nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2020‒05‒11
ten papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. From school to where? How social class, skills, aspirations, and resilience explain unsuccessful school-to-work transitions By Dicks, Alexander; Levels, Mark; van der Velden, Rolf
  2. How a student’s month of birth is linked to performance at school: New evidence from PISA By Pauline Givord
  3. Managers' Productivity and Labor Market: Evidence from School Principals By Muñoz, Pablo; Prem, Mounu
  4. Increasing Financial Literacy Among Undergraduate Students. By Montgomery Barreto; Keith Jacks Gamble
  5. Paying for Free Lunch: The Impact of CEP Universal Free Meals on Revenues, Spending, and Student Health By Michah W. Rothbart; Amy Ellen Schwartz; Emily Gutierrez
  6. India's search for link language and progress towards bilingualism By Leena Bhattacharya; S. Chandrasekhar
  7. Determinants of Teacher Value-Added in Public Primary Schools: Evidence from Administrative Panel Data By Tanaka, Ryuichi; Bessho, Shun-ichiro; Kawamura, Akira; Noguchi, Haruko; Ushijima, Koichi
  8. Are Universities Important for Explaining Unequal Participation in Student Mobility? A Comparison between Germany, Hungary, Italy and the UK By Schnepf, Sylke V.; Bastianelli, Elena; Blaskó, Zsuzsa
  9. Who wins at the Chess Olympics? The role of resources and education capital By David Forrest; J.D Tena; Carlos Varela-Quintana
  10. Longer School Schedules, Childcare and the Quality of Mothers’ Employment: Evidence from School Reform in Chile By Berthelon, Matias; Kruger, Diana; Lauer, Catalina; Tiberti, Luca; Zamora, Carlos

  1. By: Dicks, Alexander (RS: GSBE other - not theme-related research, ROA / Education and occupational career); Levels, Mark (RS: GSBE other - not theme-related research, ROA / Education and occupational career, RS: SBE - MACIMIDE); van der Velden, Rolf (RS: GSBE Theme Learning and Work, ROA / Education and occupational career)
    Abstract: The school-to-work transition is one of the formative phases in the life course. During it, many important decisions are made. We use sequence analysis and logistic regression to study why some young people become NEET (Not in Employment, Education, or Training). We find that classical stratification variables such as higher parental education and higher education increase the probabilities for a successful school-to-work transition. In addition, we hypothesized that alignment of educational attainment and occupational aspirations as well as personality should play a role in this process. While we do not find evidence for an additional effect of alignment, we do find one for resilient personality. We also test hypotheses of mediation and moderation. We find that there is significant mediation of social class via youth’s education, but not via aspirational alignment or personality. We also find that education and personality can partly compensate for a low social class background.
    Date: 2020–04–24
  2. By: Pauline Givord (OECD)
    Abstract: Because of the regulations concerning school entry in most school systems, a child’s date of birth may significantly affect his or her age at entry into school, and thus their first experience of schooling. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this paper provides a comparative analysis of the impact of a student’s month of birth on cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes. It describes school regulations regarding school entry in over 45 countries and economies, and discusses the reasons why a student’s date of birth may have consequences on his or her performance in school.The results show that a student’s month of birth has consequences on performance in the three main domains assessed by PISA, and also on the student’s progress through education, as those children who were the youngest in their grade cohort at entry into school were more likely to have repeated a grade in primary school.This paper also shows that, in several school systems, being the youngest in the school-entry cohort has an impact on self-confidence, notably on self-perceived competence and self-efficacy, and also on future education outcomes. These results call for raising awareness amongst educators and parents of the initial disadvantage experienced by the youngest children in their first years of school. The paper concludes with a review of existing recommendations to reduce age-related effects on education outcomes.
    Date: 2020–05–05
  3. By: Muñoz, Pablo; Prem, Mounu
    Abstract: We investigate whether differences in management explain variation in productivity and whether different labor market policies can impact the allocation of managerial effectiveness. Using data on the universe of students and school personnel in Chile, we establish three main findings. First, there is substantial variation in principals' ability to improve students' learning. Second, effective principals are recognized by the school community, decrease teachers' turnover, and obtain higher wages, especially in private schools. Third, despite relatively rigid wages, public schools can attract better principals by improving personnel selection.
