nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2021‒06‒14
twelve papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. Children's Patience and School-Track Choices Several Years Later: Linking Experimental and Field Data By Angerer, Silvia; Bolvashenkova, Jana; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Lergetporer, Philipp; Sutter, Matthias
  2. School Track Decisions and Teacher Recommendations: Evidence from German State Reforms By Elisabeth Grewenig
  3. Special Educational Needs and Disabilities within the English primary school system: What can disproportionalities by season of birth contribute to understanding processes behind attributions and (lack of) provisions? By Tammy Campbell
  4. Does vocational education pay better, or worse, than academic education? By Chen, Jie; Pastore, Francesco
  5. A Year of Online Classes Amid COVID-19 Pandemic: Advantages, Problems, and Suggestions of Economics Students at a Bangladeshi Public University By Shuchi, Musharrat Shabnam; Tabassum, Sayeda Chandra; Toufique, M. M. K.
  6. The Right Job Pays; Effects of Student Employment on the Study Progress of Pre-service Teachers By Dekker, I.; Chong, C.F.; Schippers, M.C.; van Schooten, E.
  7. Tracking the Herd with a Shotgun — Why Do Peers Influence College Major Selection? By Insler, Michael; Rahman, Ahmed S.; Smith, Katherine
  8. Evaluating the Impact of Remittances on Human Capital Investment in the Kyrgyz Republic By Gao, Xin; Kikkawa, Aiko; Kang, Jong Woo
  9. Social Status in Student Networks and Implications for Perceived Social Climate in Schools By Sule Alan; Elif Bodur; Elif Kubilay; Ipek Mumcu
  10. Parental Disability and Teenagers' Time Allocation By Kalenkoski, Charlene M.; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff
  11. Understanding the Educational Attainment Polygenic Score and its Interactions with SES in Determining Health in Young Adulthood By Atticus Bolyard; Peter Savelyev
  12. The Global COVID-19 Student Survey: First Wave Results By Jaeger, David A.; Arellano-Bover, Jaime; Karbownik, Krzysztof; Martínez Matute, Marta; Nunley, John M.; Seals, Jr., R. Alan; Almunia, Miguel; Alston, Mackenzie; Becker, Sascha O.; Beneito, Pilar; Böheim, René; Boscá, José E.; Brown, Jessica H.; Chang, Simon; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Danagoulian, Shooshan; Donnally, Sandra; Eckrote-Nordland, Marissa; Farré, Lídia; Ferri, Javier; Fort, Margherita; Fruewirth, Jane Cooley; Gelding, Rebecca; Goodman, Allen C.; Guldi, Melanie; Häckl, Simone; Hankin, Janet; Imberman, Scott A.; Lahey, Joanna; Llull, Joan; Mansour, Hani; McFarlin, Isaac; Meriläinen, Jaakko; Mortlund, Tove; Nybom, Martin; O'Connell, Stephen D.; Sausgruber, Rupert; Schwartz, Amy; Stuhler, Jan; Thiemann, Petra; van Veldhuizen, Roel; Wanamaker, Marianne H.; Zhu, Maria

  1. By: Angerer, Silvia (IHS Carinthia); Bolvashenkova, Jana (University of Munich); Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela (University of Innsbruck); Lergetporer, Philipp (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Sutter, Matthias (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods)
    Abstract: We present direct evidence on the link between children's patience and educational-track choices years later. Combining an incentivized patience measure of 493 primary-school children with their high-school track choices taken at least three years later at the end of middle school, we find that patience significantly predicts choosing an academic track. This relationship remains robust after controlling for a rich set of covariates, such as family background, school-class fixed effects, risk preferences, and cognitive abilities, and is not driven by sample attrition. Accounting for middle-school GPA as a potential mediating factor suggests a direct link between patience and educational-track choice.
