nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2023‒10‒23
six papers chosen by
Nádia Simões, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa 

  1. Who Benefits from Tuition-Free, Top-Quality Universities?: Evidence from Brazil By Duryea, Suzanne; Ribas, Rafael P.; Sampaio, Breno; Sampaio, Gustavo R.; Trevisan, Giuseppe
  2. Contexts of Convenience: Generalizing from Published Evaluations of School Finance Policies By Danielle V. Handel; Eric A. Hanushek
  3. Can Patience Account for Subnational Differences in Student Achievement? Regional Analysis with Facebook Interests By Eric A. Hanushek; Lavinia Kinne; Pietro Sancassani; Ludger Woessmann
  4. The Effect of Multitasking on Educational Outcomes and Academic Dishonesty By Victor Lavy
  5. Factors influencing student citizenship behavior (SCB) and long–term student relationship orientation (LRO) in Vietnamese education sector By Dang, Chau Ngoc Bao; Nguyen, Duc Thai; Le, Tung Thanh; Nguyen, Vu Hoang; Nguyen, Luan Thanh
  6. Teacher Licensing, Teacher Supply, and Student Achievement: Nationwide Implementation of edTPA By Bobby W. Chung; Jian Zou

  1. By: Duryea, Suzanne; Ribas, Rafael P.; Sampaio, Breno; Sampaio, Gustavo R.; Trevisan, Giuseppe
    Abstract: This paper investigates the long-term impact on earnings of attending a tuition-free, top-quality university in Brazil. We identify the causal effect through a sharp discontinuity in an admission process based on test scores. If admitted, low-income students are found to increase their earnings by 26% ten years later. However, admission has a small and insignificant effect on high-income students. The difference between income groups is not explained by educational attainment, program choice, or selection into better-paying jobs. The evidence suggests that most low-income applicants, if not admitted, still graduate from college but with much lower returns to education. High-income applicants who just miss the cutoff, however, can find other opportunities such that earnings trajectories are unchanged. Our results underscore the role of affordable higher education in promoting social mobility.
    Keywords: College wage premium;Affordability;school quality;income groups
    JEL: H52 I23 I26
    Date: 2023–06
  2. By: Danielle V. Handel; Eric A. Hanushek
    Abstract: Recent attention to the causal identification of spending impacts provides improved estimates of spending outcomes in a variety of circumstances, but the estimates are substantially different across studies. Half of the variation in estimated funding impact on test scores and over three-quarters of the variation of impacts on school attainment reflect differences in the true parameters across study contexts. Unfortunately, inability to describe the circumstances underlying effective school spending impedes any attempts to generalize from the extant results to new policy situations. The evidence indicates that how funds are used is crucial to the outcomes but such factors as targeting of funds or court interventions fail to explain the existing pattern of results.
    Keywords: school finance, evaluation
    JEL: I21 H40
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Eric A. Hanushek; Lavinia Kinne; Pietro Sancassani; Ludger Woessmann
    Abstract: Decisions to invest in human capital depend on people’s time preferences. We show that differences in patience are closely related to substantial subnational differences in educational achievement, leading to new perspectives on longstanding within-country disparities. We use social-media data – Facebook interests – to construct novel regional measures of patience within Italy and the United States. Patience is strongly positively associated with student achievement in both countries, accounting for two-thirds of the achievement variation across Italian regions and one-third across U.S. states. Results also hold for six other countries with more limited regional achievement data.
    Keywords: patience, student achievement, regions, social media, Facebook
    JEL: I21 Z10
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Victor Lavy
    Abstract: School authorities, universities, and employers often schedule multiple tests on the same day or week, causing overlapping exam preparation and a dense testing schedule. This multitask learning can be intense, under pressure, and challenge the student’s mental and physical perseverance. As a result, it can compromise performance relative to a more ‘relaxed’ schedule. This paper examines the consequences of multitasking for test scores and cheating in exams and its implications for the ability and gender cognitive gap. The empirical context is high-stakes exit exams in Israel, done at the end of high school. I leverage the empirical setting on two natural experiments to estimate the causal effect of this multitasking learning. The first exploits random variation in the number of weekly tests—the second hinges on days with multiple exams versus days with a single exam. The results show several important regularities. First, the number of exams in a day or a week harms test performance. Second, these effects are evidenced for high and low-ability students, boys and girls. They are much more extensive for immigrants than natives. Third, the harm of such multitasking is larger in tests later in the schedule, daily or weekly. Fourth, these effects are larger in tests of STEM subjects. Fifth, dense exams schedule increase the likelihood of students behaving dishonestly in exams.
    JEL: I20 J0
    Date: 2023–09
  5. By: Dang, Chau Ngoc Bao; Nguyen, Duc Thai; Le, Tung Thanh; Nguyen, Vu Hoang; Nguyen, Luan Thanh
    Abstract: Student citizenship behavior (SCB) is regarded as one of the most significant variables influencing student orientation and the development of long-term relationships between students and higher educational institutions (LRO). The literature confirms that the issue of SCB in the higher education sector is a challenge that must be addressed. Hence, this study aims to examine the antecedents and outcome of SCB by applying linear and non-linear relationships based on the partial least squares structural equation modeling approach (PLS-SEM) and the artificial neural network model (ANN) through building constructs on the stimulus-organization-response framework (SOR). In addition, data was gathered from 185 students from Ho Chi Minh City’s universities and colleges. The study’s findings indicate that students’ stimuli, such as student satisfaction, trust, and loyalty, have a favorable impact on the expression of their citizenship behaviors, such as advocacy, offering feedback, and helping others. In addition, helping others through SCB has a beneficial influence on LRO for higher educational institutions. Finally, through the ANN model, student trust is the most prominent driver of feedback and advocacy. The results of this research provide important insight into the factors that shape the focus and growth of organizations in Vietnam's education sector through long-term collaborations. In addition, this research sheds new light on the impact that students' actions have on SCB, allowing for the development of concrete recommendations for school administrators concerned with fostering the formation of lasting relationships among their students.
    Keywords: long-term student relationship orientation, Vietnam higher-education, student citizenship behavior, SEM-ANN approach
    Date: 2023
  6. By: Bobby W. Chung (University of South Florida; Nanjing Audit University); Jian Zou (UIUC)
    Abstract: The recent controversial roll-out of the educative Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) - a performance-based exam - raises the bar of initial teacher licensure and makes teacher recruitment difficult. We leverage the quasi-experimental setting of different adoption timing by states and analyze multiple data sources containing a national sample of prospective teachers and students of new teachers in the US. With extensive controls of concurrent policies, we find that the edTPA reduced prospective teachers in undergraduate programs, less-selective and minority-concentrated universities. Contrary to the policy intention, we do not find evidence that edTPA increased student test scores.
    Keywords: teacher licensing, edTPA, occupational licensing, teacher supply
    JEL: I28 J2 J44 K31 L51
    Date: 2023–10

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