nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2021‒04‒12
nine papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. Developing Textbooks to Improve Student Math Learning: Empirical Evidence from El Salvador By Takao Maruyama; Takashi Kurosaki
  2. Swedish children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic By Sjögren, Anna; Mattias , Mattias; Hall, Caroline; Holmlund, Helena; Lundin, Martin; Mühlrad, Hanna; Öckert, Björn
  3. The solution of the immigrant paradox: aspirations and expectations of children of migrants By Michel Beine; Ana Cecilia Montes Vinas; Skerdikajda Zanaj
  4. Age at school transition and children’s cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes By Tushar Bharati; Thea Harpley Green
  5. Do More School Resources Increase Learning Outcomes? Evidence from an extended school-day reform By Jorge M. Agüero; Marta Favara; Catherine Porter; Alan Sánchez
  6. Educational mismatch and earnings inequality By Tang, Rongsheng; Wang, Gaowang
  7. A Chinese puzzle: fewer, less empowered, lower paid and better educated women By Carmen Camacho; Yingya Xue
  8. Changing Gender Attitudes: The Long-Run Effects of Early Exposure to Female Classmates By Garcia-Brazales, Javier
  9. Effects of School Shootings on Risky Behavior, Health and Human Capital By Partha Deb; Anjelica Gangaram

  1. By: Takao Maruyama; Takashi Kurosaki
    Abstract: School enrollment has rapidly increased since 1990 in developing countries at the primary level but the quality of education has stagnated over the years. In teaching and learning practices, textbooks are an important intermediate that links curriculum, teachers, and students. Since textbooks describe the content and methodology of teaching and learning, they can improve teaching and learning practices, if they are carefully designed. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the package of interventions including the distribution of textbooks that are carefully designed to improve student learning in math through a randomized controlled trial in El Salvador. This experiment tracked same students for two years. The average one-year impact of the package on primary school 2nd grade students’ math learning is estimatedaround 0.48 standard deviation of test scores. The impact was larger on students with higher baseline scores. The average accumulated impact of the first-year interventions one year after is around 0.12 standard deviation. The package of intervention improved math learning of 2nd grade students, and the impact persisted even after schools of the control group also received the package of interventions in the following year.
    Keywords: Educational Development, Math textbook development, Math learning, Human Capital and Impact evaluation
    Date: 2021–01–19
  2. By: Sjögren, Anna (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Mattias , Mattias (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Hall, Caroline (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Holmlund, Helena (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Lundin, Martin (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Mühlrad, Hanna (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Öckert, Björn (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy)
    Abstract: Based on previous research, available statistics and current information on the COVID-19 pandemic, this report analyses and discusses possible consequences of the ongoing pandemic for Swedish children and youth, in the short and longer term. The pandemic is discussed in five chapters focusing on (1)the impact on childhood environment and human capital development,(2)the consequences for children's development and school performance due to increased absenteeism among children, students and teachers in preschools and schools, (3) the effects of distance education, (4)the impact on the demand for education, and (5)consequences for labour market entry and long run labour market outcomes. It is too early to draw firm conclusions about the long-term consequences of the coronavirus pandemic, and yet our overall conclusion is that the pandemic has negative consequences for many children and young adults. Children and youth from disadvantaged environments, with a weak socio-economic background and an inadequate social safety net, are more likely to be severely affected. There are therefore reasons to safeguard and develop the institutions, such as prenatal and child healthcare, social services and school health programs that provide services for children and youth. Moreover, the education system has an important task in compensating for shortcomings in human capital development and lost opportunities caused by the pandemic.
    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; children; youth; education
    JEL: I10 I21
    Date: 2021–03–24
  3. By: Michel Beine (Department of Economics and Management, Université du Luxembourg); Ana Cecilia Montes Vinas (Department of Economics and Management, Université du Luxembourg); Skerdikajda Zanaj (Department of Economics and Management, Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: In this paper, we push forward the hypothesis that misalignment between expectations and aspira- tions crucially affects the educational outcomes of young adults. Using AddHealth, a dataset of 20,774 adolescents between the grades 7-12, we show that the difference in school performance between mi- grant children and natives lies within the aspirations and expectations that migrant children form. More specifically, we find that positive misalignment between aspirations and expectations is a driving force for higher effort and better education outcomes of immigrant teenagers in the USA. This force resolves the well-known immigrant paradox. Furthermore, this result is specific to migrant children and does not hold for second-generation migrant pupils.
    Keywords: Add-health database, aspirations, expectations, immigrant paradox, education achievements.
    JEL: I20 I21 I26 J15 F22
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Tushar Bharati (Business School, The University of Western Australia); Thea Harpley Green (Business School, The University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: Can changing the age at which children transition from primary to secondary school mitigate the negative effects of the disruptive event? We attempt to provide an answer by examining the effect of a recent policy initiative that required schools in four Australian states to move year 7 from primary (‘7+5’ model) to secondary school (‘6+6’ model), bringing forward the transition by a year. ‘Combined schools’ that taught both primary and secondary school years were relatively undisturbed but others had to drop or pick an additional year. Using this difference across postcodes in the type of schools and variation in the timing when different states switched to the new model, we show that the switch to the new school model is negatively associated with aspects of cognition, locus of controls, and personality measured years after the transition. Worryingly, the effects appear more unfavourable for Indigenous Australians and female school students. Comparing respondents born in the same year who started school in different years, we find those who were relatively younger at the time of transition suffered more, suggesting that raising the age at transition could benefit children.