    Keywords: patience, education, school track choice, children, lab-in-the-field experiment
    JEL: C91 D90 I21 J2
    Date: 2021–05
  2. By: Elisabeth Grewenig
    Abstract: I study the effects of selective admission policies in the context of school tracking. Depending on the federal state in Germany, either teachers or parents have the discretion to decide which secondary school track a child may attend after primary school. Applying a differences-in-differences approach, I exploit variation in the implementation and abolition of binding teacher recommendations across states and over time. Using data from large-scale assessments, I find that binding teacher recommendations significantly improve student achievement in fourth grade, i.e., prior to track assignment. Effects persist into ninth grade, several years after track assignment. Further analyses show that these effects are driven by increased time investments in students’ skill development. Overall, my results suggest that selective admission policies can lead to permanent improvements in students’ educational performances.
    Keywords: school tracking, admission policies, student performance
    JEL: I21 I28 J24
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Tammy Campbell
    Abstract: This working paper uses de-identified National Pupil Database records spanning 2008 - 2018 (N children=6 million+) to map disproportionalities by birth season and gender in attributions of levels of Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SENDs) and ascriptions of SEND types. It also maps disparities in attribution to Reception children of an Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP) 'Good Level of Development' and to Year 1 children the status of 'meeting expectations' in the Phonics Screening Check. It lays the foundation for more detailed work towards understanding the processes behind birth month disproportionalities in attributions of SENDs, and implications of these for the function of the school and SEND systems.
    Keywords: Relative age effects, Special Educational Needs, Disability, Primary Education, Inequalities
    JEL: I24 I21
    Date: 2021–06
  4. By: Chen, Jie; Pastore, Francesco
    Abstract: In this paper, we use the Chinese General Social Survey data to analyse the returns to upper secondary vocational education in China. To address possible endogeneity of vocational training due to omitted heterogeneity, we construct a novel instrumental variable using the proportion of tertiary education graduates relative to the entire population by year. Our main finding is that, although returns to vocational upper secondary education appear higher than returns to academic upper secondary education according to the Mincerian equation, the results from the instrumental variable method tell the opposite story: vocational upper secondary graduates face a wage penalty compared to academic upper secondary graduates. The wage penalty is confirmed by an alternative and more recent IV method - the Lewbel method (Lewbel, 2012). Our findings highlight the importance of properly accounting for endogeneity when estimating the returns to vocational education.
    Keywords: vocational education,academic education,upper secondary,China,Lewbel
    JEL: I26 I25 J24 J31 C36
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Shuchi, Musharrat Shabnam; Tabassum, Sayeda Chandra; Toufique, M. M. K.
    Abstract: Though there have been works highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of online learning, no study focused on university-level economics students. None of the studies explored students' opinions about improving the quality and effectiveness of online classes. Many used questionable samples, closed-ended questions, and all those researches were carried out at the beginning of online classes. In this paper, we overcome these limitations of earlier studies. Using a convenience sampling technique and open-ended questions, we collect data from 154 university-level economics students after being exposed to the online class for a year. Some advantages of online classes are: students can do classes from home without being exposed to health risks, easily accessible, flexible class schedule, students remained connected with the study, it saves costs, reduce the likelihood of semester loss, easy to understand, less stressful, and learning new technologies. Major problems from students' perspectives include network problems, difficulties in understanding the topic, unsuitable for mathematical courses, concentration problem, class not interactive, financial constraint, adverse health impacts, device issues, power outages, unfamiliarity with digital technology, internet problem, and unfixed class-schedule. Disadvantages outnumbered advantages. Students made several suggestions to improve the quality and effectiveness of online classes. Some of the vital suggestions are: using state-of-the-art digital tools, recording and uploading lectures, resolving internet issues, holding classes regularly, higher efforts to make the topics easier, resolving network issues, lowering class duration, institutional support, implementing a fixed class schedule, and introducing online evaluation system.
    Keywords: COVID-19,online learning,pandemic,online education,Bangladesh,students' perceptions,higher education,distance learning,online classes
    JEL: I18 I21 I23 I28
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Dekker, I.; Chong, C.F.; Schippers, M.C.; van Schooten, E.
    Abstract: Spending time on work during a full-time study might compete with class attendance or self-study and slow study progress. At the same time, a domain-relevant job may grant beneficial effects that enhance academic outcomes. Prior research showed contradictory findings, possibly because of a lack of distinction between types of work and the different years of college. The current study analyzed the effect of different types of work on the study progress of 132 Dutch pre-service teachers with repeated measures at 25 points in time over a 4-year timespan using growth models. Students who spent more time on a paid job as a teacher obtained significantly more study credits. The optimal number of hours spent on paid work outside of education changes during college. These findings support the importance of study-job-congruence and add the roles of timing (year of college) and remuneration (getting paid) as relevant variables to role-based resource theory.
