nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2023‒11‒13
eight papers chosen by
Nádia Simões, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa 

  1. Skills, Aspirations, and Occupations By Alexis Orellana; Kegon Teng Kok Tan
  2. Government fragmentation and educational outcomes: evidence on the creation of municipalities in Chile By Alcaíno, Manuel; Jaimovich, Analia; Méndez, Carolina; Vásquez, Diana
  3. Telementoring and Homeschooling during School Closures: A Randomized Experiment in Rural Bangladesh By Hassan, Hashibul; Islam, Asad; Siddique, Abu; Choon Wang, Liang
  4. Keep Me In, Coach: The short- and long-term effects of targeted academic coaching By Canaan, Serena; Fischer, Stefanie; Mouganie, Pierre; Schnorr, Geoffrey C.
  5. Does replacing grants by income-contingent loans harm enrolment? New evidence from a reform in Dutch higher education By Jonneke Bolhaar; Sonny Kuijpers; Dinand Webbink; Maria Zumbuehl
  6. Out of the Shadows and into the Classroom: Immigrant Legalization, Hispanic Schooling and Hispanic Representation on School Boards By Navid Sabet
  7. Permanent School Closures and Crime: Evidence from Scotland By Borbely, Daniel; Gehrsitz, Markus; McIntyre, Stuart; Rossi, Gennaro
  8. The Impact of Parental Health Shocks on Child Schooling and Labor: Evidence from Thailand By Sasiwooth Wongmonta

