nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2021‒07‒12
eleven papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. Intergenerational transmission of lockdown consequences: Prognosis of the longer-run persistence of COVID-19 in Latin America By Neidhöfer, Guido; Lustig, Nora; Tommasi, Mariano
  2. The effect of higher-achieving peers on major choices and labor market outcomes By Jan Feld; Ulf Zölitz
  3. Using Predictive Analytics to Track Students: Evidence from a Seven-College Experiment By Bergman, Peter; Kopko, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Julio
  4. The Impact of an Un(der)Funded Inclusive Education Policy: Evidence from the 2013 China Education Panel Survey By Tani, Massimiliano; Zhu, Yu; Xu, Lei
  5. Labor Market Signaling and the Value of College: Evidence from Resumes and the Truth By Kreisman, Daniel; Smith, Jonathan; Arifin, Bondi
  6. Bye, bye, Hotel Mama, bye, bye good grades? Living in a student room and exam results in tertiary education By Simon Amez; Stijn Baert
  7. Young People between Education and the Labour Market during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy By Fiaschi, Davide; Tealdi, Cristina
  8. Mother Tongue Reading Materials as a Bridge to Literacy By Margaret Leighton
  9. Education for Sustainable Development and Innovation in Engineering School: Students’ Perception By Fatma Fourati-Jamoussi; Michel J.F. Dubois; Marie Chedru; Geoffroy Belhenniche
  10. The Impact of Free Secondary Education: Experimental Evidence from Ghana By Esther Duflo; Pascaline Dupas; Michael Kremer
  11. Routine-biased technological change and wages by education level: Occupational downgrading and displacement effects By Clément Bosquet; Paul Maarek; Elliot Moiteaux

  1. By: Neidhöfer, Guido; Lustig, Nora; Tommasi, Mariano
    Abstract: The shock on human capital caused by COVID-19 is likely to have long lasting consequences, especially for children of low-educated families. Applying a counterfactual exercise we project the effects of school closures and other lockdown policies on the intergenerational persistence of education in 17 Latin American countries. First, we retrieve detailed information on school lockdowns and on the policies enacted to support education from home in each country. Then, we use these information to estimate the potential impact of the pandemic on schooling, high school completion, and intergenerational associations. In addition, we account for educational disruptions related to household income shocks. Our findings show that, despite that mitigation policies were able to partly reduce instructional losses in some countries, the educational attainment of the most vulnerable could be seriously affected. In particular, the likelihood of children from low educated families to attain a secondary schooling degree could fall substantially.
    Keywords: COVID-19,lockdowns,human capital,school closures,intergenerational persistence,education,inequality,Latin America
    JEL: I24 I38 J62
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Jan Feld; Ulf Zölitz
    Abstract: This paper investigates how exposure to higher-achieving male and female peers in university affects students’ major choices and labor market outcomes. For identification of causal effects, we exploit the random assignment of students to university sections in first-year compulsory courses. We present two main results. First, studying with higher-achieving peers has no statistically significant or economically meaningful effects on educational choices. Second, we find suggestive evidence that women who have been exposed to higher achieving male peers end up in jobs in which they are more satisfied.
    Keywords: Gender, major choice, peer effects
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2021–06
  3. By: Bergman, Peter (Columbia University); Kopko, Elizabeth (Columbia University); Rodriguez, Julio (Columbia University)
    Abstract: Tracking is widespread in U.S. education. In post-secondary education alone, at least 71% of colleges use a test to track students. However, there are concerns that the most frequently used college placement exams lack validity and reliability, and unnecessarily place students from under-represented groups into remedial courses. While recent research has shown that tracking can have positive effects on student learning, inaccurate placement has consequences: students face misaligned curricula and must pay tuition for remedial courses that do not bear credits toward graduation. We develop an alternative system to place students that uses predictive analytics to combine multiple measures into a placement instrument. Compared to colleges'; existing placement tests, the algorithm is more predictive of future performance. We then conduct an experiment across seven colleges to evaluate the algorithm's effects on students. Placement rates into college-level courses increased substantially without reducing pass rates. Adjusting for multiple testing, algorithmic placement generally, though not always, narrowed gaps in college placement rates and remedial course taking across demographic groups. A detailed cost analysis shows that the algorithmic placement system is socially efficient: it saves costs for students while increasing college credits earned, which more than offsets increased costs for colleges. Costs could be reduced with improved data digitization as opposed to entering data by hand.
