nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2019‒10‒21
three papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
Università del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Academic Achievement and Tracking - A Theory Based on Grading Standards By Tim Ehlers; Robert Schwager
  2. Does increased teacher accountability decrease leniency in grading? By Puhani, Patrick A.; Yang, Philip
  3. Acquiring ?green? competencies in the study process By Dzintra Atstaja

  1. By: Tim Ehlers; Robert Schwager
    Abstract: We present a theory explaining the impact of ability tracking on academic performance based on grading policies. Our model distinguishes between initial ability, which is mainly determined by parental background, and eagerness to extend knowledge. We show that achievements of low ability students may be higher in a comprehensive school system, even if there are neither synergy effects nor interdependent preferences among classmates. This arises because the comprehensive school sets a compromise standard which exceeds the standard from the low ability track. Moreover, if students with lower initial ability have higher eagerness to learn, merging classes will increase average performance.
    Keywords: ability tracking, comprehensive school, education, equality of opportunity, peer group effects
    JEL: I21 I28 D63
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Puhani, Patrick A.; Yang, Philip
    Abstract: Because accountability may improve the comparability that is compromised by lenient grading, we compare exit exam outcomes in the same schools before and after a policy change that increased teacher accountability by anchoring grading scales. In particular, using a large administrative dataset of 364,445 exit exam outcomes for 72,889 students, we assess the effect of introducing centralized scoring standards into schools with higher and lower quality peer groups. We find that implementation of these standards increases scoring differences between the two school types by about 25 percent.
    Keywords: Education, gender, identification, fixed effects, teacher quality
    JEL: I21 J45 J71 J78
    Date: 2019–10
  3. By: Dzintra Atstaja (BA School of Business and Finance)
    Abstract: Research background: The 7th Environment Action Plan promotes a long-term objective of ?Living well, within the limits of our planet? based on a 2050 vision centred on ecological limits, a circular economy, and society?s resilience. It is of a great importance to gather the understanding of global trends and risks as well as future skills that are crucial for a well-developed circular economy. It is important to integrate the life-cycle thinking throughout all the stages of economy and edu-cation plays one of the key roles in ensuring comprehensive transition towards circular economy model.Purpose of the article: The aim of the current paper is to identify what skills, knowledge and competencies students should acquire in the study process and to formulate guidelines for human resource development through higher education according to requirements of a circular economy.Methods: The research is based on theoretical analysis of the scientific literature in circular economy field, analysis of statistical data and questionnaire survey.Findings & Value added: The surveyed business executives (1829 respondents in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia) point out that informational and educational measures are needed on the circular economy. Decision making, system thinking, learning by doing, competences, skills and knowledge, values, awareness raising and problem based learning were identified by respondents as the most important skills that should be acquired during the study process. The findings support the need for developing a study course with integrated the life-cycle thinking which will help to develop professional qualities and competencies of future professionals.
    Keywords: circular economy; education; knowledge; competencies; Baltic countries
    JEL: A20 Q59 I25
    Date: 2019–10

This nep-edu issue is ©2019 by Marco Novarese. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.