New Economics Papers
on Efficiency and Productivity
Issue of 2006‒12‒04
ten papers chosen by

  1. Domestic and International Knowledge Spillovers in the South Korean Manufacturing Industries. By Singh, Lakhwinder
  2. Computer equipment as general purpose technologies: the effects on productivity in the italian case, 1995-2002 By Quatraro Francesco
  3. Explaining the gaps in labour productivity for some developed countries By Razzak, Weshah
  4. Knowledge-based economy, structural change and productivity: the italian evidence By Quatraro Francesco
  5. Estimating Heterogeneous Capacity and Capacity Utilization in a Multi-Species Fishery By Ronald G. Felthovan Author=Name: William C. Horrace; Kurt E. Schnier
  6. Long-term labour productivity and GDP projections for the EU25 Member States : a production function framework By Carone, Giuseppe; Denis, Cécile; Mc Morrow, Kieran; Mourre, Gilles; Röger, Werner
  8. Declared vs. revealed yardstick competition: local government efficiency in Norway By Tovmo Per; Revelli Federico
  9. PORT EFFICIENCY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT By Eduardo A. Haddad; Geoffrey J. D. Hewings; Raul Antonio dos Santos
  10. OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL STRUCTURES AND PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS IN BRAZIL By Dante Mendes Aldrighi; Alessandro Vinicius Marques de Oliveira

