nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2022‒07‒25
five papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. Heterogeneous Effects of After-School Care on Child Development By Laura Schmitz
  2. Awarding gaps in higher education by ethnicity, schooling and family background By Boero, Gianna; Karanja, Brian; Naylor, Robin; Thiele, Tammy
  3. Teacher Subject Knowledge, Didactic Skills, and Student Learning in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa By Jan Bietenbeck; Natalie Irmert; Mohammad H. Sepahvand
  4. The collateral effects of private school expansion in a deregulated market: Peru, 1996-2019 By José María Rentería
  5. Labor Market Effects of Short-Cycle Higher Education Programs: Lessons from Colombia By Maria Marta Ferreyra; Camila Galindo; Sergio S. Urzúa

  1. By: Laura Schmitz
    Abstract: It is often argued that institutionalized after-school care (ASC) can benefit children lacking adequate homework support at home and, hence, foster equality of opportunity. However, despite considerable policy interest, it is unclear whether these afternoon programs are beneficial for child development and if selection into them is efficient, i.e., whether students benefiting most from the programs choose to attend. In this paper, I examine the effects of ASC on elementary school children’s schooling outcomes and non-cognitive skill development. Using a marginal treatment effect framework and regional and temporal variation caused by an extensive reform in Germany, I instrument after-school care attendance with the change in the distance to the next school offering ASC within one district. My findings suggest that children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, who more often select into treatment, have higher ASC premiums. Concerning schooling outcomes, I find minor positive local average treatment effects but no effect heterogeneity concerning unobserved characteristics. ASC effects on the treated’s non-cognitive skills are more sizable than those on the untreated, suggesting that selection into ASC is positive and efficient. Overall, a universal voluntary offer of ASC will likely help reduce educational inequalities.
    Keywords: After-school care, marginal treatment effects, inequality
    JEL: I21 I24 I26 J08
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Boero, Gianna (University of Warwick); Karanja, Brian (University of Warwick); Naylor, Robin (University of Warwick); Thiele, Tammy (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Previous research has established that undergraduate students in the UK who had attended private schools perform less well at university, on average, than equivalent students who had been educated at a state school prior to university (Smith and Naylor, 2001 and 2005; Crawford, 2014a). This well-known result has provided an evidence base for the use of contextualised offers in admissions across the sector (Schwartz Report, 2004; Hubble and Bolton, 2020) as an instrument for enhancing social mobility. In the current paper, we use a rich dataset for a particular university to examine whether the negative association between private schooling and class of degree awarded holds across all students, independent of ethnicity : we find that it does not. For White students, we obtain the standard result that private schooling is associated negatively with class of degree. However, in stark contrast, among students whose ethnicity is self-reported as either Black, Asian or Mixed Ethnicity, attendance at a private school prior to university is, on average, associated positively with the class of degree awarded. On further exploration, we find this is driven by a strong positive association among Black students and students of Mixed Ethnicity ; the overarching category of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnicity conceals substantive differences within the category. Among Asian students, the absence of any association between private schooling and degree class, on average, masks a very strong negative association for those from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. We discuss and interpret our results in the context of hypotheses within the literatures on schooling effects and on the ethnicity awarding gap in higher education.
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Jan Bietenbeck; Natalie Irmert; Mohammad H. Sepahvand
    Abstract: We study the effects of two dimensions of teacher quality, subject knowledge and didactic skills, on student learning in francophone Sub-Saharan Africa. We use data from an international large-scale assessment in 14 countries that include individual-level information on student achievement and country-level measures of teacher subject knowledge and didactic skills in reading and math. Exploiting variation between subjects in a student fixed-effects model, we find that teacher subject knowledge has a large positive effect on student achievement, whereas the effect of didactic skills is comparatively small and not statistically significant at conventional levels. Together, the two dimensions of teacher quality account for 36 percent of the variation in average student achievement across countries.
    Keywords: international learning gaps, teacher quality, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: I21 I25 O15
    Date: 2022
  4. By: José María Rentería (UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper explores the mid-term effects of the de facto privatization that has taken place in the Peruvian educational system. It exploits exogenous policy shocks as well as two sources of variation, namely the geographical location of the new private schools and the year of birth of individuals. Both variables determine the degree of exposure to the private school expansion process. The results suggest that this phenomenon has contributed neither to increasing access to formal education nor to improving wages in the labor market. This evidence raises concerns about the impact of privatization on the quality of the education system as a whole as well the regulatory role of the State
    Keywords: Private education,school choice
    Date: 2022–06
  5. By: Maria Marta Ferreyra; Camila Galindo; Sergio S. Urzúa
    Abstract: This paper estimates the heterogeneous labor market effects of enrolling in higher education short-cycle (SC) programs. Expanding access to these programs might affect the behavior of some students (compliers) in two margins: the expansion margin (students who would not have enrolled in higher education otherwise) and the diversion margin (students who would have enrolled in bachelor's programs otherwise). To quantify these responses, we exploit local exogenous variation in the supply of higher education institutions (HEIs) facing Colombian high school graduates in an empirical multinomial choice model with several instruments. According to our findings, the presence of at least one HEI specialized in SC programs in the vicinity of the student's high school municipality increases SC enrollment by 3.7-4.5 percentage points (40-50% of the SC enrollment rate). The diversion margin largely drives this effect. For female compliers, enrollment in SC programs increases formal employment relative to the next-best alternative. For male compliers, in contrast, it lowers formal employment and wages. These results should alert policymakers of the unexpected consequences of higher education expansionary policies.
    JEL: I24 I26 I28 J24
    Date: 2022–06

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