New Economics Papers
on Efficiency and Productivity
Issue of 2010‒05‒08
eight papers chosen by

  1. State Aid for Industrial Enterprises in Belarus: Remedy or Poison? By Kolesnikova, Irina
  2. Efficiency of Organic Input Units under NPOF Scheme in India By Charyulu Kumara D.; Biswas Subho
  3. How to close the productivity gap between the US and Europe: A quantitative assessment using a semi-endogenous growth model By Werner Roeger; Janos Varga; Jan in 't Veld
  4. The Cost Inefficiency of Public Primary Education in Japan By Hitoshi Saito
  5. An Alternative Theory of the Plant Size Distribution with an Application to Trade By Thomas J. Holmes; John J. Stevens
  6. Do bank-firm relationships influence firm internationalization? By Riccardo De Bonis; Giovanni Ferri; Zeno Rotondi
  7. Economics and Efficiency of Organic Farming vis-à-vis Conventional Farming in India By Charyulu Kumara D.; Biswas Subho
  8. Trends in Technical Progress in India .Analysis of Input-Output Tables from 1968 to 2003 By Dholakia Ravindra H; Agarwalla Astha; Bazaz Amir Bashir; Agarwal Prasoon

  1. By: Kolesnikova, Irina
    Abstract: In this paper the impact of various types of state aid on aggregate productivity growth in Belarusian manufacturing is investigated by combining the data on government support with firm-level accounting data for period 1998-2007. Obtained results indicate that the state aid provided for restructuring truly leads to the modernization of the enterprises (capital-to-labor ratio grows), that this modernization leads to an increase in effectiveness (TFP grows, especially at large enterprises), and that this growth of TFP allows the newly restructured enterprises to raise their market share which results in the growth of the allocative efficiency. However, when the state aid is provided to support enterprises in financial distress, while it leads to an increase in employment (only for enterprises receiving aid, especially for large enterprises, but not for the total sample) and to an expansion in the market share of large enterprises (not small and medium size), this achievement comes at the expense of the decrease in TFP.
    Keywords: State aid; total factor productivity; allocative efficiency; Arellano-Bond method.
    JEL: C13 O25 O49 C33 L53
    Date: 2010–01
  2. By: Charyulu Kumara D.; Biswas Subho
    Abstract: India had developed a vast and rich traditional agricultural knowledge since ancient times and presently finding solutions to problems created by over use of agrochemicals. Todays’ modern farming is not sustainable in consonance with economics, ecology, equity, energy and socio-cultural dimensions. The entire agricultural community is trying to find out an alternative sustainable farming system, which is ecologically sound, economically and socially acceptable. Sustainable agriculture is unifying concept, which considers ecological, environmental, philosophical, ethical and social impacts, balanced with cost effectiveness.The answer to the problem probably lies in returning to our own roots. Traditional agricultural practices, which are, based on natural and organic methods of farming offer several effective, feasible and cost effective solutions to most of the basic problems being faced in conventional farming system. With having such a due importance of organic farming in India, the government has initiated the programs like National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP) in 2000 and National Project on Organic Farming (NPOF) in 2004. Availability of quality organic inputs is critical for success of organic farming in the country. Setting up of organic input units are being financed as credit-linked and back-ended subsidy through NABARD and NCDC under NPOF Capital investment subsidy scheme. Three types of organic input production units namely; fruit/vegetable waste units, bio-fertilizer unit and vermi-hatchery units are being subsidized @ 25 per cent of their total project costs respectively. Around 455 vermi-hatchery units, 31 bio-fertilizer units and 10 fruit and vegetable waste units were sanctioned across different states by NABARD till May, 2009. But, NCDC has so far sanctioned only two bio-fertilizer units in Maharashtra state. This paper made a humble attempt to know the present status of these units, capacity utilization and their efficiency. A sample of 40 vermi-hatchery units were selected for the present study from four states namely; Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab and U.P respectively based on their weights in total population. A model based non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used for analyzing the efficiency of organic input units. Multiple regression models are also used to estimate the drivers for efficiency in vermi-hatchery units. The average installed capacity of the sample unit was 150 TPA. But, the