  1. By: Singh, Lakhwinder
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between the productivity growth and both domestic and international knowledge spillovers in the Korean manufacturing industries, using panel data for twenty eight industries over the period 1970-2000. To empirically verify the extent of domestic and international knowledge spillovers we have followed endogenous growth approach and wisdom from new international trade theory. We find strong productivity effects from industry’s own R&D as well as domestic and foreign knowledge spillovers. International knowledge spillovers transmitted by trade played dominant role in explaining productivity growth in the Korean manufacturing industries during the 1970s and 1980s, but the international knowledge spillovers did not play any significant role in the 1990s. This empirical finding has strong implications for the Korean technology policy as well as for the strict intellectual property rights regime enacted by the WTO.
    Keywords: Knowledge spillovers; Productivity growth; Manufacturing industry; South Korea
    JEL: R11 O11
    Date: 2006–10–04
  2. By: Quatraro Francesco (University of Turin)
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the impact of computer investments on productivity, and eventually check far the existence of development dynamics stimulating such investments. While a large number of studies can be found at the firm level, there is a substantial lack of analyses at the macro-leve1. We focus on 28 Italian manufacturing and service sectors, aver the period 1995-2002. Controlling far inter-industry spillovers, ICTs investments proved to positively and significant1y affect productivity. Moreover those sectors with lower levels of productivity in 1995 showed up higher average annual growth rates of investments in computer equipment. The case far tailored policy actions is eventually discussed.
    Date: 2006–08
  3. By: Razzak, Weshah
    Abstract: Modern economic theories explain differences in productivity and economic growth across countries by differences in political and economic institutions, and differences in culture, geographical location, policies, and laws. The success of any of these theories in explaining the gap in productivity between any two countries depends on the countries in the sample. We argue in this paper that differences in the above variables might explain gaps in economic performance between developed and developing countries, but are too small to explain the productivity gaps between developed countries. We test this hypothesis for two pairs of developed neighbouring countries: New Zealand and Australia and Canada and the United States, hence New Zealand – Australia and Canada – United States. In this paper, more than eighty percent of labour productivity gaps between New Zealand and Australia and Canada and the United States are explained by endogenous technology shocks (TFP) and capital intensities.
    Keywords: Labour Productivity; TFP; Real exchange rate
    JEL: O57 C13 C32
    Date: 2006
  4. By: Quatraro Francesco (University of Turin)
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate if and to what extend productivity dynamics are affected by the transition towards the knowledge-based economy, understood as a process of structural change. We explicitly study the effects of the change in the employment mix of manufacturing and service sectors, and check far the hypothesis of adaptation efforts following such a mutation. The empirical test carried out on a panel data of 20 Italian regions aver the period 1981-2001, provide support to the hypothesis of the emergence of the knowledge based economy as a structural change process, deeply affecting the dynamics of productivity. Moreover, innovative activity turns out to be sensibly influenced by the changes in the employment mix, with increasing relevance ofservice sectors in the second half ofthe 1990s.
    Date: 2006–07
  5. By: Ronald G. Felthovan Author=Name: William C. Horrace (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1020); Kurt E. Schnier
    Abstract: We use a stochastic production frontier model to investigate the presence of heterogeneous production and its impact on fleet capacity and capacity utilization in a multi-species fishery. Furthermore, we propose a new fleet capacity estimate that incorporates complete information on the stochastic differences between each vessel-specific technical efficiency distribution. Results indicate that ignoring heterogeneity in production technologies within a multi-species fishery, as well as the complete distribution of a vessel's technical efficiency socre, may yield erroneous fleet-wide production profiles and estimates of capacity. Furthermore, our new estimate of capacity enables out-of-sample production predictions predicated on either homogeneity or heterogeneity modeling which may be utuilized to facilitate policy.
    Keywords: fishery capacity, heterogeneous production, latent class modeling
    JEL: C23 D24 N50
    Date: 2006–11
  6. By: Carone, Giuseppe; Denis, Cécile; Mc Morrow, Kieran; Mourre, Gilles; Röger, Werner
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of long run labour productivity and GDP growth rate projections (until 2050) for each of the 25 EU Member States and provides a detailed overview of the forecast methodology used. These projections were undertaken in order to provide an internationally comparable macroeconomic framework against which to assess the potential economic and fiscal effects of ageing populations. The projections presented in this paper, using a common production function methodology for all 25 countries, show the GDP growth rate effects of an assumptions-driven extrapolation of recent trends in employment and labour productivity. These base case projections reflect the working assumption of “no policy change”.Various sensitivity tests are carried out to check the GDP per capita impact of some factors which have been excluded from the baseline scenario for reasons of simplicity or because of a lack of consensus in the academic literature. Some of the interesting conclusions that emerge from these sensitivity tests include : • Firstly, the GDP per capita impact of changes in the participation rate assumption used in the projections is much greater than for assumed changes in the share of part-time employment (i.e. in average hours worked per worker). • Secondly, the negative effect of a change in the age-structure of the population is fairly limited, although it is accepted that the labour productivity of an individual is likely to decline after the age of 55. A very strong fall in the productivity of older workers compared with that of prime-age workers would be required to significantly depress total labour productivity. Such an outcome, on the basis of current evidence, appears rather unlikely. • Thirdly, changing the TFP growth rate targets (e.g. use of the 1990’s average instead of the long-term 1970-2004 average) could strongly affect the projections. • Finally, an assumption of productivity convergence in levels substantially alters the projections for most EU10 countries but leaves the EU15 almost unchanged. JEL classific
    Keywords: Productivity; ageing; long-term projections; production function; labour productivity; older workers
    JEL: J1 O47 J21 H55 J26 D24
    Date: 2006–08
  7. By: Santiago Herrera; Gaobo Pang
    Date: 2006
  8. By: Tovmo Per; Revelli Federico (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether the production efficiency of Norwegian local governments exhibits a spatial pattern that is compatible with the hy­pothesis of yardstick competition. In order to check whether yardstick com­petition is really responsible far the observed spatial pattern, and to rule out alternative theoretical explanations, the paper exploits unique information from a survey on Norwegian local governments, where local public officials are explicitly asked whether they compare their own performances in the provision of public services to those of other governments (benchmarking). Merging the latter information - "declared" yardstick competition - with the observed interdependence in local efficiency measures - "revealed" yardstick competition - the paper provides evidence that comparative performance evaluation generates spatial auto-correlation in local efficiency indicators.
    Date: 2006–05
  9. By: Eduardo A. Haddad; Geoffrey J. D. Hewings; Raul Antonio dos Santos
    Date: 2006
  10. By: Dante Mendes Aldrighi; Alessandro Vinicius Marques de Oliveira
    Date: 2006

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