    Keywords: secondary school, school transition, cognition, locus of control, personality traits
    JEL: I24 I28 J24
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Jorge M. Agüero (University of Connecticut); Marta Favara (University of Oxford); Catherine Porter (Lancaster University); Alan Sánchez (Group for the Analysis of Development)
    Abstract: Whether allocating more resources improves learning outcomes for students in low-performing public schools remains an open debate. We focus on the effect of increased instructional time, which is theoretically ambiguous due to possible compensating changes in effort by students, teachers or parents. Using a regression discontinuity approach, we find that a reform extending the school day increases math test scores, with a large effect size relative to other interventions. It also improved reading, technical skills and socio-emotional competencies. Our results are partly explained by reductions in home production by students, specialization by teachers and investments in pedagogical assistance to teachers.
    Keywords: Extended school-day reform, Jornada Escolar Completa, JEC, Peru, Young Lives
    JEL: I2 I22 I26
    Date: 2021–04
  6. By: Tang, Rongsheng; Wang, Gaowang
    Abstract: We build a model to understand educational mismatch and earnings inequality among highly educated workers. Educational mismatch has a negative wage effect and a positive correlation with wage inequality, for occupuations and college majors. To disentangle different reasons or channels that contribute to wage inequality, we identity the three underlying reasons behind the mismatich-preference, promotion, and search friction-and quantify their impacts. Quantitatively, the preference and promotion channel negatively contribute to an inequality increase from 1990 to 2000; the match premium contributes to a 28.4% increase in inequality; and the contribution of search friction is 5.3%. We conclude that educational mismatch affects earnings inequality significantly and that the impact varies based on the underlying reasons. The study has important policy implications in that it shows that wage inequality can be reduced by policies for improving the education match rate and educational signaling and lowering market friction.
    Keywords: educational mismatch; earnings inequality; wage effect; search friction; promotion
    JEL: I24 J24 J31 O15
    Date: 2021–04–02
  7. By: Carmen Camacho (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Yingya Xue
    Abstract: As from 2009 there are more Chinese women than men enrolled in college. To address this question, we propose a simple model with premarital education investment and endogenous marital matching where spouses split the joint revenue. We show that if women are not empowered enough, then neither men nor women obtain tertiary education. Women's education overtake can only arise if they are powerful enough within their marriage, if educated women's salary is sufficiently high and if there are enough educated men to mate. We calibrate our model using data from the Chinese Census in order to solve the Chinese puzzle, i.e. to understand how Chinese women are better educated without being sufficiently empowered. We find our first that despite the overall increase in education for both men and women, and the raise in women's salaries for all education levels, Chinese women have actually not gained power in the markets since the gender wage gap is widening for all levels of education. Second, that women's education is tightly linked to their power within the household. Indeed, the increase in women's education is not due to an increase in women's power, but on the contrary, a measure to counterbalance a striking decrease.
    Keywords: Marriage Market,Education,Gender Wage Gap
    Date: 2021–03
  8. By: Garcia-Brazales, Javier
    Abstract: Identity norms are an important cause of inequalities and talent misallocation. I lever- age a unique opportunity to observe students exogenously allocated to classes across a close-to-nationally-representative set of Vietnamese schools to show that more exposure to female peers during childhood causally decreases the extent of agreement with tradi- tional gender roles in the long-run. This shift in attitudes is accompanied by changes in actual behavior: employing friendship nominations I find that male children have more female friends and spend more time with them outside school. Moreover, both their intensive and extensive margin contributions to home production increase in the short- and the long-run. These results are novel in the attitudes formation and in the long- term effects of peers literature and are important in informing optimal class allocation. Academic spillovers from female classmates are much weaker.
    Keywords: Long-term Peer Effects,Gender Roles,Attitudes Formation
    JEL: I24 I25 J16
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Partha Deb; Anjelica Gangaram
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the impact of school shootings on the human health and capital outcomes of middle and high school student survivors as adults in their twenties and early thirties. Our data on school shooting events is from a recent, comprehensive database of school shootings compiled by the Center for Homeland Defense and Security. The analytic dataset contains incidents from 1994-2005 in conjunction with Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System survey data from 2003-2012 on respondents 23 to 32 years of age. We find substantial evidence that, relative to their unexposed peers, school shooting survivors experience declines in health and well-being, engage in more risky behaviors, and have worse education and labor market outcomes. The effects among those exposed in the more recent past, 6-12 years prior to the survey, are consistent with those of the full sample. The significance of effects dissipates among those exposed earlier, 13-18 years prior to the survey.
    JEL: I12 I18 I21 J21
    Date: 2021–04

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