New Economics Papers
on Efficiency and Productivity
Issue of 2007‒02‒03
nine papers chosen by

  1. Innovation and Labour Productivity in the Swiss Manufacturing Sector: An Analysis Based on Firm Panel Data By Spyros Arvanitis
  2. Productivity Growth in Service Industries – Has 'Baumol's Disease' Really Been Cured? By Jochen Hartwig
  3. Strategies Pursued by Swiss Firms in Investing in R&D at Foreign Locations : An Empirical Analysis Based on Firm-level Data By Heinz Hollenstein
  4. Sources of Investment Inefficiency: The Case of Fixed-Asset Investment in China By Duo Qin; Haiyan Song
  5. Multinationals Do It Better: Evidence on the Efficiency of Corporations’ Capital Budgeting By William H. Greene; Abigail S. Hornstein; Lawrence J. White; Bernard Y. Yeung
  6. Russian manufacturing and the threat of ‘Dutch disease’ - A comparison of competitiveness developments in Russian and Ukrainian industry By Rudiger Ahrend; Donato de Rosa; William Tompson
  7. Stimulating Innovation in Russia: The Role of Institutions and Policies By Christian Gianella; William Tompson
  8. The Asset Management Industry in Asia: Dynamics of Growth, Structure, and Performance By Ingo Walter; Elif Sisli
  9. International Competitiveness of Manufacturing Firms in sub-Saharan Africa By Fukunishi, Takahiro

