nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2020‒05‒04
eleven papers chosen by
Nádia Simões
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

  1. The Causal Impact of Socio-Emotional Skills Training on Educational Success By Giuseppe Sorrenti; Ulf Zölitz; Denis Ribeaud; Manuel Eisner
  2. From school to where? How social class, skills, aspirations, and resilience explain unsuccessful school-to-work transitions By Dicks, Alexander; Levels, Mark; van der Velden, Rolf
  3. Financial Education Affects Financial Knowledge and Downstream Behaviors By Tim Kaiser; Annamaria Lusardi; Lukas Menkhoff; Carly Urban
  4. When Do Teachers Respond to Student Feedback? Evidence from a Field Experiment By Margaretha Buurman; Josse Delfgaauw; Robert Dur; Robin Zoutenbier
  5. Female Role Models: are they effective at encouraging girls to study science? By Thomas Breda; Julien Grenet; Clémentine van Effenterre
  6. Education during COVID-19 era: Are learners in a less-economically developed country ready for e-learning? By Alipio, Mark
  7. Using admission lotteries to estimate heterogeneous effects of elite schools By Hessel Oosterbeek; Nienke Ruijs; Inge de Wolf
  8. Competition in Higher Education By Kaganovich, Michael; Sarpca, Sinan; Su, Xuejuan
  9. Monetary and time investments in children's education: how do they differ in workless households? By Silvan Has; Jake Anders; Nikki Shure
  10. The urban rural-education gap: do cities indeed make us smarter? By Raoul van Maarseveen
  11. Who Teaches the Teachers? A RCT of Peer-to-Peer Observation and Feedback in 181 Schools By Richard Murphy; Felix Weinhardt; Gill Wyness

  1. By: Giuseppe Sorrenti; Ulf Zölitz; Denis Ribeaud; Manuel Eisner
    Abstract: We study the long-term effects of a randomized intervention targeting children’s socio-emotional skills. The classroom-based intervention for primary school children has positive impacts that persist for over a decade. Treated children become more likely to complete academic high school and enroll in university. Two mechanisms drive these results. Treated children show fewer ADHD symptoms: they are less impulsive and less disruptive. They also attain higher grades, but they do not score higher on standardized tests. The long-term effects on educational attainment thus appear to be driven by changes in socio-emotional skills rather than cognitive skills.
    Keywords: socio-emotional skills, randomized intervention, child development, school tracking
    JEL: C93 I21 I24 I26 J24
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Dicks, Alexander (RS: GSBE other - not theme-related research, ROA / Education and occupational career); Levels, Mark (RS: GSBE other - not theme-related research, ROA / Education and occupational career, RS: SBE - MACIMIDE); van der Velden, Rolf (RS: GSBE Theme Learning and Work, ROA / Education and occupational career)
    Abstract: The school-to-work transition is one of the formative phases in the life course. During it, many important decisions are made. We use sequence analysis and logistic regression to study why some young people become NEET (Not in Employment, Education, or Training). We find that classical stratification variables such as higher parental education and higher education increase the probabilities for a successful school-to-work transition. In addition, we hypothesized that alignment of educational attainment and occupational aspirations as well as personality should play a role in this process. While we do not find evidence for an additional effect of alignment, we do find one for resilient personality. We also test hypotheses of mediation and moderation. We find that there is significant mediation of social class via youth’s education, but not via aspirational alignment or personality. We also find that education and personality can partly compensate for a low social class background.
    Date: 2020–04–23
  3. By: Tim Kaiser; Annamaria Lusardi; Lukas Menkhoff; Carly Urban
    Abstract: We study the rapidly growing literature on the causal effects of financial education programs in a meta-analysis of 76 randomized experiments with a total sample size of over 160,000 individuals. The evidence shows that financial education programs have, on average, positive causal treatment effects on financial knowledge and downstream financial behaviors. Treatment effects are economically meaningful in size, similar to those realized by educational interventions in other domains and are at least three times as large as the average effect documented in earlier work. These results are robust to the method used, restricting the sample to papers published in top economics journals, including only studies with adequate power, and accounting for publication selection bias in the literature. We conclude with a discussion of the cost-effectiveness of financial education interventions.
