nep-eff New Economics Papers
on Efficiency and Productivity
Issue of 2005‒05‒14
eleven papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Universitá degli Studi di Veroa

  1. European Productivity Gaps: Is R&D the Solution? By Christoph Meister; Bart Verspagen
  2. EFFECTS OF FINANCIAL CAPITAL ON COLOMBIAN BANKING EFFICIENCY By Dairo Estrada; Poldy Osorio
  3. INEFICIENCIA EN LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE ENERGÍA ELÉCTRICA: UNA APLICACIÓN DE LAS FUNCIONES DE DISTANCIA ESTOCÁSTICA By Ligia Melo B.; Néstor Espinosa
  4. EFECTOS DE LAS FUSIONES SOBRE EL MERCADO FINANCIERO COLOMBIANO By Dairo Estrada
  5. Eficiencia -X en el sector bancario colombiano. By Carlos Alberto CASTRO
  6. PRODUCTIVIDAD, EFICIENCIA, Y TECNOLOGÍAS DE LA INFORMACIÓN By Luis Fernando Gamboa Niño; Jorge Pena Izquierdo
  7. Firm Location, Corporate Structure, R&D Investment, Innovation and Productivity By Johansson, Börje; Lööf, Hans; Rader Olsson, Amy
  8. Regional Productivity and Accessibility to Knowledge and Dense Markets By Karlsson, Charlie; Pettersson, Lars
  9. Is Academic Science Raising Innovative Productivity? Theory and Evidence from Firm-Level Data By Lee Branstetter; Reiko Aoki
  10. ICT, Skills and Organisational Change: Evidence from a Panel of Italian Manufacturing Firms By Paola Giuri; Salvatore Torrisi; Natalia Zinovyeva
  11. Conditional Nonparametric Frontier Models for Convex and Non Convex Technologies: a Unifying Approach By Cinzia Daraio; Leopold Simar

  1. By: Christoph Meister; Bart Verspagen
    Abstract: This paper investigates the potential impact of increased business R&D efforts in Europe on the total factor productivity gap between European and U.S. industry. The paper addresses Europe’s ambition, expressed at the 2000 Lisbon Summit to become “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world”, and the 3% R&D intensity target for Europe formulated at the 2002 Barcelona Summit. Based on existing empirical models from the literature on productivity and R&D expenditures, we provide projections on the expected productivity impacts of increased R&D in manufacturing industries. The results suggest that raising European R&D is not a complete solution to the European productivity backlog relative to the U.S. We also find that the most dramatic impacts may be expected from raising R&D in so-called low-tech sectors.
    Keywords: Technology, Economic growth, R&D, Europe, United States
    JEL: O38 O47 P52
    Date: 2005
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aal:abbswp:05-06&r=eff
  2. By: Dairo Estrada; Poldy Osorio
    Abstract: In this paper we discuss cost and pro¯t e±ciency for a sample of ¯nancial institutions on the Colombian ¯nancial market in the period 1989-2003, using stochastic frontier e±ciency analysis. During the pe- riod, the cost e±cient frontier deteriorates, but pro¯t e±cient frontier is relatively stable. We found signi¯cant di®erence when we compare the e±ciency scores between types of ¯nancial intermediaries. Addi- tionally, our analysis show that the scores for pro¯t and cost e±ciency have di®erent distribution. We found big di®erences between pro¯t and cost e±ciency among the di®erent type banks. This is evidence in favor of some banks behaving collusively and capturing oligopoly rents.