    Keywords: Managers; School principals; Chile
    JEL: I25 L24
    Date: 2020–04
  4. By: Montgomery Barreto; Keith Jacks Gamble
    Abstract: This study examines the financial literacy levels of students at Middle Tennessee State University and the effectiveness of tools on campus to increase students’ knowledge of basic financial topics and their own student debt. We administer a survey across campus to students in multiple finance classes and to the general student population. Around half of our student respondents answer correctly all of the “Big Three” questions testing financial literacy, a higher proportion answering correctly than the average in several prior studies conducted around the world. We find mixed results regarding our respondents’ understanding of their own student loan debt with some aspects being well understood and others being vastly misunderstood. Our results show that the most effective instrument on campus to improve students’ financial literacy is the completion of a finance course. Respondents who have completed a Middle Tennessee State University finance course are more likely to answer questions on financial topics correctly and to understand their own student loan debt.
    Keywords: Financial Literacy, Student Loans, Education
    JEL: A22
    Date: 2020–04
  5. By: Michah W. Rothbart (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244); Amy Ellen Schwartz (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University); Emily Gutierrez (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University)
    Abstract: The Community Eligibility Provision (CEP) of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 allows school districts to provide free meals to all students if more than 40 percent of students are individually eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. While emerging evidence documents positive effects on student behavior and academics (Gordon and Ruffini, 2019; Schwartz and Rothbart, 2020), critics worry that Universal Free Meals (UFM) has unintended consequences, including exacerbating student obesity and adding financial burden onto school districts. We use school and district level data from New York State (NYS) and a difference-in-differences design to test whether concerns over negative effects for district finances (both revenues and expenditures) and student weight are justified. We exploit the staggered adoption of CEP across NYS school districts, and explore differences between metro, town, and rural districts. We delve into potential mechanisms, such as lunch and breakfast participation, and use a non-parametric event study model to assess pre-adoption trends and dosage effects. We find that, while local food service revenues decline, as expected, Federal dollars more than compensate through increased reimbursement revenues. Districts increase total food expenditures after CEP adoption (consistent with serving more meals) but spend less per meal. Indeed, while some worry that expanding free meals will crowd out education spending, we find CEP has no effect on instructional expenditures. Furthermore, while CEP increases participation in school lunch and breakfast, there is no deleterious effect on obesity, but, instead, some evidence of decreases in obesity in secondary grades. Rural districts experience larger impacts on revenues, expenditures, and student obesity than both metro and town districts, suggesting rural locations might be the most responsive to CEP. Unlike other districts, however, rural districts experience a food service funding gap from the CEP.
    Keywords: School Food, Childhood Obesity, Free Lunch, School Finance
    JEL: I24 I38 H52
    Date: 2020–04
  6. By: Leena Bhattacharya (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); S. Chandrasekhar (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: The three language formula (3LF) is viewed as an instrument for achieving the objective of a multilingual India. Possibly on account of lack of agreement on 3LF and politics of medium of instruction, the pace of transition towards bilingualism is glacial. This paper is a quantitative assessment of this transition. We analyse data from Census of India Language Tables for the years 1971, 2001 and 2011 and two recent NSSO surveys on education. We present estimates of probability of two individuals drawn at random being able to converse in a common language and the extent to which today's school going children and the youth are likely to be bilingual respectively.