mean production was around 76.2 TPA. The average capacity utilization rate was only 50.8 per cent which indicates nearly half of its full potential. Across different states, this value was the highest in Maharashtra (124.6%) followed by U.P (70.0%), Punjab (22.0%) and Gujarat (16.1%). The main reasons for low capacity utilization were lack of demand, poor production skills and insufficient infrastructure. The estimated mean technical, allocative and economic efficiencies of sample vermi-hatchery units under DEA-CRS model were 63.7, 50.95 and 32.95 per cent respectively. The results clearly indicate the low technical, allocative and economic efficiency of sample units. Correspondingly, the mean values for DEA-VRS model were 83.39, 59.42 and 50.24 per cent. These values conclude that organic inputs are suffering from both allocative inefficiency as well as scale inefficiency. Factors like size of the unit, contribution of family labor have shown positive relation with technical as well as scale-efficiencies. Participation in the training programs was also enhancing technical efficiency. The age of the unit and subsidies discouraged the scale-efficiency.
    Date: 2010–04–01
  3. By: Werner Roeger; Janos Varga; Jan in 't Veld
    Abstract: This paper uses a semi-endogenous growth model to identify possible sources for three interrelated stylised differences between the EU and the US, namely a higher level of productivity and knowledge investment and larger skill premia in the US compared to the EU. The model allows us to explain these differences in terms of differences in subsidies to R and D, mark ups, administrative entry barriers and financial frictions.The paper provides a ranking about the relative importance of these factors. Goods market competition and both administrative and financial entry barriers are the most important explanatory factors for lower productivity in the EU, while entry barriers explain the bulk of the knowledge investment gap and high skilled wage premia.
    Keywords: productivity differences endogenous growth R and D market structure skill composition dynamic general equilibrium modelling Economic P how to close the productivity gap between the US a quantitative assessment using a semi-endogenou Varga Roeger in 't Veld European Economy. Economic Papers
    JEL: C51 E21 E22 E52
    Date: 2010–01
  4. By: Hitoshi Saito (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: Under the current fiscal conditions in many local, regional as well as the national government, the public schools face the substantial budget short falls . In order to alleviate the substantial budget shortage, it is important to raise efficiency, particularly in primary education as the costs of primary education are dominant part of the budget spending. Improving the productivity of human capital is also essential for providing bet ter quality service, and this can be also achieved by raising efficiency in primary education. This paper reports the empirical study on inefficient education spending in public schools, particularly for primary education by using Stochastic Front i e r Analysis (SFA). By applying Tobit Model in our analysis of ineff iciency of public school spending in primary education, we were able to locate the source of the problem was triggered by the decrease in the number of schools as a result of declining birth rates and the number of school children. Based upon our study using the estimated cost funct ions related t o ineff iciency of spending, we conclude that the larger schools with greater number of students perform better at cost efficiency than the smaller schools with smaller number of students.
    Keywords: Primary Education, Educational finance, Cost Inefficiency, Local government
    JEL: I22 I28 H75
    Date: 2010–04
  5. By: Thomas J. Holmes; John J. Stevens
    Abstract: There is wide variation in the sizes of manufacturing plants, even within the most narrowly defined industry classifications used by statistical agencies. Standard theories attribute all such size differences to productivity differences. This paper develops an alternative theory in which industries are made up of large plants producing standardized goods and small plants making custom or specialty goods. It uses confidential Census data to estimate the parameters of the model, including estimates of plant counts in the standardized and specialty segments by industry. The estimated model fits the data relatively well compared with estimates based on standard approaches. In particular, the predictions of the model for the impacts of a surge in imports from China are consistent with what happened to U.S. manufacturing industries that experienced such a surge over the period 1997--2007. Large-scale standardized plants were decimated, while small-scale specialty plants were relatively less impacted.
