nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2023‒07‒17
seven papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. School Choice, Competition, and Aggregate School Quality By Michael Gilraine; Uros Petronijevic; John D. Singleton
  2. Learning during the Pandemic: Evidence from Uzbekistan By Iqbal, Syedah Aroob; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
  3. International Student Applications in the United Kingdom After Brexit By Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes; Agnese Romiti
  4. Educational Mobility Across Three Generations in Latin American Countries By Pablo Celhay; Sebastian Gallegos
  5. The Geographies of Segregation in French Universities from 2006 to 2016 By Pierre Courtioux; Tristan-Pierre Maury; Johan Seux
  6. Public Education and Intergenerational Housing Wealth Effects By Michael Gilraine; James Graham; Angela Zheng
  7. Top Talent, Elite Colleges, and Migration: Evidence from the Indian Institutes of Technology By Prithwiraj Choudhury; Ina Ganguli; Patrick Gaulé

  1. By: Michael Gilraine; Uros Petronijevic; John D. Singleton
    Abstract: This paper develops and estimates an empirical framework that evaluates the impact of charter school choice on education quality in the aggregate. We estimate the model using student-level data from North Carolina. We find that North Carolina’s lifting of its statewide charter school cap raised the average public school's value-added by around 0.01 standard deviations (on the student test score distribution). We calculate the total human capital returns of the expansion at above $100, 000 per charter school enrollee. We further show that competition drives the aggregate gains; test score impacts on students induced into charter schools by the policy are negative.
    JEL: H75 I21 I28
    Date: 2023–06
  2. By: Iqbal, Syedah Aroob; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
    Abstract: School closures induced by the COVID-19 pandemic led to concerns about student learning. This paper evaluates the effect of school closures on student learning in Uzbekistan, using a unique dataset that allows assessing change in learning over time. The findings show that test scores in math for grade 5 students improved over time by 0.29 standard deviation despite school closures. The outcomes among students who were assessed in 2019 improved by an average of 0.72 standard deviation over the next two years, slightly lower than the expected growth of 0.80 standard deviation. The paper explores the reasons for no learning loss.
    Keywords: COVID-19, learning loss, school closures, social inequality, digital divide
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes (University of California Merced & IZA); Agnese Romiti (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: On June 23, 2016, the people of the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union. We examine how Brexit impacted international student applications. Using administrative data spanning from 2013 through 2019, along with a quasiexperimental approach, we find that Brexit curtailed the growth rate of international student applications by seven percent even before tuition fees had changed, ultimately lowering enrolments as well. The impact is larger for applications to pursue STEM studies and for those from countries with worse employment prospects and weaker economies, suggesting students’ ability to stay long-term in the United Kingdom was a critical pull factor.
    Keywords: Brexit, international student applications, college education, United Kingdom
    JEL: F22 I20 O15 I28 J61
    Date: 2022–01
  4. By: Pablo Celhay; Sebastian Gallegos (Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez)
    Abstract: This paper presents new evidence on educational mobility across three generations in six Latin American countries (LAC). Combining survey information with national census data we build a data set with 50, 000 triads of grandparents-parent-children born between 1890 and 1990. We estimate a five mobility measures, to show that (i) the empirical multi-generational persistence is high in LAC; (ii) it is much larger than what Becker & Tomes (1986) theoretical model predicts, with a bias that is twice as large for LAC compared to developed countries; (iii) Clark’s theory (2014) of high and sticky persistence provides a better approximation for describing mobility across multiple generations in developing countries. We also uncover that while relative measures suggest stagnant mobility across generations, there are significant improvements according to non-linear measures suggested by Asher, Novosad & Rafkin (2022). This result is especially relevant for developing countries such as LAC, where historical educational expansions have especially benefited the lower end of the schooling distribution.
    Keywords: developing countries, Latin America, intergenerational mobility, educational policy, multiple generations, compulsory schooling
    JEL: J62 J12 N36 P36 I24 I28
    Date: 2023–06
  5. By: Pierre Courtioux (PSB - Paris School of Business - HESAM - HESAM Université - Communauté d'universités et d'établissements Hautes écoles Sorbonne Arts et métiers université, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Tristan-Pierre Maury (EDHEC - EDHEC Business School - UCL - Université catholique de Lille); Johan Seux (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Since the French university system is non-selective, the question of segregation has long remained unaddressed. However, the recent increase in enrolment, as well as the implementation of clusterbuilding policies, have brought the issue of university segregation and its geography to the forefront. This article proposes the first exhaustive geographical decomposition of segregation in French universities. Using a mutual information index, we identify the different local components and layers of social segregation and measure their contribution to the national level of segregation between 2006 and 2016. Our results show that in the French university system, segregation is quite low and tended to decrease over the period. However, we also show that only about 18% of the total segregation is due to macro-scale factors: i.e., social differences across regional areas: social segregation is mainly a local phenomenon that could be reduced with reforms of higher education enrolment policy, implemented at the regional level.
    Keywords: Segregation, Higher Education, Diversity, France, Ségrégation, Enseignement supérieur, Mixité sociale
    Date: 2023–05
  6. By: Michael Gilraine; James Graham; Angela Zheng
    Abstract: While rising house prices benefit existing homeowners, we document a new channel through which price shocks have intergenerational wealth effects. Using panel data from school zones within a large U.S. school district, we find that higher local house prices lead to improvements in local school quality, thereby increasing child human capital and future incomes. We quantify this housing wealth channel using an overlapping generations model with neighborhood choice, spatial equilibrium, and endogenous school quality. Housing market shocks in the model generate large intra- and intergenerational wealth effects, with the latter accounting for over half of total wealth effects.
    JEL: E21 E24 I24 J62 R21 R23
    Date: 2023–06
  7. By: Prithwiraj Choudhury; Ina Ganguli; Patrick Gaulé
    Abstract: We study migration in the right tail of the talent distribution using a novel dataset of Indian high school students taking the Joint Entrance Exam (JEE), a college entrance exam used for admission to the prestigious Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT). We find a high incidence of migration after students complete college: among the top 1, 000 scorers on the exam, 36% have migrated abroad, rising to 62% for the top 100 scorers. We next document that students who attended the original “Top 5” Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were 5 percentage points more likely to migrate for graduate school compared to equally talented students who studied in other institutions. We explore two mechanisms for these patterns: signaling, for which we study migration after one university suddenly gained the IIT designation; and alumni networks, using information on the location of IIT alumni in U.S. computer science departments.
    JEL: F22 J61 O33 O38
    Date: 2023–06

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