    Keywords: tracking, education, experiment
    JEL: I20 I24
    Date: 2021–06
  4. By: Tani, Massimiliano (University of New South Wales); Zhu, Yu (University of Dundee); Xu, Lei (National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR))
    Abstract: Using the 2013 China Education Panel Survey (CEPS), we study the impact of a 2008 inclusive education policy, through which the central government mandated urban public schools to exempt migrant children from tuition and temporary schooling fees. Whereas the non-disclosure rule regarding geographical location of CEPS sampling units precludes the control of locational characteristics, we identify the causal effect of the policy through a novel identification strategy, which relies on the types of primary sampling units. Specifically, we only use non-migrant rural hukou children living in counties in the nationally representative sample as the control group (the never-takers), while, in the treatment group, we only include migrant children who are currently living in China's top 120 migrant-receiving counties or city districts, and Shanghai. We also distinguish migrant children who started urban schooling before and after 2008 as separate treatment groups of always-takers and compliers, respectively. Using the Inverse Probability Weighted Regression Adjustment (IPWRA) approach, we find that the average treatment effect of the policy on migrant children is around 0.18 SD, as measured by a standardised cognitive test score – a large effect. We also present complementary evidence that the average treatment effect tends to be larger for municipalities and provincial capitals, consistently with the notion that the (potential) value-added of attending urban schools is higher the larger the initial gap with rural schools.
    Keywords: school access reform, migrant children, discrimination, inclusive education
    JEL: I21 I24 I25 I28 J15
    Date: 2021–06
  5. By: Kreisman, Daniel (Georgia State University); Smith, Jonathan (Georgia State University); Arifin, Bondi (Indonesia Ministry of Finance)
    Abstract: How do college non-completers list schooling on their resumes? The negative signal of not completing might outweigh the positive signal of attending but not persisting. If so, job-seekers might hide non-completed schooling on their resumes. To test this we match resumes from an online jobs board to administrative educational records. We find that fully one in three job-seekers who attended college but did not earn a degree omit their only post-secondary schooling from their resumes. We further show that these are not casual omissions but are strategic decisions systematically related to schooling characteristics, such as selectivity and years of enrollment. We also find evidence of lying, and show which degrees listed on resumes are most likely untrue. Lastly, we discuss implications. We show not only that this implies a commonly held assumption, that employers perfectly observe schooling, does not hold, but also that we can learn about which college experiences students believe are most valued by employers.
    Keywords: signaling, resume, employer learning, statistical discrimination, jobs board
    JEL: J01 J24
    Date: 2021–06
  6. By: Simon Amez; Stijn Baert (-)
    Abstract: We study whether living in a student room as a tertiary education student (instead of commuting between one’s parental residence and college or university) affects exam results. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study this relationship beyond cross-sectional analysis. That is, we exploit rich longitudinal data on 1,653 Belgian freshmen students’ residential status and exam scores to control for observed heterogeneity as well as for individual fixed (or random) effects. We find that after correcting for unobserved heterogeneity, the association found in earlier contributions disappears. This finding of no significant impact of living in a student room on exam results is robust for other methods used for causal inference including instrumental variable techniques.
    Keywords: residential status, exam scores, longitudinal data, causality.
    JEL: I23 J24
    Date: 2021–07
  7. By: Fiaschi, Davide (University of Pisa); Tealdi, Cristina (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh)
    Abstract: We analyse the distribution and the flows between different types of employment (self-employment, temporary, and permanent), unemployment, education, and other types of inactivity, with particular focus on the duration of the school-to-work transition (STWT). The aim is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy on the careers of individuals aged 15-34. We find that the pandemic worsened an already concerning situation of higher unemployment and inactivity rates and significantly longer STWT duration compared to other EU countries, particularly for females and residents in the South of Italy. In the midst of the pandemic, individuals aged 20-29 were less in (permanent and temporary) employment and more in the NLFET (Neither in the Labour Force nor in Education or Training) state, particularly females and non Italian citizens. We also provide evidence of an increased propensity to return to schooling, but most importantly of a substantial prolongation of the STWT duration towards permanent employment, mostly for males and non Italian citizens. Our contribution lies in providing a rigorous estimation and analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on the carriers of young individuals in Italy, which has not yet been explored in the literature.
