nep-eff New Economics Papers
on Efficiency and Productivity
Issue of 2005‒06‒27
two papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Universitá degli Studi di Veroa

  1. Estimation of environmental efficiencies of economies and shadow prices of pollutants in countries in transition By Salnykov Mykhaylo; Zelenyuk Valentin
  2. Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Assess the Relative Efficiency of Different Climate Policy Portfolios By Valentina Bosetti; Barbara Buchner

  1. By: Salnykov Mykhaylo; Zelenyuk Valentin
    Abstract: Various measures of technical efficiency, such as output distance function, input distance function and directional distance function can be used as sustainability indicators in the case when some outputs produced are undesirable, such as pollution. Shadow prices of environmental pollution asses short run perspectives of increase in pollution when desirable output is increased and may serve as a reference value for environmental taxes and prices for international emission trade. We make an attempt to estimate environmental efficiencies of countries (based on the output distance function with general directional vector) as well as shadow prices for selected pollutants (CO2, SO2 and NOx). Two alternative estimation approaches are employed: parametric (Translog specification) and nonparametric (DEA). Statistical characteristics of the obtained parametric estimates are assessed using the smooth homogeneous bootstrap technique. Our results indicate that, on average, countries value pollutants proportionally to their direct impact on human health (i.e. the most hazardous pollutants have the highest shadow prices). We find that in general both rich and poor countries can be fully environmentally efficient, while most of the countries in transition (CITs) turned out to be inefficient. Our findings imply that under emission permit trade agreements CITs will generally be permit sellers. By selling permits they will hamper their future ability of economic growth, thus some restrictions (which we propose) must be made in such agreements to limit their unsustainability for CITs. Our estimates show that currently global wealth and pollution are allocated inefficiently. We determine that different estimation techniques provide with statistically different estimates. The work provides with illustrative examples of using the estimates to draw forecasts on environmental effect of economic growth; to determine price range on international pollution permit markets and to estimate economically justified rates of environmental taxation. Finally, we provide policy implications and outline potential directions for the future studies in the field.
    Keywords: Russia, pollution, environmental efficiency, shadow prices, bootstrap, countries in transition, parametric and nonparametric techniques, bootstrap
    JEL: Q56 H23 C67 D24 C15
    Date: 2005–06–22
  2. By: Valentina Bosetti (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Barbara Buchner (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: Within the political, scientific and economic debate on climate change, the process of evaluating climate policies ex-ante, during and/or ex-post their lifetime, is receiving increasing attention from international institutions and organisations. The task becomes particularly challenging when the aim is to evaluate strategies or policies from a sustainability perspective. The three pillars of sustainability should then be jointly considered in the evaluation process, thus enabling a comparison of the social, the environmental and the economic dimensions of the policy’s impact. This is commonly done in a qualitative manner and is often based on subjective procedures. The present paper discusses a data-based, quantitative methodology to assess the relative performances of different climate policies, when long term economic, social and environmental impacts of the policy are considered. The methodology computes competitive advantages as well as relative efficiencies of climate policies and is here presented through an application to a sample of eleven global climate policies, considered as plausible for the near future. The proposed procedure is based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a technique commonly employed in evaluating the relative efficiency of a set of decision making units. We consider here two possible applications of DEA. In the first, DEA is applied coupled with Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) in order to evaluate the comparative advantages of policies when accounting for social and environmental impacts, as well as net economic benefits. In the second, DEA is applied to compute a relative efficiency score, which accounts for environmental and social benefits and costs interpreted as outputs and inputs. Although the choice of the model used to simulate future economic and environmental implications of each policy (in the present paper we use the FEEM RICE model), as well as the choice of indicators for costs and benefits, represent both arbitrary decisions, the methodology presented is shown to represent a practical tool to be flexibly adopted by decision makers in the phase of policy design.
    Keywords: Climate, Policy, Valuation, Data envelopment analysis, Sustainability
    JEL: H41 Q51 Q54 C61
    Date: 2005–06

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