nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2023‒04‒24
five papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. Using Genes to Explore the Effects of Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skills on Education and Labor Market Outcomes By Thomas Buser; Rafael Ahlskog; Magnus Johannesson; Philipp Koellinger; Sven Oskarsson
  2. Education-Oriented and Care-Oriented Preschools:Implications on Child Development By Hideo Akabayashi; TIm Ruberg; Chizuru Shikishima; Jun Yamashita
  3. Education, Labor Force Composition, and Growth A General Equilibrium Analysis By Roson, Roberto
  4. Labour quality growth in Poland By Jan Baran
  5. Academic Ambitions: The First Fifteen Women Who Earned Ph.D.s from the University of California By Merritt, Karen Ph.D.

  1. By: Thomas Buser (University of Amsterdam, Tinbergen Institute); Rafael Ahlskog (Department of Government, Uppsala University); Magnus Johannesson (Stockholm School of Economics); Philipp Koellinger (La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin Madison); Sven Oskarsson (Department of Government, Uppsala University)
    Abstract: A large literature establishes that cognitive and non-cognitive skills are strongly correlated with educational attainment and professional achievement. Isolating the causal effects of these traits on career outcomes is made difficult by reverse causality and selection issues. We suggest a different approach: instead of using direct measures of individual traits, we use differences between individuals in the presence of genetic variants that are associated with differences in skills and personality traits. Genes are fixed over the life cycle and genetic differences between full siblings are random, making it possible to establish the causal effects of within-family genetic variation. We link genetic data from individuals in the Swedish Twin Registry to government registry data and find evidence for causal effects of genetic differences linked to cognitive skills, personality traits, and economic preferences on professional achievement and educational attainment. Our results also demonstrate that education and labor market outcomes are partially the result of a genetic lottery
    Keywords: personality traits, economic preferences, cognitive skills, labor markets, education, polygenic indices
    JEL: I26 J24 D91
    Date: 2021–10–07
  2. By: Hideo Akabayashi (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); TIm Ruberg (Department of Economics, University of Hohenheim); Chizuru Shikishima (Department of Psychology, Teikyo University); Jun Yamashita (Faculty of Integrated Arts and Social Sciences, Japan Women's University)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the causal effect of education-oriented vs. care-oriented preschools on child development. We use a unique quasi-experiment from Japan that exploits plausibly exogenous regional and temporal variation in the relative availability of different preschools. We find that attendance at an education-oriented preschool is associated with significant improvements in mathematical and linguistic achievement that manifest later in adolescence. Positive effects can also be found for socioemotional measures. Ascending marginal treatment effect (MTE) curves suggest an inverse selection pattern: children that are least likely to enroll in the education-oriented preschool gain the most from it. This heterogeneity is mainly due to specific features of education-oriented preschools (i.e., educational orientation, shorter operating hours, and peer effects), while gains from enrollment in care-oriented preschools appear more homogeneous.
    Keywords: Early childhood education and care, Child development, IV methods, Marginal treatment effect
    JEL: C26 H75 I26 J13
    Date: 2023–02–27
  3. By: Roson, Roberto
    Abstract: We propose, in this paper, a novel approach to modelling education and human capital formation in a computable general equilibrium model. Rather than adopting microeconomic-based assumptions of human capital formation, we look for an empirical relationship between labor force composition and expenditure in education services. After realizing a set of econometric estimates, we found some robust relationships between workers’ shares in the labor force and educational expenditure, in real terms and per capita. To assess the implications of these findings, we simulate, in a conventional CGE model for Ethiopia, the impact of an increase in public expenditure devoted to education. Our simulation results highlight the existence of a multiplicative effect, such that the overall increase in the supply of education services, in the final equilibrium state, is more than three times larger than the initial demand push. This comes associated with a positive supply shock, entailing gains in productivity, income, and welfare, as well as changes in the structure of the economy.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Jan Baran (Narodowy Bank Polski & University of Warsaw, Faculty of Economic Sciences)
    Abstract: The paper investigates changes in the quality of the labour input in Poland in 2006-2020. Labour quality – which captures compositional changes of the workforce, referring to education, experience, gender and occupation – substantially improved, growing on average by 0.55% a year, compared to much slower growth of unadjusted labour input (hours worked) of 0.11% a year. Growth in the labour quality, which means improvement in workers’ characteristics, was mainly driven by positive changes in the educational composition of workers. Labour quality growth showed less volatility compared to growth of hours worked in the economy and it was negatively correlated to both growth of hours worked and GDP growth, mitigating procyclicality of the labour input. Additionally, falling tertiary education wage premia are documented.
    Keywords: human capital, labour quality, labour input.
    JEL: E24 J21 J24
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Merritt, Karen Ph.D.
    Abstract: Describes the paths to the Ph.D. and the subsequent careers of the first 15 women to earn Ph.D.s from the University of California. It covers: Milicent Washburn Shinn (1898), Jessica Blanche Peixotto (1900), Alice Robertson (1902), Edna Earl Watson Bailey (1910), Annie Dale Biddle Andrews (1911), Myrtle Elizabeth Johnson (1912), Lillian Ruth Matthews (1912), Emma Phoebe Waterman Haas (1913), Anna Estelle Glancy (1913), Frances Lytle Gillepsy (1914), Rosalind Wulzen (1914), Olga Louise Bridgman (1915), Helen Margaret Gillkey (1915), Olive Swezy (1915), Irene Agnes McCulloch (1916).
    Keywords: Arts and Humanities, early women doctorates, university of california
    Date: 2023–04–05

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