nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2021‒04‒26
eight papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. Why Subsidize Independent Schools? Estimating the Effect of a Unique Canadian Schooling Model on Educational Attainment By Pierre Lefebvre; Philip Merrigan
  2. Charter Schools and the Segregation of Students by Income By Dalane, Kari; Marcotte, Dave E.
  3. Effects of Measures of Teachers' Quality on Tertiary Education Attendance: Evaluation Tests versus Value Added By Díaz, Juan; Sánchez, Rafael; Villarroel, Gabriel; Villena, Mauricio G.
  4. Do Parents Expect Too Much or Is It All about Grades? The Discrepancy between Parents' Aspirations and Child's Academic Performance, and Parental Satisfaction with the School By Milovanska-Farrington, Stefani
  5. What Do Parents Want? Parental Spousal Preferences in China By Eva Raiber; Weiwei Ren; Jeanne Bovet; Paul Seabright
  6. Prediction in Educational Research: An Application to the Study of Teacher Bias By Verhagen, Mark D.
  7. The decision to enrol in higher education By Hügle, Dominik
  8. International Student Applications in the United Kingdom after Brexit By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Romiti, Agnese

  1. By: Pierre Lefebvre (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal); Philip Merrigan (Department of Economics, University of Quebec in Montreal)
    Abstract: Canada is recognized as one of the top 10 countries in secondary education according to PISA results. A particularly intriguing case in this country is the large system of highly subsidized independent schools in the province of Québec where students also perform extremely well in PISA testing. This paper uses the year Canadian 2000 PISA cohort of 15-year-olds to estimate the ATT effect of independent schooling on educational attainment. We find large, positive, robust, and statistically significant effects of independent schooling on attainment. The robustness of the results to omitted variable bias is addressed through a sensitivity analysis for matching estimators.
    Keywords: YITS, high school graduation, postsecondary education and professional programs enrollment and graduation, longitudinal data, treatment effect, entropy balancing
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2021–04
  2. By: Dalane, Kari (American University); Marcotte, Dave E. (American University)
    Abstract: The segregation of students by socioeconomic status has been on the rise in American public education between schools during the past several decades. Recent work has demonstrated that segregation is also increasing within schools at the classroom level. In this paper, we contribute to our understanding of the determinants of this increase in socioeconomic segregation within schools. We assess whether growth in the presence and number of nearby charter schools have affected the segregation of socioeconomically disadvantaged students by classroom in traditional public schools (TPS). Using data from North Carolina, we estimate a series of models exploit variation in the number and location of charter schools over time between 2007 and 2014 to estimate the impact of charter school penetration and proximity on levels of within school segregation in TPS classrooms serving grades 3-8. We find that socioeconomic segregation in math and English language arts increase in grades 3-6 when additional charter schools open within large urban districts. We find the largest impacts on schools that are closest to the new charter schools. We estimate that the impact of charter schools can account for almost half of the overall growth in socioeconomic segregation we see over the course of the panel within grades 3-6 in large urban districts.
    Keywords: education, charter schools, inequity
    JEL: I24 I28 I21
    Date: 2021–04
  3. By: Díaz, Juan (Universidad de Chile); Sánchez, Rafael (Centro de Estudios Públicos); Villarroel, Gabriel (Ministry of Finance, Chile); Villena, Mauricio G. (Universidad Diego Portales)
    Abstract: Using Chilean administrative datasets for the period 2011-2017, we study which of the most used tools to evaluate teacher quality, namely teachers' evaluation tests (TET) and teacher's value added (TVA), predicts more accurately not only short run (as most of the literature focus on) but also middle run students' outcomes. For this evaluation we follow the same cohorts of students and teachers. Our results suggest that the correlation between (TET) and (TVA) appears to be null in school outcomes. However, our analysis also reveals that both measures, TET and TVA, positively affect the probability of tertiary education attendance, indicating that both measures are complementary in measuring teacher quality in the middle run. These results have relevance from the public policy point of view as unlike countries (e.g. USA) where TVA is used for teacher's promotions and personnel decisions, in countries where TVA is not used for teacher's personnel decisions (e.g. Chile), TVA seems to be useful to measure teacher quality. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with the argument of the multidimensionality of teaching quality, because even though in the short run TVA and TET seem to be orthogonal, in the medium run they seem to be complementary tools to measure teacher effectiveness.
