nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2021‒08‒09
seven papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. A peer like me? Early exposure to high achievers in math and later educational outcomes By Laura Pagani; Giovanni Pica
  2. High School Choices by Immigrant Students in Italy: Evidence from Administrative Data. By Koray Aktas; Gianluca Argentin; Gian Paolo Barbetta; Gianna Barbieri; Luca Vittorio Angelo Colombo
  3. Correlates of Test Performance of 15-year-old Students in the Philippines: Evidence from PISA By Orbeta, Aniceto C. Jr.; Potestad, Maropsil V.; Melad, Kris Ann M.
  4. Student satisfaction with distance education during the COVID-19 first-wave: A cross-cultural perspective By Jung, SeEun; Vranceanu, Radu
  5. The Effect of Lockdown on Students’ Performance: A comparative study between Sweden, Italy and Turkey By Giorgia Casalone; Alessandra Michelangeli; John Östh; Umut Türk
  6. Does the pay period matter in estimating returns to schooling? Evidence from East Africa By Livini Donath; Oliver Morrissey; Trudy Owens
  7. The Big Five Personality Traits and Earnings: A Meta-Analysis By Alderotti, Giammarco; Rapallini, Chiara; Traverso, Silvio

  1. By: Laura Pagani; Giovanni Pica
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether exposure to academically gifted peers of the same and opposite gender in primary school (grade 5, at age 10) affects later academic achievement (grade 8, at age 13) and high-school track choice. For identification we exploit random allocation of kids across classes within primary schools. We document that, conditional on primary school fixed effects and grade 8 class fixed effects, as well as on baseline achievement, a higher share of same/opposite-gender high-achievers in math in primary school is related, both for boys and girls, to better/worse later math academic achievement in grade 8 and to a higher/lower probability of choosing a scientific high-school track. We argue that these results are consistent with a role model channel.
    Keywords: Peer effects, early education stage, gender-specific effects
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2021–07
  2. By: Koray Aktas; Gianluca Argentin; Gian Paolo Barbetta (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Gianna Barbieri; Luca Vittorio Angelo Colombo (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: We investigate the educational choices of first- and second-generation immigrant students at the transition between lower-secondary school and high school by exploiting a large longitudinal dataset of about 50,000 students in Italy. We find that immigrant students are less likely to choose challenging academic track high schools compared with their Italian counterparts, after controlling for household characteristics, school fixed e ects, and students' performance. We show that systematic di erences in teachers' evaluations received by the two groups of students are an important driver of the observed di erences in educational choices by immigrant and native students. In particular, after controlling for observable characteristics, we find that immigrant students are more likely to be formally advised by their teachers to choose vocational or technical high schools rather than academic tracks, re ecting a discrimination bias that has not previously been emphasized in the literature. This suggests the role of a new dimension of policy intervention aimed at reducing the possibility of teachers' induced discrimination based on implicit stereotypes.
    Keywords: immigrant students, high school choice, academic track, discrimination biases, implicit stereotypes.
