fabric, human capital.
    JEL: C21 R11 O47 O52
    Date: 2010–10–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pie:dsedps:2010/105&r=eff
  10. By: Claudia Tronconi; Giuseppe Vittucci Marzetti
    Abstract: The paper assesses the impact of Organizational Capital (OC) on firm perfor- mance for a sample of European firms. OC is proxied by capitalizing an income statement item (SGA expenses). A rationale for this methodology is provided. Results are robust and show the strong effect of OC on firm performance.
    Keywords: Intangibles, Knowledge-based resources, Organizational capital,R&D capital stock, Translog production function
    JEL: C21 D24 D29 L20
    Date: 2010
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:trn:utwpde:1018&r=eff
  11. By: Tatahi, Motasam
    Abstract: Abstract In both economically developed and developing countries, privatisation, budget austerity measures and market liberalisations have become key aspects of structural reform programs in the last three decades. These three recommended policies were parts of strong revival of classical and new-classical school of thought since the middle of 70s. Such programs aim to achieve higher microeconomic efficiency and foster economic growth, whilst also aspiring to reduce public sector borrowing requirements through the elimination of unnecessary subsidies. For firms to achieve superior performance a change in ownership from public (state ownership) to private has been recommended as a vital condition. To assess the ownership role, the economic performances of private, public and mixed enterprises in Bulgaria is compared through the use of factor analysis method. The extracted factors, using data of two years, 1998 and 2000, do not pick ownership as a key performance factor.
    Keywords: Bulgaria; efficiency; performance measure; privatization; factor analysis; public and private relationship; role of ownership
    JEL: L3 L33
    Date: 2010–10–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:27054&r=eff
  12. By: Tatahi, Motasam
    Abstract: Abstract In both economically developed and developing countries, privatisation, budget austerity measures and market liberalisations have become key aspects of structural reform programs in the last three decades. These three recommended policies were parts of strong revival of classical and new-classical school of thought since the middle of 70s. Such programs aim to achieve higher microeconomic efficiency and foster economic growth, whilst also aspiring to reduce public sector borrowing requirements through the elimination of unnecessary subsidies. For firms to achieve superior performance a change in ownership from public (state ownership) to private has been recommended as a vital condition. To assess the ownership role, the economic performances of private, public and mixed enterprises in Belgium is compared through the use of factor analysis method. The extracted factors, using data of two years, 1998 and 2000, do not pick ownership as a key performance factor.
    Keywords: Belgium; efficiency; performance measure; privatization; factor analysis; public and private relationship; role of ownership
    JEL: L3 L33
    Date: 2010–10–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:27051&r=eff
  13. By: Tatahi, Motasam
    Abstract: Abstract In both economically developed and developing countries, privatisation, budget austerity measures and market liberalisations have become key aspects of structural reform programs in the last three decades. These three recommended policies were parts of strong revival of classical and new-classical school of thought since the middle of 70s. Such programs aim to achieve higher microeconomic efficiency and foster economic growth, whilst also aspiring to reduce public sector borrowing requirements through the elimination of unnecessary subsidies. For firms to achieve superior performance a change in ownership from public (state ownership) to private has been recommended as a vital condition. To assess the ownership role, the economic performances of private, public and mixed enterprises in Austria is compared through the use of factor analysis method. The extracted factors, using data of two years, 1998 and 2000, do not pick ownership as a key performance factor.
    Keywords: Austria; efficiency; performance measure; privatization; factor analysis; public and private relationship; role of ownership
    JEL: L3 L33
    Date: 2010–10–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:27053&r=eff
  14. By: Tatahi, Motasam
    Abstract: In both economically developed and developing countries, privatisation, budget austerity measures and market liberalisations have become key aspects of structural reform programs in the last three decades. These three recommended policies were parts of strong revival of classical and new-classical school of thought since the middle of 70s. Such programs aim to achieve higher microeconomic efficiency and foster economic growth, whilst also aspiring to reduce public sector borrowing requirements through the elimination of unnecessary subsidies. For firms to achieve superior performance a change in ownership from public (state ownership) to private has been recommended as a vital condition. To assess the ownership role, the economic performances of private, public and mixed enterprises in Finland is compared through the use of factor analysis method. The extracted factors, using data of two years, 1998 and 2000, do not pick ownership as a key performance factor.
    Keywords: Finland; efficiency; performance measure; privatization; factor analysis; public and private relationship; role of ownership
    JEL: L3 L33
    Date: 2010–10–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:27055&r=eff
  15. By: Tatahi, Motasam
    Abstract: In both economically developed and developing countries, privatisation, budget austerity measures and market liberalisations have become key aspects of structural reform programs in the last three decades. These three recommended policies were parts of strong revival of classical and new-classical school of thought since the middle of 70s. Such programs aim to achieve higher microeconomic efficiency and foster economic growth, whilst also aspiring to reduce public sector borrowing requirements through the elimination of unnecessary subsidies. For firms to achieve superior performance a change in ownership from public (state ownership) to private has been recommended as a vital condition. To assess the ownership role, the economic performances of private, public and mixed enterprises in Germany is compared through the use of factor analysis method. The extracted factors, using data of two years, 1998 and 2000, do not pick ownership as a key performance factor.
    Keywords: Germany; efficiency; performance measure; privatization; factor analysis; public and private relationship; role of ownership
    JEL: L3 L33
    Date: 2010–10–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:27057&r=eff

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