nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2020‒12‒14
nine papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. Own Motivation, Peer Motivation, and Educational Success By Jan Bietenbeck
  2. Parental Gender Stereotypes and Student Wellbeing in China By Chu, Shuai; Zeng, Xiangquan; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  3. Understanding the response to high-stakes incentives in primary education By Bach, Maximilian; Fischer, Mira
  4. Personality Traits and Further Training By Laible, Marie-Christine; Anger, Silke; Baumann, Martina
  5. Parental Gender Stereotypes and Student Wellbeing in China By Chu, Shuai; Zeng, Xiangquan; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  6. Skills and Returns to Education in the Russian Federation By World Bank
  7. Cognitive Skills, Strategic Sophistication, and Life Outcomes By Fe, Eduardo; Gill, David; Prowse, Victoria L.
  8. Short and Long-Run Distributional Impacts of COVID-19 in Latin America By Nora Lustig; Guido Neidhöfer; Mariano Tommasi
  9. Dynamic Decision Making Under Rolling Admissions: Evidence from U.S. Law School Applications By Yao Luo; Yu Wang

  1. By: Jan Bietenbeck
    Abstract: I study how motivation shapes own and peers’ educational success. Using data from Project STAR, I find that academic motivation in early elementary school, as measured by a standardized psychological test, predicts contemporaneous and future test scores, high school GPA, and college-test taking over and above cognitive skills. Exploiting random assignment of students to classes, I find that exposure to motivated classmates causally affects contemporaneous reading achievement, a peer effect that operates over and above spillovers from classmates’ past achieve-ment and socio-demographic composition. However, peer motivation does not affect longer-term educational success, likely because it does not change own motivation.
    Keywords: motivation, personality, peer effects, Project STAR
    JEL: I21 J13 J24
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Chu, Shuai; Zeng, Xiangquan; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
    Abstract: Non-cognitive abilities are supposed to affect students’ educational performance, who are challenged by parental expectations and norms. Using standard econometric techniques, parental gender stereotypes are shown to strongly decrease student wellbeing in China. Students are strongly more depressed, feeling blue, unhappy, not enjoying life and sad while parental education does not matter. The relationships though dealing with a gender-specific issue do not exhibit gender-specific differences: Neither does it matter who the parent is, nor whether the kid concerned is a boy or a girl. Parental stereotypes may undermine girls' self-confidence and make them more prone to anxiety and other mental health issues. For boys, stronger stereotypes may indicate higher expectations and pressures, which also generate negative emotions.
    Keywords: Health Economics and Policy, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2020–11–27
  3. By: Bach, Maximilian; Fischer, Mira
    Abstract: This paper studies responses to high-stakes incentives arising from early ability tracking. We use three complementary research designs exploiting differences in school track admission rules at the end of primary school in Germany's early ability tracking system. Our results show that the need to perform well to qualify for a better track raises students' math, reading, listening, and orthography skills in grade 4, the final grade before students are sorted into tracks. Evidence from selfreported behavior suggests that these effects are driven by greater study effort but not parental responses. However, we also observe that stronger incentives decrease student well-being and intrinsic motivation to study.
    Keywords: Student Effort,Tracking,Incentives
    JEL: I20 I28 I29
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Laible, Marie-Christine (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Anger, Silke (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Baumann, Martina (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "The notion of lifelong learning is gaining importance, not only in the labor market but also in other areas of modern societies. Previous research finds variation in occupation-related training participation by worker and workplace characteristics, gender, and education. However, evidence on the individual's socio-emotional skills creating favorable conditions for overall further training is scarce. To close this research gap, we analyze the role of personality for further training participation. First, we compare how the Big Five Personality Dimensions relate to different training types by differentiating between non-formal and informal training measures. Second, we investigate how personality traits affect further training chosen for occupational and private reasons separately. Drawing on a sample of 10,559 individuals from the Adult Stage of the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), we find that throughout our estimations, openness to experience positively relates to further training participation and is the most important determinant among the Big Five Personality Dimensions. However, the relationship between personality traits and training participation varies according to the training type and the reason for participating in further training. Moreover, we find gender-specific differences in the association between personality traits and lifelong learning. We conclude that personality is an important predictor of lifelong learning decisions." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en)) Additional Information spätere Version (möglw. abweichend) erschienen in: Frontiers in psychology (2020), Art. 510537
    Keywords: Persönlichkeitsmerkmale, Auswirkungen, Weiterbildungsbeteiligung, Nationales Bildungspanel, Weiterbildungsbereitschaft, lebenslanges Lernen, informelles Lernen, Lehrveranstaltung, geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren, soziale Qualifikation
    JEL: D91 J24 M53
    Date: 2020–11–05
  5. By: Chu, Shuai; Zeng, Xiangquan; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
    Abstract: Non-cognitive abilities are supposed to affect student's educational performance, who are challenged by parental expectations and norms. Parental gender stereotypes are shown to strongly decrease student wellbeing in China. Students are strongly more depressed, feeling blue, unhappy, not enjoying life and sad with no male-female differences while parental education does not matter.