    Keywords: Financial education, financial literacy, financial behavior, RCT, meta- analysis
    JEL: D14 I21
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Margaretha Buurman; Josse Delfgaauw; Robert Dur; Robin Zoutenbier
    Abstract: We ran a field experiment at a large Dutch school for intermediate vocational education to examine whether the response of teachers to student feedback depends on the content of the feedback. Students evaluated all teachers, but only a randomly selected group of teachers received feedback. Additionally, we asked all teachers before as well as a year after the experiment to assess their own performance on the same items. We find a precisely estimated zero average treatment effect of receiving student feedback on student evaluation scores a year later. However, teachers whose self-assessment before the experiment is much more positive than their students. evaluations do improve significantly in response to receiving feedback. We also find that pro-vision of feedback reduces the gap between teachers. self-assessment and students. assessment, but only to a limited extent. All of these results are driven by the female teachers in our sample; male teachers appear to be unresponsive to student feedback.
    Keywords: field experiment, feedback, teachers, student evaluations, self-assessment, gender differences
    JEL: C93 I20 M50
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Thomas Breda (IPP - Institut des politiques publiques, PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Julien Grenet (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IPP - Institut des politiques publiques); Clémentine van Effenterre (University of Toronto, IPP - Institut des politiques publiques)
    Abstract: In France, as in most developed nations, the under-representation of women in the sciences is a major obstacle to achieving equality in the workplace. Since 2014, the For Girls in Science awareness programme run by Fondation L'Oréal has offered one-hour classroom talks by young women with a science background (women working for the L'Oréal group and young researchers). These talks aim to combat the stereotypes associated with science-related careers and with women's role in the sciences, in order to make science more attractive to young women. Using a random assignment evaluation protocol on nearly 20,000 pupils in seconde (Year 11) and terminale scientifique (Year 13) year groups at French high schools in 2015-2016, we show that these one-hour talks lead to a significant reduction in pupils' stereotypical representations of science-related careers and gender differences in scientific ability, among both girls and boys. Although the talks have no discernible impact on choice of educational track for all pupils in seconde and for boys in terminale S, they have significant effects on the post-baccalauréat track choices of girls in terminale S, for whom the proportion choosing a preparatory class for the most prestigious universities (CPGE) in a STEM subject rose from 11 to 14.5% (a 30% increase). One of the lessons learned from the study is that the ability to influence young girls' career choices depends not only on how effectively the female role models bust the stereotypes associated with science-related careers and gender roles in science, but also on the type of identification engendered by exposure to the role model.
    Date: 2019–09
  6. By: Alipio, Mark
    Abstract: Drawn on the existing pandemic and potential shift to full e-learning, this study has focused on the descriptive evaluation of readiness for e-learning of higher education students in a less-economically developed country. This is a descriptive online survey employing questionnaires to elicit data on the readiness of students for e-learning. A total of 880 Filipino students responded and provided consent to participate. Ratings were descriptively analyzed using mean, frequency, and percentages. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between each demographic profile and readiness for e-learning. A p-value below 0.05 was considered significant. Of the 880 sample, majority were in the lower middle class and private higher education institution. Most of the respondents answered ‘No’ in all e-learning readiness items. The odds of scoring low in the readiness scale was higher among younger and female respondents. With reference to high income class, the odds of scoring low in the readiness scale was approximately 16.23, 12.02, 5.21, and 1.87 times more likely when students belong to low, lower middle, middle, and upper middle class, respectively. The type of school is not associated with low readiness probability. School officials may first address the lack of digital skills among students and formulate programs that would capacitate them. The possible shift for e-learning should be considered if financial, operational, and Internet connectivity issues of learners in the low-income sector and rural areas are addressed. More strategic planning and quality management mechanisms should be directed towards an equitable and inclusive education without undermining quality learning.
