nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2019‒07‒08
four papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
Università del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Countering moral hazard in higher education: The role of performance incentives in need-based grants By José Montalbán
  3. Identity and Learning: a study on the effect of student-teacher gender interaction on student's learning By Sukanta Bhattacharya; Aparajita Dasgupta; Kumarjit Mandal; Anirban Mukherjee
  4. Does Stimulating Physical Activity Affect School Performance? By Bart Golsteyn; Maria W. J. Jansen; Dave H. H. Van Kann; Annelore M. C. Verhagen

  1. By: José Montalbán (PSE - La plante et son environnement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INA P-G - Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: National financial aid programs for disadvantaged students cover a large fraction of college students and represent a non-negligible component of the public budget. These programs often have weak performance requirements for renewal, potentially leading to moral hazard and efficiency losses. Using a reform in the Spanish need-based grant program in higher education, this paper tests the causal effect of receiving the same amount of grant under different intensities of academic requirements on student performance, degree completion and student dropout. I use administrative micro-data on the universe of applicants to the grant in a large university. Exploiting sharp discontinuities in the grant eligibility formula, I find strong positive effects of being eligible for a grant on student performance when combined with demanding academic requirements, while there are no effects on student dropout. Students improve their final exam attendance rate, their average GPA in final exams, and their probability of completing the degree. They also reduce the fraction of subjects that they have to retake. The grant has no effects on student performance when academic requirements are low and typically comparable to those set out by national need-based student aid programs around the world. These results suggest that academic requirements in the context of higher education financial aid can be an effective tool to help overcome moral hazard concerns and improve aid effectiveness.
    Keywords: Need-based grants,performance incentives,moral hazard,college achievement
    Date: 2019–06
  2. By: H. H. Parmar
    Abstract: The overall aim of National Service Scheme as envisaged earlier, is to give an extension dimension to the higher education system and orient the student youth to community service while they are studying in educational institutions. The concept of making national service a part of university education took about 20 years to evolve from the state of an idea into that of a scheme. The early seeds of it were sown by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in his Report (1948). National Service Scheme (NSS) was introduced in 1969 with the primary objective of developing the personality and character of the student youth through voluntary community service. Initially it was launched in 37 Universities involving about 40,000 volunteers. However, with the passage of time and as a Pan Indian programme, the number of educational institutions covered under NSS has been increasing year after year. The importance of NSS was underlined in an Evaluation Study conducted through Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS). In their Study Report, TISS concluded that NSS has been a well-intentioned and an ideologically motivated scheme of the Government of India and that NSS is one of the greatest experiments in the field of youth work in the world. This paper also highlights the constraints faced by the NSS, and students in the system and also suggests measure to overcome in order to utilize future generation in positive direction. Key Words: National Service Scheme, Youth, Nation Building Policy
    Date: 2019–03
  3. By: Sukanta Bhattacharya (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Aparajita Dasgupta (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Kumarjit Mandal (Department of Economics, Ashoka University); Anirban Mukherjee (Department of Economics, Ashoka University)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine whether students' and teachers' social identity play any role in the learning outcome of the students. More importantly, we ask if a student bene fits by learning from a teacher of the same gender. Unlike the existing literature which explains such interaction in terms of role model based effect, we explain such interaction in terms of gender based sorting across private and public schools. Our results are driven by two critical difference between male and female members. For male and female teachers, the difference comes from their differential opportunity costs of teaching in schools at remote locations. For students, the difference between male and female members comes from the differential return to their human capital investment by parents - where for girls, a lower fraction of the return comes to their parental families after they are married following patriarchal norm. These factors create a sorting pattern which leads to an impact of gender matching. We then test our theoretical results using survey data collected from Andhra Pradesh.
    Keywords: education; gender; learning; student-teacher interaction; identity
    Date: 2019–07
  4. By: Bart Golsteyn (Maastricht University); Maria W. J. Jansen (Maastricht University); Dave H. H. Van Kann (Maastricht University,); Annelore M. C. Verhagen (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether encouraging children to become more physically active in their everyday life affects their primary school performance. We use data from a field quasi- experiment called the Active Living Program, which aimed to increase active modes of transportation to school and active play among 8- to 12-year-olds living in low socioeconomic status (SES) areas in the Netherlands. Difference-in-differences estimations reveal that while the interventions increase time spent on physical activity during school hours, they negatively affect school performance, especially among the worst-performing students. Further analyses reveal that increased restlessness during instruction time is a potential mechanism for this negative effect. Our results suggest that the commonly found positive effects of exercising or participating in sports on educational outcomes may not be generalizable to physical activity in everyday life. Policymakers and educators who seek to increase physical activity in everyday life need to weigh the health and well-being benefits against the probability of increasing inequality in school performance.
    Keywords: health behavior, field quasi-experiment, education, physical activity
    JEL: I12 C93 I20
    Date: 2019–07

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