nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2021‒05‒03
seven papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. COVID-19 and Educational Inequality: How School Closures Affect Low- and High-Achieving Students By Grewenig, Elisabeth; Lergetporer, Philipp; Werner, Katharina; Woessmann, Ludger; Zierow, Larissa
  2. Understanding the Response to High-Stakes Incentives in Primary Education By Bach, Maximilian; Fischer, Mira
  3. Financial Education in Schools: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Studies By Kaiser, Tim; Menkhoff, Lukas
  4. Mentoring and Schooling Decisions: Causal Evidence By Falk, Armin; Kosse, Fabian; Pinger, Pia
  5. The Impact of COVID-19 on Community College Enrollment and Student Success: Evidence from California Administrative Data By George Bulman; Robert W. Fairlie
  6. Learning Loss and Educational Inequalities in Europe: Mapping the Potential Consequences of the COVID-19 Crisis By Blaskó, Zsuzsa; da Costa, Patricia; Schnepf, Sylke V.
  7. Parental Assortative Mating and the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital By Bingley, Paul; Cappellari, Lorenzo; Tatsiramos, Konstantinos

  1. By: Grewenig, Elisabeth (ifo Institute); Lergetporer, Philipp (ifo Institute); Werner, Katharina (ifo Institute); Woessmann, Ludger (ifo Institute); Zierow, Larissa (ifo Institute)
    Abstract: In spring 2020, governments around the globe shut down schools to mitigate the spread of the novel coronavirus. We argue that low-achieving students may be particularly affected by the lack of educator support during school closures. We collect detailed time-use information on students before and during the school closures in a survey of 1,099 parents in Germany. We find that while students on average reduced their daily learning time of 7.4 hours by about half, the reduction was significantly larger for low-achievers (4.1 hours) than for high-achievers (3.7 hours). Low-achievers disproportionately replaced learning time with detrimental activities such as TV or computer games rather than with activities more conducive to child development. The learning gap was not compensated by parents or schools who provided less support for low-achieving students. The reduction in learning time was not larger for children from lower-educated parents, but it was larger for boys than for girls. For policy, our findings suggest binding distance-teaching concepts particularly targeted at low-achievers.
    Keywords: educational inequality; COVID-19; low-achieving students; home schooling; distance teaching;
    JEL: I24 J62 D30
    Date: 2020–10–29
  2. By: Bach, Maximilian (ZEW Mannheim); Fischer, Mira (WZB Berlin)
    Abstract: This paper studies responses to high-stakes incentives arising from early ability tracking. We use three complementary research designs exploiting differences in school track admission rules at the end of primary school in Germany’s early ability tracking system. Our results show that the need to perform well to qualify for a better track raises students’ math, reading, listening, and orthography skills in grade 4, the final grade before students are sorted into tracks. Evidence from self-reported behavior suggests that these effects are driven by greater study effort but not parental responses. However, we also observe that stronger incentives decrease student well-being and intrinsic motivation to study.
    Keywords: student effort; tracking; incentives;
    JEL: I20 I28 I29
    Date: 2020–11–05
  3. By: Kaiser, Tim (University of Koblenz-Landau & DIW Berlin); Menkhoff, Lukas (DIW Berlin)
    Abstract: We study the literature on school financial education programs for children and youth via a quantitative meta-analysis of 37 (quasi-) experiments. We find that financial education treatments have, on average, sizeable impacts on financial knowledge (+0.33 SD), similar to educational interventions in other domains. Additionally, we document smaller effects on financial behaviors among students (+0.07 SD). When restricting the sample to 18 randomized experiments average effect sizes are estimated to be about 0.15 SD units on financial knowledge and 0.07 SD units on financial behaviors. These results are robust irrespective of the meta-analytic method used and when accounting for publication bias. Subgroup analyses show the beneficial effect of more intensive treatments, albeit with decreasing marginal returns.