    Keywords: labour market flows, transition probabilities, first passage time, school-to-work transition, NLFET, COVID-19
    JEL: C18 C53 E32 E24 J6
    Date: 2021–06
  8. By: Margaret Leighton (University of St Andrews)
    Abstract: Children whose mother tongue is different from the language of instruction at school face significant challenges in developing literacy skills. One educational approach to address this favours immersion in the language of instruction, while another favours a transitional period of bilingual education. This paper evaluates the impact of an early primary school literacy intervention. In addition to multi-faceted literacy support, the programme included a component of transitional bilingual education for students whose mother tongue is not the usual language of instruction. Over two years, the intervention raised literacy scores in the language of instruction by +0.44 sd, and literacy in mother tongue for minority language speakers by +0.68 sd. Both native speakers and language learners saw equivalent gains in literacy in the language of instruction, despite language learners also seeing large gains in mother tongue literacy. Our findings suggests that a light-touch transitional bilingual component does not interfere with literacy acquisition in the language of instruction; however, neither is it likely to close gaps between native speakers and language learners.
    Keywords: primary education, language of instruction, literacy, intervention
    JEL: I21 I28 I25 I24
    Date: 2021–06–29
  9. By: Fatma Fourati-Jamoussi (INTERACT - Innovation, Territoire, Agriculture et Agro-industrie, Connaissance et Technologie - UniLaSalle); Michel J.F. Dubois (INTERACT - Innovation, Territoire, Agriculture et Agro-industrie, Connaissance et Technologie - UniLaSalle); Marie Chedru (INTERACT - Innovation, Territoire, Agriculture et Agro-industrie, Connaissance et Technologie - UniLaSalle); Geoffroy Belhenniche (UniLaSalle Rennes - Ecole des Métiers de l'Environnement - UniLaSalle)
    Abstract: This article is the continuation of the work that has already been completed in a first study on the perception of engineering students at UniLaSalle Beauvais about education for sustainable development (SD) and innovation. Its purpose is to show the evolution over time of the perception of engineering students regarding SD and innovation after integrating the international program called "Go-LaSalle". In this training process, students spend the first semester of their third academic year in partner universities of the worldwide Lasallian network. To identify and measure the change of students' perception, we have designed a survey that was sent to two engineers' training classes (specialties) Agronomy and Agro-Industries and Food and Health. The results show that although some differences and similarities appear between the two specialties, there are few significant changes on student's perception before and after the six-month international program (called "Go-LaSalle"). Finally, the study shows, on the one hand, that the students trust the institution, the companies and their teachers more than their own inclinations; on the other hand, it allows the institution to adapt their training to both collective needs and the demands of the environment.
    Keywords: Sustainable development,Innovation,Higher education,Engineering school,Students
    Date: 2021–05–26
  10. By: Esther Duflo; Pascaline Dupas; Michael Kremer
    Abstract: Following the widespread adoption of free primary education, African policymakers are now considering making secondary school free, but little is known about the private and social benefits of free secondary education. We exploit randomized assignment to secondary school scholarships among 2,064 youths in Ghana, combined with 12 years of data, to establish that scholarships increase educational attainment, knowledge, skills, and preventative health behaviors, while reducing female fertility. Eleven years after receipt of the scholarship, only female winners show private labor market gains, but those come primarily in the form of better access to jobs with rents (in particular rationed jobs in the public sector). We develop a simple model to interpret the labor market results and help think through the welfare impact of free secondary education.
    JEL: H52 I26 O12
    Date: 2021–06
  11. By: Clément Bosquet (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Paul Maarek (LEMMA - Laboratoire d'économie mathématique et de microéconomie appliquée - UP2 - Université Panthéon-Assas - Sorbonne Université); Elliot Moiteaux (THEMA - Théorie économique, modélisation et applications - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CY - CY Cergy Paris Université)
    Abstract: Taking advantage of geographic (and time) variation in the proportion of routine occupations in the US, we study the impact of this variation on the wage rate of workers by educational group. Using individual data and a Bartik-type IV strategy, we show that not only non-college-educated workers but also, in the same proportion, workers with fewer than four years of college are negatively impacted by this routinebiased technological change. The latter skill group currently represents 30% of the US population. We show that only 10% to 20% of the impact on both educational groups is related to occupational and industrial downgrading (the composition eect) and that most of the wage impact occurs within industries and occupations, including manual service occupations. This is consistent with the displacement eect described in the theoretical literature on task-biased technological change and automation.
    Keywords: job polarization,routine occupations,wages,education
    Date: 2021–06–25

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