nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2019‒11‒18
five papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
Università del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Ontario Post-Secondary Education Funding Policies: Perverse Incentives and Unintended Consequences By Charles Beach; Frank Milne
  2. Dobrogea School of Economics By ARTENE, Alin
  3. Digital inclusion and wellbeing in New Zealand By Arthur Grimes; Dominic White
  4. Estimating the Impact of School Education on Contraception Use among Adolescents Aged 15–19 in Burkina Faso and Nigeria: Evidence from a Heckman Two-Step Correction Model By Bago, Jean-Louis; Lompo, Miaba Louise; Souratié, Wamadini dite Minata
  5. The Exports of Higher Education Services from OECD Countries to Asian Countries. A Gravity Approach By Beghin, John C; Park, Byungyul

  1. By: Charles Beach; Frank Milne (Queen's University)
    Abstract: This paper offers some observations on the funding of post-secondary schools in Ontario and Canada more broadly. Specifically, it notes how limited public funding for domestic students has provided strong incentives for PSE schools to attract full fee-paying international students, whose numbers have risen dramatically in recent years in Canada. The result has been a rising financial exposure of such schools to sudden external funding shocks and an increasing risk to the overall quality and available curriculum of programs delivered to all students. The paper also comments on Ontario plans for differentiation of schools, and raises concerns about Ontario’s planned heavy reliance on performance-based funding rules. We explore unintended consequences of crude application of simplistic performance metrics using a number of examples from recent British and Australian experience.
    Keywords: post-secondary education, international students, Ontario university funding incentives
    JEL: H52 I22 I23
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: ARTENE, Alin
    Abstract: At present, we have all the necessary elements to be able to claim that "Dobrogea Economics School in Constanta" really exists in the Romanian and European academic landscape. Among these elements, we take into account those related to tradition, university education programs, valuable teaching staff, material basis, results / scientific visibility, etc. This article provides an approach to the establishment and further development of the Faculty of Economics at "Ovidius" University of Constanta. The continuous development of the collaboration relations with other universities - Romanian and foreign -, with governmental or private institutions, with the business environment, etc. confirms that today there is a Dobrogean School of Economics and, moreover, it has all the chances to last forever.
    Date: 2018–09–17
  3. By: Arthur Grimes (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Dominic White (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: We examine: (i) which groups have a lower likelihood of being digitally included in New Zealand, and (ii) how digital inclusion relates to wellbeing. Using four large-scale surveys, we identify several groups whose members are prone to relatively low internet access: people living in social housing; disabled individuals; Pasifika; M?ori; people living in larger country towns (10,000-25,000 people); older members of society (particularly those aged over 75 years); unemployed people and those not actively seeking work. Those in social housing and disabled people are particularly disadvantaged with respect to internet access. Disabled people are also at greater risk than others from a virus infection or other internet interference. We identify a number of associative (but not necessarily causal) relationships between internet access and wellbeing. Those with internet access tend to have higher wellbeing and richer social capital outcomes (e.g. voting) than those without access. For adolescents, as internet use on weekdays outside of school increases, students’ subjective wellbeing declines; once daily internet use exceeds about two hours, we find no positive association between internet use and adolescents’ wellbeing. These results are of particular interest given that 15% of 15-year olds (including 27% of M?ori students) report using the internet for more than 6 hours per day on a weekday outside of school, while over half report more than two hours’ use.
    Keywords: internet, digital inclusion, wellbeing, social capital
    JEL: H42 H54 I31
    Date: 2019–10
  4. By: Bago, Jean-Louis; Lompo, Miaba Louise; Souratié, Wamadini dite Minata
    Abstract: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) still raise serious concerns for adolescents’ sexual health in west-African developing countries. To this extent, promoting contraception use among sexually active adolescents is a major key to addressing this problem. Yet, the rate of contraception use by adolescents remains surprisingly low in these countries. Using the Demographic Health Survey of Burkina Faso (2014) and Nigeria (2013), this paper examines the influence of school education on contraception use among sexually active male and female adolescents aged 15-19 in Burkina Faso and Nigeria. The standard estimates using Probit regressions suggest that achieving a primary school education increases the probability of a sexually active adolescent to use contraception by 8.26 percentage points (Burkina Faso) and 17.2 percentage points (Nigeria). This effect increases to 20.3 percentage points (Burkina Faso) and 34.7 percentage points (Nigeria) for adolescents with a secondary or higher school education. However, these baseline estimates are biased because adolescents’ decision to engage into sexual activity is not random. In light of this, a Heckman Correction Model (HCM) has been applied to account for this selection bias. The results show that the Probit regressions underestimate the effect of education on adolescents’ likelihood to use contraception in Burkina Faso and overestimate this effect in Nigeria. In fact, compared to adolescents with no school education, HCM estimates show that adolescents with primary and secondary (or higher) school education have respectively 10.2 and 24.4 percentage points more in the use of contraception in Burkina Faso and 15.1 and 34 percentage points in Nigeria. Together, these results suggest that the exposure to school education increases contraception use among the adolescents in both Burkina Faso and Nigeria.
    Date: 2018–06–18
  5. By: Beghin, John C; Park, Byungyul
    Abstract: We analyze bilateral exports of higher education services between OECD countries and Asia, using a gravity equation approach, panel data from 1998 to 2016, and PPML regression. The approach treats higher education consumption by Asian countries as a consumable durable good reflecting investment in human capital. Asian Students come to OECD countries to obtain degrees from their universities. Structurally, the flow of students from Asian country j to OECD country i depends on the higher-education capacity of i, the perceived quality of universities in i, expected earnings in i, a series of bilateral transaction costs between i and j, the income per capita in j, school-age demographics in j, and the usual multilateral trade resistance terms. We find that bilateral flows of students are strongly influenced by wage levels in the host country, bilateral distance, importers’ income, demographics, common language, the visa regime prevailing in bilateral country pairs, and the network of migrants from j in i. These results hold through a variation of specifications, proxies, and estimation methods. We find mixed evidence on the role of tertiary education capacity in OECD countries and no evidence of a country’s universities reputations explaining the flow of students. The evolution over time of education capacity, earnings, visa regimes, migrant networks, strong income growth and changes in demographics in nearby export markets explain the emergence of Australia, Canada, Korea, and New Zealand and the loss of market share by the US, which still strongly dominates international trade in higher education services. The decline in Chinese students coming to the US is also predicted for the most recent years driven by reduced by its college-age population.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2019–11–11

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