    Keywords: financial education; financial literacy; financial behavior; meta-analysis ;
    JEL: I21 A21 D14
    Date: 2019–09–30
  4. By: Falk, Armin (University of Bonn); Kosse, Fabian (LMU Munich); Pinger, Pia (University of Cologne)
    Abstract: Inequality of opportunity strikes when two children with the same academic performance are sent to different quality schools because their parents differ in socio economic status. Based on a novel dataset for Germany, we demonstrate that children are significantly less likely to enter the academic track if they come from low socio-economic status (SES) families, even after conditioning on prior measures of school performance. We then provide causal evidence that a low-intensity mentoring program can improve long-run education outcomes of low SES children and reduce inequality of opportunity. Low SES children, who were randomly assigned to a mentor for one year are 20 percent more likely to enter a high track program. The mentoring relationship affects both parents and children and has positive long-term implications for children's educational trajectories.
    Keywords: mentoring; childhood intervention programs; education; human capital investments; inequality of opportunity; socio-economic status;
    JEL: C90 I24 J24 J62
    Date: 2020–06–21
  5. By: George Bulman; Robert W. Fairlie
    Abstract: Enrollment increased slightly at both the California State University and University of California systems in fall 2020, but the effects of the pandemic on enrollment in the California Community College system are mostly unknown and might differ substantially from the effects on 4-year colleges. This paper provides the first analysis of how the pandemic impacted enrollment patterns and the academic outcomes of community college students using administrative college-level panel data covering the universe of students in the 116-college California Community College system. We find that community college enrolment dropped precipitously in fall 2020 – the total number of enrolled students fell by 4 percent in spring 2020 and by 15 percent in fall 2020 relative to the prior year. All racial and ethnic groups experienced large enrollment decreases in spring and fall 2020, but African-American and Latinx students experienced the largest drops at 17 percent in fall 2020. Enrollment fell the most for first-year students in the community college system, basic skills courses, and fields such as engineering/industrial technology, education, interdisciplinary studies, and art. There were smaller decreases for continuing students, academic courses transferable to four-year institutions, and business and science fields. Enrollment losses were felt throughout the entire community college system, and there is no evidence that having a large online presence in prior years protected colleges from these effects. In terms of course performance, there was a larger disruption to completion rates, withdrawal rates, and grades in spring 2020 than in fall 2020. These early findings of the effects of the pandemic at community colleges, which serve higher percentages of lower-income and minority students, have implications for policy, impending budgetary pressures, and future research.
    JEL: H52 I21 I22 I23
    Date: 2021–04
  6. By: Blaskó, Zsuzsa (European Commission); da Costa, Patricia (European Commission, Joint Research Centre); Schnepf, Sylke V. (European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre)
    Abstract: It is widely discussed that the pandemic has impacted on educational inequalities across the world. However, in contrast to data on health or unemployment, data on education outcomes are not timely. Hence, we have extremely limited knowledge about the actual impact of the pandemic on learning outcomes at the national and the cross-national level. As it might take years to get new comparative evidence on the actual extent of the problem, this paper uses the latest large scale international student assessment data from before the pandemic, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2019 and applies simple descriptive analysis, regressions and logical deductions to map potential consequences of the Covid-19 crisis across Europe. We obtain the relative trajectories of children's learning loss and its unequal distribution from information on home and school resources, the importance of these resources for learning outcomes and countries' school closure duration policies and compare Covid-19 related risk of learning loss between European countries. Results based on 4th graders' school achievements indicate that throughout Europe educational inequalities between and within countries are likely to increase substantially. Some European countries are highly likely to face already an education crisis.
    Keywords: educational inequalities, COVID-19, Europe, learning loss
    JEL: I24
    Date: 2021–04
  7. By: Bingley, Paul (VIVE - The Danish Centre for Applied Social Science); Cappellari, Lorenzo (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Tatsiramos, Konstantinos (University of Luxembourg, LISER)
    Abstract: We study the contribution of parental similarity in schooling levels to the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment. We develop an empirical model for educational correlations within the family in which parental sorting can translate into intergenerational transmission, or transmission can originate from each parent independently. Estimating the model using educational attainment from Danish population-based administrative data for over 400,000 families, we find that about 75 percent of the intergenerational correlation in education is driven by the joint contribution of the parents. We also document a sizeable secular decline of parental assortative mating in education, with a corresponding fall in joint intergenerational transmission from both parents; a fall compensated by an increase in parent-specific intergenerational transmission, leaving total intergenerational persistence unchanged. The mechanisms of intergenerational transmission have changed, with an increased importance of one-to-one parent-child relationships.
    Keywords: assortative mating, intergenerational transmission, human capital, inequality
    JEL: I24 J62
    Date: 2021–04

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