    Keywords: Bilingual, Trilingual, Link Language, India, Three Language Formula
    JEL: Z1 Z13
    Date: 2020–04
  7. By: Tanaka, Ryuichi (University of Tokyo); Bessho, Shun-ichiro (University of Tokyo); Kawamura, Akira (Kanagawa University of Human Services); Noguchi, Haruko (Waseda University); Ushijima, Koichi (University of Tsukuba)
    Abstract: This study estimates teacher value-added (TVA) for language arts and mathematics test scores of students in public primary schools to investigate the empirical relationship between testscore TVA and observable traits and promotions of teachers. Our empirical strategy employs Chetty, Friedman, and Rockoff (2014a) with school-year fixed effects as an additional control for potential sorting of students across schools. Using unique administrative panel data of students in public primary schools of a large municipality of Japan, we find TVA distribution to have variance comparable to ones observed in the U.S. schools. Using TVA estimates, we examine their associations with gender, teaching experience, age, and promotions of teachers. We find that these observable characteristics of teachers are statistically significantly associated with TVA estimates. Additionally, we find that TVA estimates are positively associated with teacher promotions.
    Keywords: education, teacher value-added, class size, teaching experience, promotion
    JEL: H75 I21 J24 J45
    Date: 2020–04
  8. By: Schnepf, Sylke V. (European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre); Bastianelli, Elena (University of Turin); Blaskó, Zsuzsa (European Commission)
    Abstract: Policies supporting international student mobility prepare young people for the challenges of global and multicultural environments. However, disadvantaged students have lower participation rates in mobility schemes, and hence benefit less from their positive impacts on career progression. Therefore, policy makers aim to make mobility programmes more inclusive. Nevertheless, it is far from clear how policy design can achieve this aim. This study investigates factors driving unequal mobility uptake. It goes beyond existing research by not only focusing on individual choices but also on university characteristics, like university segregation, excellence and student support. In addition, the study is novel in comparing rich graduate survey and administrative data merged with university level ETER data across four countries. Multilevel regression results show consistently across all countries that disadvantaged students do not only lose out on mobility experience due to their background but also due to them being clustered in universities with lower mobility opportunities. Universities' support and excellence while important for explaining mobility uptake do not appear to mitigate unequal uptake in any of the countries examined.
    Keywords: student support, segregation, inequality, unequal uptake, Erasmus+, international student mobility, university excellence, Germany, Hungary, Italy, UK
    JEL: I23 I24 D63 D02
    Date: 2020–04
  9. By: David Forrest; J.D Tena; Carlos Varela-Quintana
    Abstract: The paper investigates national team success at the principal tournament of a prominent mind sport, chess. As in prior literature on physical sports, panel data estimation reveals population and per capita gdp as strong predictors. But when we add a measure of education capital, per capita income loses significance, suggesting that effects from income levels are mediated through schooling in the case of a cerebral game. However, when we estimated a similar model to account for medal wins at the Olympics, results were similar, implying that schooling levels are also relevant to success in physical sports.
    Keywords: education capital, economic resources, sports economics, chess, Olympics
    JEL: Z20 I26 C52
    Date: 2020–04
  10. By: Berthelon, Matias; Kruger, Diana; Lauer, Catalina; Tiberti, Luca; Zamora, Carlos
    Abstract: Ample empirical evidence has found that access to childcare for preschool children increases mothers’ labor force participation and employment. In this paper, we investigate whether increased childcare for primary school children improves the quality of jobs mothers find by estimating the causal effect of a school schedule reform in Chile. Combining plausibly exogenous temporal and spatial variations in school schedules with a panel of individual mothers’ employment between 2002 and 2015, we estimated a fixed-effects model that controlled for unobserved heterogeneity. We found a positive effect of access to full-day schools on several measures of ’the quality of mothers’ jobs, which were correlated to working full-time. We also found small, positive effects on quality of fathers’ jobs. Our evidence suggests that the mechanism driving the effect was the effect of the reform’s implicit subsidy to the cost of childcare on the opportunity cost of mothers’ time. We also found that less educated mothers benefited most from the reform. Thus, childcare can increase household welfare by improving parents’ jobs and can play a role in reducing inequality.
    Keywords: Employment quality,job quality,women’s labor force participation,women’s labor supply,full-day schooling,childcare,education reform,Chile
    JEL: H41 H52 I25 I28 J13 J16 J18 J22 O15
    Date: 2020

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