  1. By: Spyros Arvanitis (Swiss Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH))
    Abstract: This paper investigates (a) the determinants of innovation performance and (b) the impact of innovation performance on labour productivity of Swiss manufacturing firms in the period 1994-2002. The data used in this study come from the KOF panel database and were collected in 1996, 1999 and 2002 respectively based on a questionnaire quite similar to that used in the Community Innovation Surveys (CIS). The use of a wide spectrum of indicators helps to test the robustness of the specification of the innovation equation as well as the robustness of the impact of innovation on economic performance. We find a clear-cut positive effect of innovation on labour productivity.
    Keywords: innovation, labour productivity, R&D expenditures
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2006–09
  2. By: Jochen Hartwig (Swiss Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH))
    Abstract: Since the mid-nineties, U.S. labor productivity outgrows its European counterpart by a wide margin. Several recent studies have found that this result is brought about by relatively few service industries, where productivity growth has accelerated in the U.S., but not so in Europe. Based on this finding, TRIPLETT/BOSWORTH (2003) have asserted that ‘Baumol’s Disease’, according to which imbalances in productivity growth between a ‘progressive’ (manufacturing) and a ‘nonprogressive’ (service) sector of the economy lead to constant expenditure shifts into the latter, ‘has been cured’ – at least in the U.S. The present paper challenges this statement, showing that there is only one genuine service industry with a lasting increase in productivity, namely wholesale and retail trade. Labor productivity in the U.S. retail industry has grown fast due to a recent proliferation of Wal-Mart-type ‘big box’ stores that would be practically impossible in Europe because of stricter zoning plans. Since this ‘Wal-Mart effect’ is likely to taper off sooner or later, it is more accurate to say that ‘Baumol’s Disease’ has been protracted than to say that it has been cured.
    Keywords: Productivity, services sector, Baumol’s Disease, statistical artifacts
    JEL: C82 L80 L81 O41 O47 O57
    Date: 2006–11
  3. By: Heinz Hollenstein (Swiss Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH))
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is twofold: Firstly, we try to identify and characterise different types of strategies firms pursue in performing foreign R&D. Secondly, it is analysed whether the types of R&D strategies we identified in the first part differ in terms of their impact on firm productivity. In order to identify foreign R&D strategies we perform, in a first step, a non-hierarchical cluster analysis of data on the firms’ motives for investing abroad in R&D. In a second step, we characterise these clusters by use of a large number of variables that, according to the well-known OLI paradigm, determine a firm’s FDI in distribution, manufacturing and R&D. In this way, we can check whether the clusters identified by applying a (purely) statistical classification procedure effectively may be interpreted as “types of foreign R&D strategies”. We end up with four types of strategies, which significantly differ in terms of characteristics that are important according to the OLI approach. In the second part we estimate a production function where the standard factor inputs are complemented by domestic R&D and strategy-specific foreign R&D. It turns out that only one of the four strategies exerts a positive influence on firm productivity. However, it cannot be excluded that some of the other strategies have, in the longer run, a positive productivity effect as well. The paper also finds that foreign and domestic R&D, on balance, are complements.
    Keywords: Internationalisation of R&D; outward FDI in R&D; motives for foreign R&D; types of foreign R&D strategies; foreign R&D and productivity; substitution vs. complementarity of foreign and domestic R&D.
    JEL: F21 F23 O3
    Date: 2006–10
  4. By: Duo Qin (Queen Mary, University of London); Haiyan Song (Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
    Abstract: This study attempts to measure the inefficiency associated with aggregate investment in a transitional economy. The inefficiency is decomposed into allocative and production inefficiency based on standard production theory. Allocative inefficiency is measured by disequilibrium investment demand. Institutional factors are then taken into consideration as possible explanatory variables of the disequilibrium. The resulting model is applied to Chinese provincial panel data. The main findings are: Chinese investment demand is strongly receptive to expansionary fiscal policies and inter-provincial network effects; and although there are signs of increasing allocative efficiency, the tendency of over-investment remains, even with improvements in production efficiency.
    Keywords: Over-investment, Efficiency, Disequilibrium, Soft-budget constraint
    JEL: E22 E62 H74 P3 C23
    Date: 2007–01
  5. By: William H. Greene; Abigail S. Hornstein; Lawrence J. White; Bernard Y. Yeung
    Date: 2006
  6. By: Rudiger Ahrend; Donato de Rosa; William Tompson
    Abstract: This paper examines the development of Russian industry in comparison with that of Ukrainian industry during 1995–2004 in an effort to ascertain to what extent, if any, Russian manufacturing showed signs of succumbing to ‘Dutch disease’. Ukraine and Russia began the market transition with broadly similar institutions, industrial structures and levels of technology, and the economic reforms implemented in the two countries were also similar, although Ukraine was reckoned to lag behind Russia in many areas. The main difference between them is Russia’s far greater resource wealth. It follows that differences in industrial development since 1991 may to some degree be attributable to differences in initial natural resource endowments. In short, Ukraine could provide a rough approximation of how a resource-poor Russia might have developed over the transition. <P>Le secteur manufacturier russe et la menace du « syndrome néerlandais » Comparaison du développement de la compétitivité des industries russe et ukrainienne <BR>Cette étude analyse le développement de l’industrie russe en le comparant avec celui de l’industrie ukrainienne sur la période 1995-2004, afin d’établir - si tel était le cas - dans quelle mesure l’industrie manufacturière en Russie serait affectée par le ‘syndrome néerlandais’. L’Ukraine et la Russie ont commencé leur transition vers l’économie de marché avec des institutions, des structures industrielles et des niveaux de technologie globalement similaires et les réformes mises en œuvre dans les deux pays ont également suivi une voie similaire, même si l’Ukraine est considérée comme étant en retard par rapport à la Russie dans beaucoup de domaines. La différence principale entre les deux pays est la richesse en ressources naturelles, bien plus importante en Russie. Il en résulte que les différences dans le développement industriel depuis 1991 peuvent, dans une certaine mesure, être attribuées aux différences de dotations intiales en ressources naturelles. En résumé, l’Ukraine peut fournir une approximation fruste de la manière dont une Russie pauvre en ressources naturelles aurait pu se développer sur la période de transition.
    Keywords: productivity, productivité, transition, transition, restructuring, restructuration, gas, gaz, Russia, Russie, natural resources, dutch disease, oil, ressources naturelles, syndrome néerlandais, pétrole, industry, competitiveness, revealed comparative advantage, unit labour costs, industrie, compétitivité, avantage comparatif révélé, coût unitaire de main-d'œuvre, salaires, wages, Ukraine, Ukraine
    JEL: J24 L60 O57 P23 P27 Q33
    Date: 2007–01–25
  7. By: Christian Gianella; William Tompson
    Abstract: This paper examines the potential role of innovation policy in enhancing long-term productivity growth in Russia. It begins by exploring the role of framework conditions for business in encouraging innovative activities, particularly with respect to intellectual property rights and competition. Realising Russia’s innovation potential will also require reform of the large public science sector. This raises issues pertaining to the organisation and financing of public research bodies and, in particular, to the incentives and opportunities they face in commercialising the results of their research. Finally, the paper looks at the potential role of direct interventions, such as special economic zones and technoparks, as well as the scope for improving the tax regime for private-sector R&D. <P>Augmenter l’efficacité de la politique de l’innovation <BR>Cette étude examine le rôle potentiellement joué par la politique de l’innovation pour stimuler la croissance de la productivité en Russie à long terme. Il souligne tout d’abord l’importance des conditionscadres pour les entreprises, et notamment la protection de la propriété intellectuelle et la promotion de la concurrence, comme facteur favorable aux activités innovantes. La réalisation du potentiel de la Russie en matière d’innovation nécessitera aussi une réforme du large secteur scientifique publique. Les enjeux concernent aussi bien l’organisation que le financement des organismes publics de recherche, ainsi que les incitations et les débouchés qui s’offrent à eux pour commercialiser le résultat de leur recherche. Enfin, l’étude examine le rôle potentiel des interventions directes – zones économiques spéciales, technopôles – et les possibilités d’amélioration du régime fiscal applicable à la recherche-développement dans le secteur privé.
    Keywords: productivity, productivité, venture capital, capital-risque, competition, impôt, innovation, innovation, concurrence, ICT, TIC, Russia, Russie, research and development, recherche-développement, patents, brevets, technology transfer, technology, technologies, intellectual property, propriété intellectuelle, tax, science, science, computers, ordinateurs, transfert de technologie
    JEL: L11 L52 O31 O34 O38
    Date: 2007–01–15
  8. By: Ingo Walter; Elif Sisli
    Date: 2006
  9. By: Fukunishi, Takahiro
    Keywords: Manufacturing exports, International competitiveness, Sub-Saharan Africa, Manufacturing industries, Exports, International competition, Business enterprises, Africa
    JEL: F14 L60 O14 O55
    Date: 2006–10

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