    Keywords: Frontier;
    JEL: C23
    Date: 2004–06–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000070:000591&r=eff
  3. By: Ligia Melo B.; Néstor Espinosa
    Abstract: Este documento evalúa el desempeño de las empresas distribuidoras de energía durante el periodo 1999-2003, utilizando la metodología de funciones de distancia estocástica, la cual a través de la estimación de las desviaciones de una función ideal de producción, permite medir los niveles de eficiencia técnica de las diferentes empresas. Los resultados indican que existen diferencias significativas en el desempeño de las empresas, sugiriendo que se podrían obtener importantes ganancias en términos de eficiencia técnica si las empresas operaran o se acercaran a los niveles de operación de las más eficientes. Estas ganancias se podrían expresar en el ahorro de recursos, la calidad del servicio y/o en menores niveles de tarifas a los usuarios finales. También se encontró que el desempeño de las empresas distribuidoras de energía puede verse afectado por factores fuera del control de las firmas, tales como las condiciones geográficas, el número de usuarios atendidos y la densidad poblacional. En particular, se encuentra que empresas con un entorno más favorable en términos de densidad poblacional y/o de los niveles de consumo de los usuarios se ven favorecidas cuando dichas variables afectan directamente la tecnología de producción. Por otra parte, se observa que las empresas públicas registran un mejor desempeño cuando las variables ambientales afectan directamente la eficiencia y no la función de producción. Estos resultados sugieren que las empresas privadas se podrían estar beneficiando de condiciones de entorno más favorables, teniendo en cuenta que estas, en promedio atienden áreas de más alta densidad poblacional y usuarios de consumos más altos.
    Date: 2004–11–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000070:000893&r=eff
  4. By: Dairo Estrada
    Abstract: Este trabajo examina los efectos de las fusiones en el sistema bancario sobre la eficiencia del sistema y los precios. Se encuentra que los bancos que han atravesado procesos de fusiones pueden experimentar mejoras en los indices de eficiencia en beneficios. Estas mejoras en eficiencia fueron superiores para aquellos bancos que presentaban rankings de eficiencia más bajos antes de la fusión. Adicionalmente,los efectos sobre cambios en los precios resultaron no reflejar comportamientos colusivos por parte de los bancos en el mercado de depósitos.
    Keywords: Bancos,
    JEL: L11
    Date: 2005–02–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000070:000953&r=eff
  5. By: Carlos Alberto CASTRO
    Abstract: Este Artículo utilizó la metodología de Frontera Estocástica y especi…camente el “Distribution Free Approach”(DFA) para obtener una medida de E…ciencia horizontal, para un Panel de entidades del sector bancario colombiano, durante el periodo de 1994 a 1999. Se utilizó una serie de variables exógenas, representativas de las características del sector bancario colombiano, para encontrar los determinantes de las diferencias en e…ciencia entre las entidades bancarias. El artículo encuentra evidencia para cuestionar las habilidades de la administración pública para controlar los costos en este tipo de entidades, al comparar el desempeño de este tipo de entidades con las entidades privadas nacionales y las extranjeras. Adicionalmente se examinan los efectos sobre la e…ciencia de algunos de los procesos de reestructuración en las entidades bancarias a …nales de los noventa. Los resultados sugieren que los bene…cios esperados de las fusiones no son evidentes en todas las entidades analizadas.
    Keywords: sector bancario
    Date: 2004–11–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000107:000891&r=eff
  6. By: Luis Fernando Gamboa Niño; Jorge Pena Izquierdo
    Abstract: Este trabajo estudia la contribución de las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación al crecimiento de la industria española, durante el periodo 1990-1999. Se aplica la descomposición del crecimiento de Solow (1957) y para el análisis de productividad se usa la metodología de fronteras estocásticas. Se encuentra que la mayor contribución es en la producción de las ramas TIC-manufacturas y éstas no tienen efectos spillover significativos. También se destaca el escaso efecto sobre la productividad del progreso técnico incorporado en capital físico. We study the effect of the Information and Communication technologies on the Spanish Industry growth during 1990-1999. We use Solow (1957) approach and stochastical frontiers for measuring productivity. We find that the main contribution is in the production and there are no spillover effects. We also find a no-significative impact of the technical progress on capital.
    Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies
    Date: 2004–12–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000116:000897&r=eff
  7. By: Johansson, Börje (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Rader Olsson, Amy (CEFIN)
    Abstract: This study elucidates how firm location and corporate structure influence R&D-intensity, external collaboration on innovation, return on R&D and economic performance. The study, based on 1,907 firm level observations, essentially compare a functional region with four other regional areas in Sweden. In this context, the Stockholm region is assumed as an integrated functional urban region with innovation-proximity characteristics. The paper examines systematically the influence of location versus various firm characteristics. The econometric results suggest the following: First, a typical Stockholm firm has a significantly larger likelihood than other firms of being engaged in innovation activities. Second, among innovative firms, the R&D intensity and global collaboration on innovation is primarily determined by its corporate structure, not geographic location. Third, the embeddedness in regional and national scientific and vertical innovation systems is relatively more intense outside Stockholm. Finally, the advantage of being located within Sweden’s most strongest concentration of R&D spending, universities, human capital and multinational enterprises with their global networks is reflected by a superior return on R&D investments and higher productivity, when controlling for firm size, human capital, physical capital, R&D-intensity, market orientation and sector classification.