    Keywords: Coronavirus,COVID-19,Education,E-learning,Less-economically developed country,Philippines,Online education
    JEL: I10 I18 I23 I28 I30
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Hessel Oosterbeek (University of Amsterdam); Nienke Ruijs (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Inge de Wolf (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of enrollment in an elite school on students’ achievement. We use that elite schools in Amsterdam are often oversubscribed and admission is based on lotteries. Our results show that elite schools have negative effects on achievement of students who just qualify for the highest academic track and positive effects on achievement of students from the top of the baseline ability distribution. These results reconcile contrasting findings from previous studies that use regression discontinuity designs. We also find that value-added estimates of the effects of elite schools are severely biased.
    JEL: I21 I24 C26
    Date: 2020–04–19
  8. By: Kaganovich, Michael (Indiana University); Sarpca, Sinan (Koc University); Su, Xuejuan (University of Alberta, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The structure and functioning of the market of higher education in the United States possess distinctive if not puzzling features such as the wide spectrum of institutional arrangements and sources of funding, stark segmentation in levels of selectivity and instructional resources, and high variance in tuition pricing across and within institutions, including price discrimination based on merit and ability to pay. At the same time, many fundamental questions, including what defines the quality of higher education and explains its (growing) cost continue to be debated. The Chapter surveys theoretical analyses addressing this range of issues.
    Keywords: Higher Education; Competition; Theories
    JEL: D40 I21 I22 I23 J24
    Date: 2020–04–24
  9. By: Silvan Has (Department of Social Science, UCL Institute of Education, University College London); Jake Anders (Centre for Education Policy and Equalising Opportunities, UCL Institute of Education, University College London); Nikki Shure (Department of Social Science, UCL Institute of Education, University College London)
    Abstract: Around 9% of children in the European Union live in households in which no parent is working. Children living in these workless households are of increasing interest to researchers, policy makers, and the wider public. Workless households not only have lower income on average but are also widely considered to be at risk of social exclusion. In this paper, we study the relationship between parents' employment status and their time and monetary investments in their child's education using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We use matching methods and regression analysis to compare educational investments made in children from a workless background to children with at least one working parent, but otherwise very similar background characteristics. Our analyses indicate that parents' worklessness is associated with lower monetary investments in their children's education. However, we do not find a difference in monetary investments in the form of commercial tutoring. In terms of time investments, we find that workless parents - especially workless single parents - spend more time helping their child doing homework. These findings could help guide future social policy aimed at equalising opportunities for children living in workless households. Conditional on a deeper understanding of the implications of worklessness on country level, measures such as educational vouchers or stipend programmes specifically aimed at socially disadvantaged children could be introduced.
    Keywords: PISA, educational inequality, worklessness, monetary investments, time invesetments
    JEL: I20 I21 I24
    Date: 2020–04
  10. By: Raoul van Maarseveen (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: Despite the existence of a large urban-rural education gap in many countries, little attention has been paid whether cities enjoy a comparative advantage in the production of human capital. Using Dutch administrative data, this paper finds that conditional on family characteristics and cognitive ability, children who grow up in urban regions consistently attain higher levels of human capital compared to children in rural regions. The elasticity of university attendance with respect to population density is 0.07, which is robust across a wide variety of specifications. Hence, the paper highlights an alternative channel to explain the rise of the city. .
    JEL: I20 J24 R10
    Date: 2020–04
  11. By: Richard Murphy; Felix Weinhardt; Gill Wyness
    Abstract: This paper evaluates a widely used, low stakes, teacher peer-to-peer observation and feedback program under Randomized Control Trial (RCT) conditions. Half of 181 volunteer primary schools in England were randomly selected to participate in a two-year program in which three fourth and fifth grade teachers observed each other. We find that two cohorts of students taught by treated teachers perform no better on externally graded national tests compared to business as usual. However this masks large heterogeneity; in small schools, which would have no choice over which teachers would be involved, we find negative impacts of the training (0.1-0.18SD), whereas we find positive impacts in larger schools (0.06-0.17SD). We conclude that the widely-used feedback program that we study is only productive in larger schools, and that centralised one-size-fits-fall teacher training interventions may be harmful.
    Keywords: education, teachers, RCT, peer mentoring
    JEL: I21 I28 M53
    Date: 2020

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