nep-eec New Economics Papers
on European Economics
Issue of 2006‒12‒22
eight papers chosen by
Giuseppe Marotta
Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia

  1. Everything you Always Wanted to Know About Inventors (But Never Asked): Evidence from the PatVal-EU Survey By Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin
  2. Business Method Patents in Europe and their Strategic Use - Evidence from Franking Device Manufacturers By Wagner, Stefan
  3. Modeling the Duration of Patent Examination at the European Patent Office By Harhoff, Dietmar; Wagner, Stefan
  4. Understanding Attitudes to Immigration: The Migration and Minority module of the first European Social Survey By David Card; Christian Dustmann; Ian Preston
  5. Assessing projects and programmes for cohesion policy at the EIB. By Gianni CARBONARO
  6. Unemployment and Hours of Work: The North Atlantic Divide Revisited By Christopher A. Pissarides
  7. Employment, Wage Structure, and the Economic Cycle: Differences between Immigrants and Natives in Germany and the UK By Christian Dustmann; Albrecht Glitz; Thorsten Vogel
  8. The CEP-OECD Institutions Data Set (1960-2004) By William Nickell

  1. By: Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin
    Abstract: Based on a survey of the inventors of 9,017 European patented inventions, this paper provides new information about the characteristics of European inventors, the sources of their knowledge, the importance of formal and informal collaborations, the motivations to invent, and the actual use and economic value of the patents.
    Keywords: inventor; patent; incentives; innovation; patent system; patent value
    JEL: J24 O31 O34
    Date: 2006
  2. By: Wagner, Stefan
    Abstract: There has been a wide-spread misconception based on the imprecise wording of Art. 52 of the European Patent Convention (EPC) that the protection of business methods by patents is prohibited in Europe. This paper investigates the legal framework set by patent laws with respect to the patentability of business methods, contrasting the situation in lege in Europe and the situation in the US. It is shown that in praxi business methods have never been excluded from patentability in Europe. In the empirical part of the paper, 1,901 European patent applications relating to business methods are identified and major patent indicators are computed. Further, a case study from the franking device industry which is characterized by strong competition for intellectual property rights is conducted. It contains evidence for the strategic use of business method patents leading to opposition rates against granted patents of 44%.
    Keywords: business method patents; European Patent Office
    JEL: L39 O34
    Date: 2006
  3. By: Harhoff, Dietmar; Wagner, Stefan
    Abstract: We analyze the duration of the patent examination process at the European Patent Office (EPO). Our data contain information related to the patents economic and technical relevance, EPO capacity and workload as well as novel citation measures which are derived from the EPOs search reports. In our multivariate analysis we estimate competing risk specifications in order to characterize differences in the processes leading to a withdrawal of the application by the applicant, a refusal of the patent grant by the examiner or an actual patent grant. Highly cited applications are approved faster by the EPO than less important ones, but they are also withdrawn less quickly by the applicant. The process duration increases for all outcomes with the applications complexity, originality, number of references (backward citations) in the search report and with the EPOs workload at the filing date. Endogenous applicant behavior becomes apparent in other results: more controversial claims lead to slower grants, but faster withdrawals, while relatively well-documented applications (identified by a high share of applicant references appearing in the search report) are approved faster and take longer to be withdrawn.
    Keywords: patents; patent examination; survival analysis; patent citations; European Patent Office
    JEL: C15 C41 D73
    Date: 2006
  4. By: David Card (Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley and Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM)); Christian Dustmann (Department of Economics and Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), University College London); Ian Preston (Department of Economics and Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), University College London)
    Abstract: Immigration control is an issue that figures prominently in public policy discussions and election campaigns throughout Europe. Although immigration may have positive effects on economic efficiency and growth in the receiving economy, it is often the negative aspects -or perceived negative aspects - of immigration that attract the most attention. In this paper, we use the immigration module of the European Social Survey (ESS), which we developed in collaboration with the ESS survey team, to investigate public opinions about immigration, and the various dimensions of economic, public and private life that individuals feel are affected by immigration. We show that that there is substantial variation in the strength of anti-immigrant opinion across European countries, and that attitudes toward immigration also vary systematically with characteristics such as age, education, and urban/rural location. We propose possible interpretations of some of these regularities.
    Keywords: Migration, Survey, Attitudes
    Date: 2005–06
  5. By: Gianni CARBONARO
    Abstract: The assessment of the technical, economic and financial quality of programmes and projects is one of the day-to-day activities at the European Investment Bank (EIB). The paper explains how this task is approached within the EIB, how some of the tools of cost-benefit analysis are employed, and how this approach may evolve during the forthcoming programming period of the Structural Instruments. Some of the recent initiatives of the EIB – in particular RAILPAG, the guidelines for project appraisal in the rail sector and JASPERS, Joint Assistance to Support Projects in European Regions - take a particular relevance in this context and are briefly explained
    Keywords: Cost-Benefit Analysis, Project evaluation, International Organizations
    JEL: D61 H43 O19
    Date: 2006–12
  6. By: Christopher A. Pissarides
    Abstract: I examine the dynamic evolutions of unemployment, hours of work and the service sharesince the war in the United States and Europe. The theoretical model brings together allthree and emphasizes technological growth. Computations show that the very lowunemployment in Europe in the 1960s was due to the high productivity growth associatedwith technological catch-up. Productivity also played a role in the dynamics of hours buta full explanation for the fast rise of service employment and the big fall in aggregatehours needs further research. Taxation has played a role but results are mixed.
    Keywords: Unemployment, hours of work, service employment, structural change, laborproductivity taxation
    JEL: E24 J21 J22 J64 O14
    Date: 2006–10
  7. By: Christian Dustmann (Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration, Department of Economics, University College London); Albrecht Glitz (Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration, Department of Economics, University College London); Thorsten Vogel (Humboldt Universität zu Berlin and Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration.)
    Abstract: Differences in the cyclical pattern of employment and wages of immigrants relative to natives have largely gone unnoticed in the migration literature. In this paper we show that immigrants and natives react differently to the economic cycle. Based on over two decades of micro data, our investigation is for two of the largest immigrant receiving countries in Europe which at the same time are characterised by different immigrant populations as well as different economic cycles, Germany and the UK. Understanding the magnitude, nature and possible causes of differences in responses is relevant for assessing the economic performance of immigrant communities over time. We show that there are substantial differences in cyclical responses between immigrants and natives. Our analysis illustrates the magnitude of these differences, while distinguishing between different groups of immigrants. Differences in responses may be due to differences in the skill distribution between immigrant groups and natives, or differences in demand for immigrants and natives of the same skills due to differential allocation of immigrants and natives across industries and regions. We demonstrate that substantial differences in cyclical patterns remain, even within narrowly defined groups. Finally, we estimate a more structural factor type model that, using regional variation in economic conditions, separates responses to economic shocks from a secular trend and allows us to obtain a summary measure for these differences within education groups.
    Keywords: Immigration, Wage Structure, Business Cycle
    JEL: E32 F22 J31
    Date: 2006–09
  8. By: William Nickell
    Abstract: This dataset contains information about the evolution of labour market institutions in twenty OECD countries from 1960 to 2004.The countries in the sample are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States Where possible the data refers to West Germany throughout. Note that the temporal coverage of these data differs from series to series and country to country. The accompanying data can be downloaded at the link above
    Keywords: OECD Institutions, Data
    Date: 2006–11

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