    JEL: I21 I24 I26 I28
    Date: 2021–07
  3. By: Orbeta, Aniceto C. Jr.; Potestad, Maropsil V.; Melad, Kris Ann M.
    Abstract: To provide evidence on the drivers of the quality of education in the country, this study focuses on the correlates of test performance of 15-year-old students in the Philippines. It aims to quantitatively measure the roles of individual, family, and school characteristics in test performance. It uses the 2018 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) which include a rich set of student, family, and school characteristics. In addition to the average relationship between the variables provided by ordinary least squares, it also provides an analysis for high and low performing students using quantile regressions. The estimation results show that, in terms of individual characteristics, there is consistent negative correlation between grade repetition, age at start of primary schooling and incidence of bullying and test scores across mathematics, science and reading. For household characteristics, parental occupation and emotional support are positively correlated with test scores. For school characteristics, disciplinary climate provided a consistent positive correlation with test scores. In addition, to these results the paper also found puzzling results that require in-depth studies. The paper also provided recommendations in the light of the estimation results. <p> Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: basic education, K to 12, test scores, PISA, correlates, test performance, junior high school
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Jung, SeEun (Inha University, Department of Economics); Vranceanu, Radu (ESSEC Research Center, ESSEC Business School)
    Abstract: This research note reports results of a survey on student satisfaction with distance education in Korea and France as implemented in May 2020 on 510 respondents. At that time, both countries closed the facilities of higher education institutions and imposed the extensive use of on-line education. A majority of French students express a preference for in-class teaching compared with on-line teaching, while preferences of the Korean students are more balanced. On average, Korean students express higher satisfaction with online teaching compared to French students. Women students also report higher satisfaction scores. The COVID-19 stress is negatively related to satisfaction with online teaching in Korea, but not in France
    Keywords: Distance education; Student satisfaction; Synchronous teaching; COVID-19 stress
    JEL: I19 I23 I28
    Date: 2020–10–01
  5. By: Giorgia Casalone; Alessandra Michelangeli; John Östh; Umut Türk
    Abstract: During the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, different countries adopted different strategies in order to mitigate the effects of the pandemic. Regarding higher education, university studies were moved entirely to digital solutions in some countries, while other countries kept the universities open but restricted access. The sudden move to digital educational solutions affected students differently, and since different countries invented different mitigation strategies we got an opportunity to compare the effects of lockdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic on university students’ performance in Italy, Sweden and Turkey. We employ a difference-in-differences approach by exploiting the fact that Italy and Turkey experienced national lockdowns, while Sweden never applied nationwide mandatory restrictive measures. We use administrative data from universities in the three countries to estimate the probability to pass exams after the spread of COVID-19 pandemic (and the shift to distance education), with respect to the previous comparable period. We find that the pass rate decreased with the shift to online teaching. However, lockdown measures, especially if very restrictive as those applied in Italy, helped to compensate such negative effect. A possible explanation is that students took advantage of the huge increase in the time available for their studies, given the impossibility to carry out any activity outside the home.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Students’ outcomes; Student’s integration; Time-to-study; Difference-in-Differences.
    JEL: I21 I28
    Date: 2021–07
  6. By: Livini Donath; Oliver Morrissey; Trudy Owens
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether returns to schooling differ according to the choice of the measure of earnings and the different periods in which workers are paid (daily, weekly, and monthly). Using comparable data from the Living Standards and Measurement Study (LSMS) for Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda, accounting for endogeneity using Gaussian Copula and for selection with the Heckman method, we show that converting earnings to common measures and pooling respondents produces different estimates of returns to education. Depending on the common measure chosen, estimates of returns for level of education can differ by up to 100% for Tanzania, up to 50% for Malawi and up to 20% for Uganda. Estimating separately for each pay period, returns also differ significantly. Returns to primary education are 40-70% in Uganda and 20-30% in Malawi and Tanzania. Returns to secondary education are about 80% in Malawi and Tanzania but vary between 50% and 90% in Uganda. Returns to higher education are 130% in Tanzania, 100-150% in Uganda and 120-165% in Malawi. Returns to increase with the level of education completed but estimating separately for different periods is more reliable than pooling.
    Keywords: returns to education, schooling, earnings, pay period, East Africa
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Alderotti, Giammarco; Rapallini, Chiara; Traverso, Silvio
    Abstract: The past two decades have witnessed an increasing interest in the relationship between personality and labor market outcomes, as well as the emergence of the Five-Factor Model as the reference framework for the study of personality. In this paper, we provide the first meta-analytical review of the empirical literature on the association between personal earnings and the Big Five personality traits. The analysis combines the results of 65 peer-reviewed articles published between 2001-2020, from which we retrieved 936 partial effect sizes. Overall, the primary literature provides robust support for a positive association between personal earnings and the traits of Openness, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion, while simultaneously revealing a negative and significant association between earnings and the traits of Agreeableness and Neuroticism. We find no evidence of a substantial publication bias. Meta-regression estimates suggest that Openness and Conscientiousness are positively associated with earnings even when primary researchers control for individual cognitive abilities and educational attainments. Similarly, the studies that includes labor market control variables exhibit weaker associations between earnings and Extraversion and Agreeableness. The results of the primary studies seem unaffected by the time at which the Big Five are measured, as well as by the scale and number of inventory items. Meta-regression estimates suggest that the results of the primary literature are not stable across cultures and gender, and that the ranking and academic field of the journal matter.
    Keywords: Big Five personality traits,earnings,meta-analysis
    JEL: J24 D91
    Date: 2021

This nep-edu issue is ©2021 by Nádia Simões. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.