  1. By: Alexis Orellana (Northwestern University); Kegon Teng Kok Tan (University of Rochester)
    Abstract: It is well documented that children often "inherit" the occupations of their parents. This paper studies the role of early occupational aspirations in determining later life outcomes, a potentially important channel for intergenerational correlations in occupations. Using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimate a lifecycle model of college choice and occupation choice to quantify the effect of aspirations on education and wages. We find that aspirations have a sizeable impact on educational attainment and wages, even conditional on latent skills that we recover from the choice model. We also simulate the importance of family background conditional on skills through the strong correlation between family background and aspirations. Our findings suggest that aspirations may be a valuable lever for reducing intergenerational inequality.
    Keywords: college choice, occupations, lifecycle wage growth, aspirations
    JEL: I24 J24
    Date: 2023–10
  2. By: Alcaíno, Manuel; Jaimovich, Analia; Méndez, Carolina; Vásquez, Diana
    Abstract: We explore how government fragmentation affects public education provision by examining the case of Chile, which created 11 municipalities between 1994 and 2004. Using territories that sought, but failed to, achieve independence as controls, we find that schools in newly created municipalities, on average, experienced a standard deviation decline of 0.2 in elementary school mathematics performance. In addition, fragmentation led to a high turnover and increased job insecurity of classroom teachers and school management teams in newly created municipalities. In contrast, we found that reducing the size of the original municipalities school networks does not impact student outcomes or school personnel. Overall, our findings point to specific unintended educational effects of policies that seek to enhance horizontal decentralization.
    Keywords: Municipalities;Education;Chile
    JEL: I21 I28 H83
    Date: 2022–01
  3. By: Hassan, Hashibul (Jagannath University); Islam, Asad (Monash University); Siddique, Abu (King's College London); Choon Wang, Liang (Monash University)
    Abstract: Using a randomized experiment in 200 Bangladeshi villages, we evaluate the impact of an over-the-phone learning support intervention (telementoring) among primary school children and their mothers during Covid-19 school closures. Post-intervention, treated children scored 35% higher on a standardized test, and the homeschooling involvement of treated mothers increased by 22 minutes per day (26%). We also found that the intervention forestalled treated children's learning losses. When we returned to the participants one year later, after schools briefly reopened, we found that the treatment effects had persisted. Academically weaker children benefited the most from the intervention that only cost USD 20 per child.
    Keywords: randomized experiment, primary education, school closure, COVID-19, homeschooling, telementoring, rural Bangladesh
    JEL: C93 I21 I24
    Date: 2023–10
  4. By: Canaan, Serena; Fischer, Stefanie; Mouganie, Pierre; Schnorr, Geoffrey C.
    Abstract: To boost college graduation rates, policymakers often advocate for academic supports such as coaching or mentoring. Proactive and intensive coaching interventions are effective, but are costly and difficult to scale. We evaluate a relatively lower-cost group coaching program targeted at first-year college students placed on academic probation. Participants attend a workshop where coaches aim to normalize failure and improve self-confidence. Coaches also facilitate a process whereby participants reflect on their academic difficulties, devise solutions to address their challenges, and create an action plan. Participants then hold a one-time follow-up meeting with their coach or visit a campus resource. Using a difference-in-discontinuity design, we show that the program raises students' first-year GPA by 14.6% of a standard deviation, and decreases the probability of first-year dropout by 8.5 percentage points. Effects are concentrated among lower-income students who also experience a significant increase in the probability of graduating. Finally, using administrative data we provide the first evidence that coaching/mentoring may have substantial long-run effects as we document significant gains in lower-income students' earnings 7-9 years following entry to the university. Our findings indicate that targeted, group coaching can be an effective way to improve marginal students' academic and early career outcomes.
    Keywords: College Graduation, Mentoring, College advising, Academic coaching
    JEL: I23 I24 J16
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Jonneke Bolhaar (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Sonny Kuijpers (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Dinand Webbink; Maria Zumbuehl (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of a reform which replaced universal basic grants by income-contingent loans on enrolment in Dutch higher education using administrative data of ten complete student cohorts. Estimates of differences between cohorts show no negative effect of the policy on enrolment. Moreover, difference-in-differences estimates exploiting variation in eligibility for supplementary grants show no negative effect on enrolment. These findings suggest that a system of income-contingent loans can facilitate an increase of private contributions without harming access to higher education.
    JEL: I22
    Date: 2023–10
  6. By: Navid Sabet
    Abstract: I exploit the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), which legalized millions of Hispanic migrants in the USA, to study the impact of immigrant legalization on schooling outcomes. Although undocumented migrants are entitled to public education, I find significant post-legalization increases in student enrollment and student-to-teacher ratios in public schools with greater exposure to IRCA migrants. This effect is driven by increased Hispanic enrollment, while whites sort out of public education and into private schooling. The IRCA differentially increases Hispanic school board members and school expenditure, highlighting legal status as a driver of Hispanic human capital accumulation and representation.
    Keywords: schooling, human capital, minority representation, legal status
    JEL: I21 J15 H52
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Borbely, Daniel (University of Dundee); Gehrsitz, Markus (University of Strathclyde); McIntyre, Stuart (University of Strathclyde); Rossi, Gennaro (University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: In this article we study the effects of permanent school closures on crime. We leverage the closure of over 300 schools in Scotland between the school years 2006/07 and 2018/19, and employ a staggered difference-in-differences design on a matched sample. We find that neighbourhoods affected by school closures experience a reduction in crime of about 9% of a standard deviation, relative to areas where schools remained open. This effect is mainly driven by a reduction in violent and property crimes. We provide evidence on several mechanisms explaining the negative crime effect, such as changes in neighbourhood composition and reductions in school-level segregation.
    Keywords: crime, school closures, neighbourhoods
    JEL: I38 R20 K42
    Date: 2023–10
  8. By: Sasiwooth Wongmonta
    Abstract: This paper uses household panel data from the Thai Socio-Economic Surveys of 2012 and 2017 to examine the effects of parental health shocks on child education and labor. Three measures of parental health are analyzed: chronic illness, hospitalization, and self-reported health problem. The results show that illness of the parents decreases school enrollment and leads to fewer years of education completed. Additionally, it finds that paternal illness has a relatively more detrimental effect on children’s educational outcomes than maternal illness, especially for the educational attainment. Girls are less likely to have attended school if any parent self-reported having any health problems. Parents’ chronic illness increases the probability of entering the labor force for youths aged 15 and over; however, only maternal illness increases their time spent at work. Households having both parents hospitalized are most likely associated with the significant decrease in household income and education expenditures. The results suggest that targeted government support to low-income families affected by major illnesses of parents could help them to maintain their children in school.
    Keywords: education; child labor; human capital; health shocks; Thailand
    JEL: I14 I24 O15
    Date: 2023–10

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