nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2022‒01‒24
five papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. Does relative age affect speed and quality of transition from school to work? By Luca Fumarco; Alessandro Vandromme; Levi Halewyck; Eline Moens; Stijn Baert
  2. What Makes a Classmate a Peer? Examining which peers matter in NYC elementary schools By Horrace, William; Jung, Hyunseok; Presler, Jonathan; Schwartz, Amy Ellen
  3. Inattention and Inequity in School Matching By Stefan F. Bucher; Andrew Caplin
  4. The role of inclusive education in governance for inclusive economic participation: gender evidence from sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
  5. Crowdwork for Young People: Risks and Opportunities By O'Higgins, Niall; Caro, Luis Pinedo

  1. By: Luca Fumarco; Alessandro Vandromme; Levi Halewyck; Eline Moens; Stijn Baert (-)
    Abstract: We are the first to estimate the impact of relative age (i.e., the difference in classmates’ ages) on both speed and quality of individuals’ transition from education to the labour market. Moreover, we are the first to explore whether and how this impact passes through characteristics of students’ educational career. We use rich data pertaining to schooling and to labour market outcomes one year after graduation to conduct instrumental variables analyses. We find that a one-year increase in relative age increases the likelihood of (i) being employed then by 3.5 percentage points, (ii) having a permanent contract by 5.1 percentage points, and (iii) having full-time employment by 6.5 percentage points. These relative age effects are partly mediated by intermediate outcomes such as having had a schooling delay at the age of sixteen or taking on student jobs. The final mediator is particularly notable as no earlier studies examined relative age effects on student employment.
    Keywords: relative age, school starting age, labour market transition
    JEL: I21 J23 J24 J6
    Date: 2022–01
  2. By: Horrace, William (Syracuse University); Jung, Hyunseok (University of Arkansas); Presler, Jonathan (Sinquefield Center for Applied Economic Research, Saint Louis University); Schwartz, Amy Ellen (Syracuse University)
    Abstract: We identify and estimate the effects of student-level social spillovers on standardized test performance in New York City (NYC) elementary schools. We leverage student demographic data to construct within-classroom social networks based on shared student characteristics, such as a gender or ethnicity. Rather than aggregate shared characteristics into a single network matrix, we specify additively separate network matrices for each shared characteristic and estimate city-wide peer effects for each one. Conditional on sharing a classroom, we find that the most important student peer effects are shared ethnicity, gender, and primary language spoken at home. Identification of the model is discussed.
    Keywords: Peer effect; Network; Homophily; Education
    JEL: C31 I21
    Date: 2021–10–01
  3. By: Stefan F. Bucher; Andrew Caplin
    Abstract: The attractive properties of the Deferred Acceptance (DA) algorithm rest on the assumption of perfect information. Yet field studies of school matching show that information is imperfect, particularly for disadvantaged students. We model costly strategic learning when schools are ex ante symmetric, agree on their ranking of students, and learning is rationally inattentive. Our analytic solution quantifies how each student’s rank, learning costs and prior beliefs interact to determine their gross and net welfare as well as the extent and form of mistakes they make. In line with the evidence, we find that lower-ranked students are affected disproportionately more by information costs, generally suffering a larger welfare loss than higher-ranked students. Interactions between mechanism design, inattention and inequity are thus of first order importance.
    JEL: C78 D47 D82 D83
    Date: 2021–12
  4. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Nicholas M. Odhiambo (Pretoria, South Africa)
    Abstract: This study investigates the relevance of inclusive education in moderating the effect of good governance on female economic inclusion in sub-Saharan Africa. First, inclusive tertiary education modulates: (i) government effectiveness to induce a positive net effect on female labour force participation; (ii) political stability and corruption-control to induce negative net effects on female unemployment; (iii) government effectiveness for a positive net effect on female unemployment and (iv) regulation quality and the rule of law for positive net impacts on female employment. Second, inclusive secondary education moderates: (i) corruption-control for a positive net effect on female labour force participation; (ii) “voice and accountability†, government effectiveness and corruption-control for negative net impacts on female unemployment; (iii) the rule of law for a positive net effect on female unemployment; (iv) “voice and accountability†, government effectiveness and corruption-control for positive net effects on female employment. Policy implications are discussed. Inclusive education thresholds for complementary policy policies are also computed and discussed. At these thresholds, inclusive education becomes a necessary but not a sufficient condition to complement governance in order to promote female economic inclusion.
    Keywords: Africa; Gender; Inclusive development
    JEL: G20 I10 I32 O40 O55
    Date: 2021–01
  5. By: O'Higgins, Niall (ILO International Labour Organization); Caro, Luis Pinedo (ILO International Labour Organization)
    Abstract: In recent years, crowdworking has emerged as a small but rapidly growing source of employment and income principally for young(er) people. Here, we build on previous work in identifying the determinants of crowdworkers' earnings. We focus on the reasons why young crowdworkers earn significantly higher hourly wages than their older counterparts. We show that this is due to the higher returns to experience accruing to younger crowd-workers. Educational attainment does not explain this age-based differential, as education is a negligible factor in determining crowdworkers' earnings. We also analyse why young women earn around 20% less than their male counterparts despite blind hiring. We confirm that this is partly explained by constraints on working time faced by women with children. The analysis also shows that 'freely chosen' crowdwork - as opposed to, young people crowd-working because of a lack of alternative employment opportunities - is conducive to higher levels of job satisfaction. Moreover, young crowdworkers in middle income countries earn less than their counterparts in high income countries but report higher levels of job satisfaction. This is entirely attributable to the lower quality of their options outside of crowdwork.
    Keywords: crowdsourcing platforms, global labour markets, job satisfaction, youth employment
    JEL: J20 J41 F41
    Date: 2021–12

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