    JEL: F10 L11
    Date: 2010–04
  6. By: Riccardo De Bonis (Banca d'Italia, Economics and International Relations Area); Giovanni Ferri (Universit… degli Studi di Bari); Zeno Rotondi (UniCredit Group, Head of Research and Competitors Benchmarking,, Retail Division)
    Abstract: We show that a longer relationship length with the main bank fosters Italian firms' foreign direct investment (FDI) and, weakly, production off-shoring abroad. Possibly, longer bank relationships help secure external financing for these companies, which have become more opaque because of their internationalization. In contrast, other than for smaller-sized companies, we detect no impact on firms' propensity to export, suggesting that exporting alters enterprises' financial set-up less than shifting production internationally. We also find a link between the internationalization of the main creditor bank and firm FDIs. Our evidence suggests that reexisting strong bank-firm relationships support manufacturing firms' production internationalization.
    Keywords: bank-firm relationships, export, external finance, foreign direct investments, internationalization, off-shoring
    JEL: D21 F10 F21 F23 G21
    Date: 2010–04
  7. By: Charyulu Kumara D.; Biswas Subho
    Abstract: Organic farming systems have attracted increasing attention over the last one decade because they are perceived to offer some solutions to the problems currently besetting the agricultural sector. Organic farming has the potential to provide benefits in terms of environmental protection, conservation of non-renewable resources and improved food quality. India is bestowed with lot of potential to produce all varieties of organic products due to its diverse agro-climatic regions. In several parts of the country, the inherited tradition of organic farming is an added advantage. This holds promise for the organic producers to tap the market which is growing steadily in the domestic market related to the export market. In India, the land under certification is around 2.8 million ha. But, there is considerable latent interest among farmers in conversion to organic farming. However, some farmers are reluctant to convert because of the perceived high costs and risks involved in organic farming. Despite the attention which has been paid to organic farming over the last few years, very little accessible information actually exists on the costs and returns of organic farming in India. The empirical evidences of efficiency analysis of organic and conventional farming systems are scarce or even absent. So, the present paper focuses mainly on the issues like economics and efficiency of organic farming vis-à-vis conventional farming in India. Four states namely Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab and U.P were purposively selected for the present study. Similarly, four major crops i.e., cotton, sugarcane, paddy and wheat were chosen for comparison. A model based non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used for analyzing the efficiency of the farming systems. The crop economics results showed a mixed response. Overall, it is concluded that the unit cost of production is lower in organic farming in case of cotton and sugarcane crops where as the same is lower in conventional farming for paddy and wheat crops. The DEA efficiency analysis conducted on different crops indicated that the efficiency levels are lower in organic farming when compared to conventional farming, relative to their production frontiers. The results conclude that there is ample scope for increasing the efficiency under organic farms.
    Date: 2010–04–20
  8. By: Dholakia Ravindra H; Agarwalla Astha; Bazaz Amir Bashir; Agarwal Prasoon
    Abstract: The paper is based on the 8 Input . Output (I-O) tables for the Indian economy available over a period of 36 years from 1968-69 to 2003-04. The technical progress (TP) in the context of the I-O tables is based on the concept of a production function defining the relationship between gross output and material inputs as well as value added at the disaggregated sectoral level. The paper attempts to answer the following questions: (i) Was the TP substantial and continuous throughout the period?; (ii) Was the rate of TP during the inward looking and outward looking growth strategy phases of the economy the same?; and (iii) Was the rate of TP at the disaggregated sectoral level almost constant over time? In order to measure the rate of TP, the available eight national I-O tables in India are first made compatible for the number, scope and definitions of sectors as well as for prices by converting them at constant 1993-94 prices. Chenery-Watanabe coefficient is used for measuring the rate of TP for different sectors across the 8 I-O tables.
    Date: 2009–11–10

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.