nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2022‒04‒25
nine papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. Do Teachers' College Majors Affect Students' Academic Achievement in the Sciences? A Cross-Subfields Analysis with Student-Teacher Fixed Effects By Inoue, Atsushi; Tanaka, Ryuichi
  2. Educational and Skills Mismatches: Unravelling Their Effects on Wages across Europe By Cultrera, Loredana; Mahy, Benoît; Rycx, Francois; Vermeylen, Guillaume
  3. Rank Effects in Education: What Do We Know So Far? By Delaney, Judith; Devereux, Paul J.
  4. Female representation in school management and school quality By Bharti Nandwani;
  5. Self-Interest in Public Service: Evidence from School Board Elections By Stephen B. Billings; Hugh Macartney; Geunyong Park; John D. Singleton
  6. A new macroeconomic measure of human capital exploiting PISA and PIAAC: Linking education policies to productivity By Balázs Égert; Christine de la Maisonneuve; David Turner
  7. Getting Teachers Back to School: Teacher Incentives and Student Outcomes By Patricio Araya-Córdova; Dante Contreras; Jorge Rodriguez; Paulina Sepulveda
  8. Sibling Spillovers and the Choice to Get Vaccinated: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design By Humlum, Maria Knoth; Morthorst, Marius Opstrup; Thingholm, Peter Rønø
  9. Income-Achievement Gaps in Canada By Ryan Bacic; Angela Zheng

  1. By: Inoue, Atsushi (Nippon Institute for Research Advancement); Tanaka, Ryuichi (University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: We examine whether and how teachers' major fields of study affect students' achievement, exploiting within-student variation across subfields in natural science (i.e., physics, chemistry, biology, and Earth science). Using middle-school students' data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study and controlling student-teacher fixed effects, we find that teachers with college majors in natural sciences improve students' achievement of subfields in natural sciences corresponding to their subfields of college majors. Teaching practices explain about half of the effect of teachers' major fields. Most of the effects of teaching practices are accounted for by teachers' preparation for teaching science topics. The results are robust to potential endogenous matching between students and teachers.
    Keywords: education, teacher, natural science, college major, middle school, TIMSS
    JEL: H75 I21 J24
    Date: 2022–02
  2. By: Cultrera, Loredana (University of Mons); Mahy, Benoît (University of Mons); Rycx, Francois (Free University of Brussels); Vermeylen, Guillaume (University of Mons)
    Abstract: This paper is among the firsts to investigate the impact of overeducation and overskilling on workers' wages using a unique pan-European database covering twenty-eight countries for the year 2014, namely the CEDEFOP's European Skills and Jobs (ESJ) survey. Overall, the results suggest a wage penalty associated with overeducation. When interacting educational mismatch with skills mismatch into apparent overeducation and genuine overeducation, the results suggest that the highest wage penalty is reached for workers that are both overeducated and overskilled.
    Keywords: wages, skills mismatch, educational mismatch, European survey
    JEL: J21 J24
    Date: 2022–02
  3. By: Delaney, Judith (University of Bath); Devereux, Paul J. (University College Dublin)
    Abstract: In recent years there has been a plethora of empirical papers by economists concerning the effects of academic rank in school or college on subsequent outcomes of students. We review this recent literature, describing the difficult identification and measurement issues, the assumptions and methodologies used in the literature, and the main findings. Accounting for ability or achievement and across a range of countries, ages, and types of educational institutions, students that are more highly ranked in their class or their grade have been found to have better long-term outcomes. The effect sizes are generally large when compared to magnitudes found for other factors and interventions. Rank effects can provide useful insight into other educational phenomena such as the extent to which students benefit from high ability peers and the presence of a gender gap in STEM. However, the state of knowledge has probably not reached the point where the empirical findings from this literature have practical implications for policy intervention to improve outcomes of students.
    Keywords: academic rank, education, human capital, social comparisons, peer effects, STEM
    JEL: I21 J16 J24
    Date: 2022–03
  4. By: Bharti Nandwani (; (International Initiative for Impact Evaluation)
    Abstract: Using administrative data (2012-18) of schools in India, in this paper we construct a large panel comprising of more than 6 million observations to examine the extent to which female representation in school management is associated with improvement in school quality. We exploit the variation in number of female members in committees that govern government funded school activity to study our research question. Using a fixed effects methodology, we show that increased female representation in school management committees is associated with improvement in school quality, measured in terms of number of teachers hired, qualification of teachers, academic resources and student enrollment. The results are robust to including initial school characteristics interacted with year. Besides, using individual level data on learning outcomes for rural India, we provide suggestive evidence of positive association between female representation in schools management committees and learning outcomes of children, particularly for girls.
