nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2019‒06‒10
four papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
Università del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Does greater social diversity in schools have an impact on equity in learning outcomes? By Pauline Givord
  2. Labor Market Outcomes and Early Schooling: Evidence from School Entry Policies Using Exact Date of Birth By Pedro Cavalcante Oliveira; Daniel Duque
  3. Math Scores in High Stakes Grades By Brunello, Giorgio; Kiss, David
  4. Television, time use and academic achievement: Evidence from a natural experiment By Adrián Nieto Castro

  1. By: Pauline Givord
    Abstract: A student’s performance in school is influenced by personal characteristics, but also, amongst other influences, by those of his or her schoolmates. Schoolmates can motivate and help each other overcome learning difficulties; but they can also disrupt instruction, require disproportionate attention from teachers, and be a source of anxiety. The way students are allocated to schools, and whether that results in greater socio-economic or academic differences across schools, may thus have an impact on education outcomes at the country level.In which PISA-participating countries and economies are students concentrated in certain schools, depending largely on their ability or socio-economic status? How is socio-economic segregation across schools related to the achievement gaps between students of different socio-economic status?
    Date: 2019–06–11
  2. By: Pedro Cavalcante Oliveira; Daniel Duque
    Abstract: We use a rich, census-like Brazilian dataset containing information on spatial mobility, schooling, and income in which we can link children to parents to assess the impact of early education on several labor market outcomes. Brazilian public primary schools admit children up to one year younger than the national minimum age to enter school if their birthday is before an arbitrary threshold, causing an exogenous variation in schooling at adulthood. Using a Regression Discontinuity Design, we estimate one additional year of schooling increases labor income in 25.8% - almost twice as large as estimated using mincerian models. Around this cutoff there is also a gap of 9.6% on the probability of holding a college degree in adulthood, with which we estimate the college premium and find a 201% increase in labor income. We test the robustness of our estimates using placebo variables, alternative model specifcations and McCrary Density Tests.
    Date: 2019–05
  3. By: Brunello, Giorgio (University of Padova); Kiss, David (Leibniz University of Hannover)
    Abstract: We investigate whether tests taken during a high stakes grade by German primary and secondary students produce higher math scores than in lower stakes grades. We identify a high stakes grade with the final grade of primary or secondary school, because good performance in that grade can affect future opportunities. Our difference-in-differences estimates show that high stakes increase math scores on average by 0.17 to 0.23 standard deviations, a sizeable effect.
    Keywords: high stakes testing, student motivation, achievement, (perceived) returns to education
    JEL: J24 D91
    Date: 2019–05
  4. By: Adrián Nieto Castro
    Abstract: This article studies the impact of television on academic performance and a plausible mechanism behind this effect: whether television changes time use. I identify a causal effect by using a natural experiment that consists in the staggered introduction of the digital television signal in the British television market. The digital switchover leads to an increase in television viewing time but does not change television contents. I find that the digital switchover increases academic performance, contributing to human capital formation, and that the effect is larger for schools at the bottom of the score distribution, reducing educational inequality. I also show that the digital switchover decreases the probability of children taking part in detrimental activities such as alcohol drinking, and their frequency. I test for alternative mechanisms, but do not find an effect of television on time dedicated to homework neither behaviour. The results point that the true determinant of academic achievement is the relative educational value of out-of-school activities, rather than the absolute one.
    Keywords: Academic Performance, Educational Inequality, Time Use, Digital Television Switchover, Natural Experiment
    Date: 2019–06

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