    Keywords: Regional economy; multinational companies; R&D; innovation; innovation system
    JEL: C21 G34 L22 O33
    Date: 2005–05–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:cesisp:0031&r=eff
  8. By: Karlsson, Charlie (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Pettersson, Lars (Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: Accessibility to knowledge and local service markets can be assumed to explain regional growth performance. The role of regional supply of services and educated labour with respect to regional development are stressed by many researchers. In this paper we make an empirical analysis using panel data for Swedish municipalities. The purpose is to analyse the relationship between regional productivity measures as gross regional product per square kilometre and accessibility to educated labour. We also acknowledge the extension of the regional economy in terms of functionality and access to population as a measure of accessibility to labour and to purchasing power. We estimate first a cross-section model by using OLS. Second we employ a panel data model, using time distance access to population and the share local labour force with longer higher education as explanatory variables. In the analysis we compare the results for Sweden from the different models with other studies in this field. We find that local externalities for increasing returns are very important in the Swedish economy. Our estimated models yields a high level of goodness of fit, and the results indicates that the elasticity for longer higher education and population density are around unity in the Swedish economy with respect to performance of regional gross domestic product per square kilometre
    Keywords: Agglomeration; Productivity; Sweden; Spatial; Regional; accessibility
    JEL: D24 J24 O47 R11 R23 R40
    Date: 2005–05–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:cesisp:0032&r=eff
  9. By: Lee Branstetter; Reiko Aoki
    Date: 2005–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hst:hstdps:d05-86&r=eff
  10. By: Paola Giuri; Salvatore Torrisi; Natalia Zinovyeva
    Abstract: This paper explores the complementarity between skills, organizational change and investments in information and communication technology (ICT). Our work contributes to the literature on the effects of ICT by testing the hypothesis of complementarity in a panel of 540 Italian manufacturing firms during the period 1995-2000. Our analysis provides strong support to the hypothesis of complementarity between skills and ICT (which is at the core of the skill-biased technical change theory). We also find some evidence in favour of the skill-biased organizational change hypothesis. The results obtained by drawing on different statistical methods suggest that interactions among ICT, skills and organizational change are complex and non-linear and difficult to explain.
    Keywords: Organisational Change, ICT Investment, Workplace Organization, Human Capital, Productivity
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ssa:lemwps:2005/11&r=eff
  11. By: Cinzia Daraio; Leopold Simar
    Abstract: The explanation of productivity differentials is very important to identify the economic conditions that create inefficiency and to improve managerial performance. In literature two main approaches have been developed: one-stage approaches and two-stage approaches. Daraio and Simar (2003) propose a full nonparametric methodology based on conditional FDH and conditional order-m frontiers without any convexity assumption on the technology. On the one hand, convexity has always been assumed in mainstream production theory and general equilibrium. On the other hand, in many empirical applications, the convexity assumption can be reasonable and sometimes natural. Leading by these considerations, in this paper we propose a unifying approach to introduce external-environmental variables in nonparametric frontier models for convex and non convex technologies. Developing further the work done in Daraio and Simar (2003) we introduce a conditional DEA estimator, i.e., an estimator of production frontier of DEA type conditioned to some external-environmental variables which are neither inputs nor outputs under the control of the producer. A robust version of this conditional estimator is also proposed. These various measures of efficiency provide also indicators of convexity. Illustrations through simulated and real data (mutual funds) examples are reported.
    Keywords: Convexity, External-Environmental Factors, Production Frontier, Nonparametric Estimation, Robust Estimation.
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ssa:lemwps:2005/12&r=eff

This nep-eff issue is ©2005 by Angelo Zago. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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