    Date: 2021–05–18
  7. By: Insler, Michael (U.S. Naval Academy); Rahman, Ahmed S. (Lehigh University); Smith, Katherine (U.S. Naval Academy)
    Abstract: How do peers influence people's choices? We explore this fundamental question by exploiting unique data produced by, and a natural experiment conducted on, students from the United States Naval Academy (USNA). We develop a conceptual framework to highlight that individuals can emulate others for both information (social learning) and for socializing (network externalities). We then analyze data on the preliminary preferences and ultimate major selections of USNA freshmen, exploiting a rich set of covariates and the random assignment of students to peer groups. We find that students can be influenced by peers into selecting different academic paths relative to what they would have chosen on their own. Through random reassignments of certain student groups into new peer groups, we also explore the reasons why herding occurs. The preponderance of evidence suggests that social learning, as opposed to network externalities, is the key driver for herding behavior.
    Keywords: major selection, peer effects, higher education, herding, social networks
    JEL: D85 I21 I23 J24
    Date: 2021–06
  8. By: Gao, Xin (Cornell University); Kikkawa, Aiko (Asian Development Bank); Kang, Jong Woo (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Remittances from overseas can encourage human capital investment and improve educational outcomes in developing countries. Empirical studies, however, have shown mixed evidence at best. This paper uses a 5-year panel dataset that tracks the same 3,000 households and 8,000 individuals through time in all seven regions of the Kyrgyz Republic to examine the impact of remittances on the human capital formation of school-age children. After correcting for selection bias and other potential endogeneities with instrumental variables and fixed effects regressions, remittances are found to have negative impacts on human capital investment and educational achievement. The negative effects can be attributed in part to recipients’ increased expenditure on durable goods and extended hours of child labor on farm work as a compensation for missing adult labor. Our finding calls for actions that mitigate the negative effects and incentivize families to spend remittances on education, including financial literacy education, better monitoring of farm labor hours of school-age children, and targeted investment to improve the quality of education services in the Kyrgyz Republic.
    Keywords: education; household expenditure; human capital investment; Kyrgyz Republic; labor migration; remittances
    JEL: D13 F22 F24 O15
    Date: 2021–05–25
  9. By: Sule Alan; Elif Bodur; Elif Kubilay; Ipek Mumcu
    Abstract: We investigate how adolescents’ social status in their peers’ eyes shapes the way they view their social climate in secondary schools. Utilizing novel data on over 10,000 students, we construct comprehensive measures of social status and perceived social climate for each student, including a sense of belonging, perceived behavioral norms, and bullying experience. We show that while central and well-connected students are positive about their social environment, less central and socially isolated students view it as hostile. Our results highlight the importance of improving the relational dynamics of adolescents in disadvantaged schools to create better learning environments for all.
    Keywords: social status, student networks, classroom climate
    JEL: A14 I20 I24
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Kalenkoski, Charlene M. (Texas Tech University); Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)
    Abstract: Using the 2003–2019 American Time Use Survey, we examine how living with a parent who has a work-limiting disability is related to teenagers' time allocation. For girls, we find that living with a disabled parent is associated with less time spent on educational activities, including both class time and homework, less time spent on shopping, and more time spent on market work, pet care, and leisure. For boys, living with a disabled parent is associated with less time spent sleeping. In addition, when examining the time spent by girls and boys in two-parent households, we find that the gender of the disabled parent matters. Girls living with a disabled mother in a two-parent household spend less time on educational activities and more time on market work and pet care, suggesting that girls may take on some of a disabled mother's activities. Boys living with a disabled mother in a two-parent household spend more time on homework and less time on housework and caring for household children. However, if their father is disabled, boys spend more time on food preparation and cleanup. Boys living with a disabled father also spend less time with their mother. Thus, there are differences in teens' time use that depend on both the gender of the teen and of the disabled parent, with teen girls likely being worse off than teen boys. Our results suggest that differences in teenagers' time investments are a plausible mechanism for gender differences in intergenerational economic mobility by parental-disability status.