    Keywords: school management, school quality, female, public schools, local community
    JEL: I2 O1 Z18
    Date: 2022–02
  5. By: Stephen B. Billings; Hugh Macartney; Geunyong Park; John D. Singleton
    Abstract: In this paper, we show that the election of a new school board member causes home values in their neighborhood to rise. This increase is identified using narrowly-decided contests and is driven by non-Democratic members, whose neighborhoods appreciate about 4% on average relative to those of losing candidates. We find that student test scores in the neighborhood public schools of non-Democratic winners also relatively increase, but this effect is driven by changing student composition, including via the manipulation of attendance zones, rather than improvements in school quality (as measured by test score value-added). Notably, we detect no differential changes when comparing neighborhood or scholastic outcomes between winning and losing Democratic school board candidates. These results suggest that partisan affiliation is correlated with private motivations for seeking public office.
    JEL: D72 H75 I24
    Date: 2022–02
  6. By: Balázs Égert; Christine de la Maisonneuve; David Turner
    Abstract: This paper provides a new measure of human capital using PISA and PIAAC surveys, and mean years of schooling. The new measure is a cohort-weighted average of past PISA scores (representing the quality of education) of the working age population and the corresponding mean years of schooling (representing the quantity of education). In contrast to the existing literature, the relative weights of each component are not imposed or calibrated but directly estimated. The paper finds that the elasticity of the stock of human capital with respect to the quality of education is three to four times larger than for the quantity of education. The new measure has a strong link to productivity with the potential for productivity gains being much greater from improvements in the quality than quantity component of human capital. The magnitude of these potential gains in MFP is comparable to a similarly standardised improvement in product market regulation, but the effects materialise with much longer lags. The paper demonstrates through the example of pre-primary education, how to simulate the impact of a particular reform to education policy on human capital and productivity.
    Keywords: education policies, human capital, OECD countries, PIAAC, PISA, productivity
    JEL: E24 I20 I25 I26 I28
    Date: 2022–04–08
  7. By: Patricio Araya-Córdova; Dante Contreras; Jorge Rodriguez; Paulina Sepulveda
    Abstract: Rewarding teachers on the basis of student performance is a growing trend in educational policy. This paper estimates the effects of a policy that ties payments with teachers’ pedagogical skills instead. We study a large-scale reform in Chile that introduced financial incentives tied to a teacher evaluation system. Using a unique administrative data set of over 500,000 student-teacher-year matches, we estimate the effect of the policy on student performance exploiting the program’s gradual roll-out through a differences-in-differences analysis. We document precise, null effects of the policy on student math and language standardized test scores. Estimating a structural model of teacher skills and student performance, we show that by making incentives more homogeneous across the distribution of teacher characteristics policymakers can improve the policy’s effects on student performance and overall welfare.
    Date: 2021–04
  8. By: Humlum, Maria Knoth (Aarhus University); Morthorst, Marius Opstrup (Aarhus University); Thingholm, Peter Rønø (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: We investigate the effects of the introduction of a population-wide Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program on the vaccine take-up of the targeted group of 15-year-old girls and their older sisters. For identification, we rely on a regression discontinuity design and high-quality Danish administrative data to exploit that date of birth determines program eligibility. We find that the program increased the HPV vaccine take-up of both the targeted girls and their older sisters. While the direct effects of the program reduced vaccine-takeup inequality, the spillover effects, in contrast, contributed to an increase in vaccine take-up inequality.
    Keywords: health investments, health behavior, peer effects, sibling spillovers, HPV, vaccine, health inequality
    JEL: I10 I18 I12 I14
    Date: 2022–02
  9. By: Ryan Bacic; Angela Zheng
    Abstract: This paper presents new evidence on the relationship between family income and child education outcomes in Canada. We use administrative education data linked to tax records to determine the test score differentials between children from families in the top and bottom income deciles (P90-P10 gap). Across students in Grade 4 and 7, we find a P90-P10 gap of around 0.65 standard deviations from 2012 to 2015. This gap is markedly lower than documented gaps for other countries. However, there is important heterogeneity: among Indigenous children the P90-P10 gap is 0.8 standard deviations and among students with special needs it is 0.7 standard deviations. In contrast, for students who are not in either of those groups, the P90-P10 gap is only 0.4. While our findings suggest low inequities in education achievement by income overall, there are large gaps between high and low-income students for certain subpopulations that need further attention from policymakers.
    Keywords: income inequality; education attainment gradients
    JEL: I20 J15 J13
    Date: 2022–04

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