    Keywords: teacher quality, value added, teacher evaluation test, Chile
    JEL: I20 I23 I26 I28
    Date: 2021–04
  4. By: Milovanska-Farrington, Stefani (University of Tampa)
    Abstract: Schooling is related to health and future labor market outcomes. The school parents choose for their children often depends on feedback received from other parents. Therefore it is important to understand whether parental satisfaction with the school depends only on objective measures of the quality of the school. We examine the association between children's academic performance, parents' aspirations, the mismatch between the two, and parents' satisfaction with different aspects of children's schooling. The findings suggest that excellent academic performance of the child is associated with higher parental satisfaction, regardless of parents' aspirations. High expectations accompanied by low performance are negatively related to parental satisfaction with all aspects of children's schooling. The results have implications related to school rankings and the significance of parental school reviews.
    Keywords: academic performance, educational aspirations, parent satisfaction, schooling
    JEL: J01 J13 I21 I31 D10
    Date: 2021–04
  5. By: Eva Raiber (Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, AMSE, Marseille, France); Weiwei Ren (Yunnan Normal University, China); Jeanne Bovet (Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK); Paul Seabright (Toulouse School of Economics, University of Toulouse and Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse, France,)
    Abstract: In many societies, parents are involved in selecting a spouse for their child, and integrate this with decisions about migration and educational investment. What type of spouse do parents want for their children? We estimate parents' spousal preferences based on survey choices between random profiles. Preference data are elicited from parents or other relatives who actively search for a spouse on behalf of their adult child in Kunming, China. Economic variables (income and real estate ownership) are important for the choice of sons-in-law, but not daughters-in-law. Education is valued on both sides. We simulate marriage outcomes based on preferences for age and education and compare them with marriage patterns in the general population. Homogamy by education can be explained by parental preferences, but not by age: parents prefer younger wives, yet most couples are the same age. Additionally collected preference data from students can explain age distributions. Survey data from parents suggest that while they prefer younger wives, they also accept wives of the same age. Overall, marriage markets have a likely positive influence on education investments for both boys and girls.
    Keywords: marriage, preference estimation, China, parental matchmaking, matching
    JEL: J12 I26 D10
    Date: 2021–04
  6. By: Verhagen, Mark D.
    Abstract: Out-of-sample prediction is not often applied within educational research, although it can complement existing methods in important ways. Prediction gives an intuitive measure of a model's (in)ability to structure an outcome of interest, and complements the aggregate statistics usually obtained from typical in-sample methods. In this paper, I illustrate the potential of prediction through the study of teacher bias in tracking in the Netherlands. I show how the use of prediction identifies misspecification in the simple interval-model often estimated in the field, and can be used to obtain insights when estimating less interpretable, albeit more appropriate models. Substantively, I find that girls are positively biased in tracking net of observed ability, while students of low parental education are negatively biased. Importantly, the latter effect may have been structurally under-estimated in prior work. I also identify the school level to be a more substantial source of bias than student-level demographics, lending further support to calls to study school-level heterogeneity in tracking. My findings further accentuate the risks involved in tracking and fall broadly in line with increasing calls to re-evaluate the Dutch tracking system.
    Date: 2021–04–19
  7. By: Hügle, Dominik
    Abstract: In this paper, I analyze how the higher education decision of young adults in Germany depends on their expected future earnings. For this, I estimate a microeconometric model in which individuals maximize life-time utility by choosing whether or not to enter higher education. To forecast individual life cycles in terms of employment, earnings, and family formation under higher education and its alternative, vocational training, I use a dynamic microsimulation model and regression techniques. I take into account that while individuals generally choose between two options, higher education and vocational training, they are aware of multiple potential realizations under both options, such as leaving higher education with a bachelor degree or taking up higher education after first having earned a vocational degree. Using the estimates from the decision model, I simulate the introduction of different tuition fee and graduate tax scenarios. I find that the impact of these education policies on the higher education decision is limited and only few individuals would change their educational decisions as a reaction to these policies.
    Keywords: Educational choice,Higher education,Dynamic microsimulation
    JEL: C53 I23
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (University of California, Merced); Romiti, Agnese (University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: On June 23, 2016, the people of the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union. We examine how this decision (henceforth, Brexit) has impacted international student applications in the United Kingdom. Using administrative data spanning from 2013 through 2019, along with a quasi-experimental approach, we find evidence of Brexit curtailing the growth rate of international student applications by 14 percent. The impact appears larger for applications to pursue STEM studies and for those received by more selective universities, suggestive of students with more alternatives choosing to study elsewhere. Furthermore, applications appear to have dropped the most among EU students originating from countries with weaker labor markets and economies for whom the ability to stay in the United Kingdom after their studies might have been a critical pull factor. Finally, the drop in applications has resulted into fewer international enrolments. Given the contributions of international student exchanges to research, development and growth, further research on the implications of Brexit for UK universities and the ability to attract valuable talent is well-warranted.
    Keywords: Brexit, international student applications, college education, United Kingdom
    JEL: F22 I20 O15 I28 J61
    Date: 2021–04

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