    Keywords: disability, gender, time use, teenagers, schooling, homework
    JEL: I14 I24 J13 J14 J22
    Date: 2021–06
  11. By: Atticus Bolyard (Harvard University); Peter Savelyev (The College of William & Mary)
    Abstract: We investigate an Educational Attainment Polygenic Score (EA PGS), an index that predicts years of formal education based on genetic data. In our analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health we find that the EA PGS affects a number of health-related outcomes. Moreover, the EA PGS interacts with parental socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood: for a number of health outcomes we observe that the effect of the EA PGS is more beneficial for high-SES subjects. We decompose the total effects of the EA PGS into the indirect effect (through education) and the direct effect. We also decompose both the direct and the total effect with respect to potential mechanisms. The mechanisms that partially explain the effects of EA PGS include early skills, early health, education support in the family, and education. As a result of our discovery of a strong direct effect we cast our doubts on the validity of the EA PGS used as an instrumental variable for education affecting health, a case of an increasingly utilized technique called Mendelian Randomization. Finally, after controlling for the EA PGS, genetic health endowments, and unobserved heterogeneity in addition to more traditional controls, we still find that education is associated with better health outcomes, which adds evidence to the ongoing debate about the causal link between education and health.
    Keywords: Educational Attainment Polygenic Score, socioeconomic status, mechanisms, Mendelian Randomization, gene-environment interactions, add health, Health, health-related outcomes
    JEL: I12 I14 I24 J24
    Date: 2021–06
  12. By: Jaeger, David A. (University of St. Andrews); Arellano-Bover, Jaime (Yale University); Karbownik, Krzysztof (Emory University); Martínez Matute, Marta (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid); Nunley, John M. (University of Wisconsin, La Crosse); Seals, Jr., R. Alan (Auburn University); Almunia, Miguel (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid); Alston, Mackenzie (Florida State University); Becker, Sascha O. (Monash University); Beneito, Pilar (Universidad de Valencia); Böheim, René (University of Linz); Boscá, José E. (Universidad de Valencia); Brown, Jessica H. (University of South Carolina); Chang, Simon (University of Western Australia); Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. (University of Sydney); Danagoulian, Shooshan (Wayne State University, Detroit); Donnally, Sandra (Lund University); Eckrote-Nordland, Marissa (University of Wisconsin, La Crosse); Farré, Lídia (University of Barcelona); Ferri, Javier (Universidad de Valencia); Fort, Margherita (University of Bologna); Fruewirth, Jane Cooley (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Gelding, Rebecca (University of Sydney); Goodman, Allen C. (Wayne State University, Detroit); Guldi, Melanie (University of Central Florida); Häckl, Simone (University of Stavanger); Hankin, Janet (Wayne State University, Detroit); Imberman, Scott A. (Michigan State University); Lahey, Joanna (Texas A&M University); Llull, Joan (MOVE, Barcelona); Mansour, Hani (University of Colorado Denver); McFarlin, Isaac (University of Florida); Meriläinen, Jaakko (ITAM, Mexico); Mortlund, Tove (IFAU); Nybom, Martin (Uppsala University); O'Connell, Stephen D. (Emory University); Sausgruber, Rupert (Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien); Schwartz, Amy (Syracuse University); Stuhler, Jan (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid); Thiemann, Petra (Lund University); van Veldhuizen, Roel (Lund University); Wanamaker, Marianne H. (University of Tennessee); Zhu, Maria (Syracuse University)
    Abstract: University students have been particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We present results from the first wave of the Global COVID-19 Student Survey, which was administered at 28 universities in the United States, Spain, Australia, Sweden, Austria, Italy, and Mexico between April and October 2020. The survey addresses contemporaneous outcomes and future expectations regarding three fundamental aspects of students' lives in the pandemic: the labor market, education, and health. We document the differential responses of students as a function of their country of residence, parental income, gender, and for the US their race.
    Keywords: mental health, job market expectations, students, COVID-19
    JEL: I23 I10 J1
    Date: 2021–06

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