    Keywords: Gender identity,gender stereotypes,student wellbeing,non-cognitive abilities,mental health,subjective wellbeing
    JEL: I12 I26 I31 J16
    Date: 2020
  6. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Education - Tertiary Education Education - Economics of Education Education - Education For All Education - Educational Institutions & Facilities Social Protections and Labor - Vocational & Technical Education
    Date: 2020–06
  7. By: Fe, Eduardo (University of Strathclyde); Gill, David (Purdue University); Prowse, Victoria L. (Purdue University)
    Abstract: We investigate how childhood cognitive skills affect strategic sophistication and adult outcomes. In particular, we emphasize the importance of childhood theory-of-mind as a cognitive skill. We collected experimental data from more than seven hundred children in a variety of strategic interactions. First, we find that theory-of-mind ability and cognitive ability both predict level-k behavior. Second, older children respond to information about the cognitive ability of their opponent, which provides support for the emergence of a sophisticated strategic theory-of-mind. Third, theory-of-mind and age strongly predict whether children respond to intentions in a gift-exchange game, while cognitive ability has no influence, suggesting that different measures of cognitive skill correspond to different cognitive processes in strategic situations that involve understanding intentions. Using the ALSPAC birth-cohort study, we find that childhood theory-of-mind and cognitive ability are both associated with enhanced adult social skills, higher educational participation, better educational attainment, and lower fertility in young adulthood. Finally, we provide evidence that school spending improves theory-of-mind in childhood.
    Keywords: cognitive skills, theory-of-mind, cognitive ability, fluid intelligence, children, experiment, strategic sophistication, level-k, bounded rationality, non-equilibrium thinking, intentions, gift-exchange game, competitive game, strategic game, ALSPAC, social skills, adult outcomes, life outcomes, education, fertility, labor market, wages, employment, school spending, childhood intervention
    JEL: C91 D91 J24
    Date: 2020–11
  8. By: Nora Lustig (Tulane University and Commitment to Equity Institute); Guido Neidhöfer (ZEW Mannheim); Mariano Tommasi (Universidad de San Andrés)
    Abstract: We simulate the short- and long-term distributional consequences of COVID-19 in the four largest Latin American economies: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico. We show that the short-term impact on income inequality and poverty can be very significant, but that additional spending on social assistance has a large offsetting effect in Brazil and Argentina. The effect is much smaller in Colombia and nil in Mexico, where there has been no such expansion. To project the long- term consequences, we estimate the impact of the pandemic on human capital and its intergenerational persistence. Hereby, we use information on school lockdowns, educational mitigation policies, and account for educational losses related to health shocks and parental job loss. Our findings show that in all four countries the impact is strongly asymmetric and affects particularly the human capital of children from disadvantaged families. Consequently, inequality of opportunity is expected to increase substantially, in spite of the mitigation policies.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Lockdowns; Inequality; Poverty; Human capital; School closures; Social spending; Intergenerational persistence; Latin America; Argentina; Brazil; Colombia; Mexico.
    JEL: C63 D31 I24 I32 I38 J62
    Date: 2020–11
  9. By: Yao Luo; Yu Wang
    Abstract: Admission processes in many higher education markets are inherently dynamic. We study timing of student application and school admission under rolling admissions using a unique U.S. law school market dataset. Our results show that law schools employ non-stationary admission standards within application cycles: applications submitted earlier enjoy a considerable admission advantage relative to later applications. We rationalize such strategies in a simple yield management model and provide evidence for three types of frictions that constrain applicants from applying earlier.
    Keywords: Matching; Decentralized; Timing; Frictions; Higher Education
    JEL: I23 I28
    Date: 2020–12–03

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