nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒11‒19
six papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
Università del Piemonte Orientale

  1. The Returns to College Choice: Loans, Scholarships and Labor Outcomes By Montoya, Ana Maria; Noton, Carlos; Solis, Alex
  2. Discussion on the quality of European higher education systems using cluster analysis By Romana Provazníková; Denisa Chlebounová
  3. The Effects of Grade Retention on Human Capital Accumulation By Solis, Alex
  4. Low achievers, teaching practices and learning environment By Artur Pokropek; Patricia Costa; Sara Flisi; Federico Biagi
  5. Grading on a Curve: When Having Good Peers is not Good By Caterina Calsamiglia; Annalisa Loviglio
  6. An educational intervention program: Improve Self-efficacy on preventive behaviors of internet addiction By Weng Ian Pang

  1. By: Montoya, Ana Maria (Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Chile); Noton, Carlos (Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Chile); Solis, Alex (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: To estimate causal eff ects of college choice, we exploit eligibility rules for student loans in a regression discontinuity design. Loan programs induce students to pursue college degrees that are more expensive and prolonged relative to technical education. Although higher education is profi table, the marginal return of college is identical to that of technical education when students are about 30 years old. The college premium seems to increase over time, possibly off setting the initial experience gap and covering cost diff erences under moderate discount rates. We study the eff ects of debt burden on college choice using a similar cutoff rule for scholarships.
    Keywords: college choice; credit constraints; returns to college; debt aversion; regression discontinuity
    JEL: I22 I23 I28 J08
    Date: 2018–07–31
  2. By: Romana Provazníková (University of Pardubice); Denisa Chlebounová (University of Pardubice)
    Abstract: The enormous increase in the number of students of higher education and transition from elite to mass and universal higher education are worldwide trends in recent years and further expansion is expected in the coming years. This situation, however, raises the need for higher expenditure on higher education and many countries have to deal with under-financing of their higher education. Involving or increasing student participation in funding is currently under discussion. From the point of view of financing are distinguished three basic higher education financing models in OECD countries which are characterized by none, smaller, or larger student co-financing. The aim of this paper is to choose appropriate indicators for describing quality of European higher education systems and with using cluster analysis to display similar higher education systems and discuss their funding. Findings of this paper indicate that models of higher education systems with multi-source funding achieve higher quality. However, there are other influences that affect the quality of higher education systems - contextual indicators, such as economic, demographic, or historical development.
    Keywords: higher education systems, tertiary education, quality, equity, cluster analysis
    JEL: I21 I23 H75
    Date: 2018–11
  3. By: Solis, Alex (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Grade retention is a widely used educational policy promoting human capital. However, its benefi ts and costs are still under debate. Retention may a ffect learning, cognitive and psychological capacities, educational attainment and the lifetime income (through the timing of entry to the labor market). This paper estimates the causal eff ects of grade retention on all these outcomes exploiting a retention rule based on the school GPA that enables a regression discontinuity design. I use administrative data from a 15-years panel on the universe of students in the educational system in Chile. The fi ndings are fourfold. First, (marginally) retained students achieve the same amount of education than (marginally) promoted (i.e., high school graduation, higher education enrollment, etc.). Second, they improve their cognitive ability (measured by test scores) in the short and the long run. Third, induces parents to increase parental time investments and expectations. Fourth,enhances student psychological traits, and overall learning experience.
    Keywords: Grade retention; attainment; cognitive achievement; high school graduation; parental investmet; self-esteem; learning.
    JEL: I21 I30 J24
    Date: 2017–03–31
  4. By: Artur Pokropek; Patricia Costa (European Commission - JRC); Sara Flisi (European Commission - JRC); Federico Biagi (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The importance of reducing the incidence of low achievement is clearly recognized by the European Union, which – within its strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training – has set the objective of reducing the share of low-achieving 15-year-olds in mathematics, reading and science below 15% by 2020. This report uses data from the 2015 OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to analyse the relationship between teaching practices – teacher-directed instruction, enquiry-based teaching, and adaptive instruction – and the likelihood that students are low achievers in science. Results show that teaching practices are strongly related with the probability of being a low-achieving student. Moreover, some complementarity exists between teaching practices. Properly combining different instruction methods leads to lower levels of underachievement in science. In particular, better outcomes are found in situations with high levels of adaptive instruction and teacher-directed methods, and medium intensity of enquiry-based practices.
    Keywords: Education and Lifelong Learning
    Date: 2018–10
  5. By: Caterina Calsamiglia (CEMFI and Barcelona GSE); Annalisa Loviglio (UAB and Barcelona GSE)
    Abstract: Student access to education levels, tracks or majors is usually determined by their previous performance, measured either by internal exams, designed and graded by teachers in school, or external exams, designed and graded by central authorities. We say teachers grade on a curve whenever having better peers harms the evaluation obtained by a given student. We use rich administrative records from public schools in Catalonia to provide evidence that teachers indeed grade on a curve, leading to negative peer effects. We find suggestive evidence that school choice is impacted only the year when internal grades matter for future prospects.
    Keywords: Grading on a curve, negative peer effects, school choice.
    JEL: I21 I28 H75
    Date: 2017–01
  6. By: Weng Ian Pang (Macao Polytechnic Institute)
    Abstract: Internet addiction refers to the act addicted to the Internet, over time will become a habit, overuse of the Internet that causes mental, social and physical problems, that is one of the network and social problems common in Macau. Adolescence is a critical period of time and gradually develop independently their personal health behavior stereotypes, their health behaviors and beliefs will form the future lifestyle. Internet users have the opportunity to lead to Internet addiction especially young people and students, more popular social concern. According to the theory of Bandura, self-efficacy of different people that feel, think and act differently. Bandura refers to high self-efficacy of young people appear less deviant behavior. Therefore, establish an educational intervention program to effect of adolescent?s self-efficacy of internet addiction. there enrolled 240 students, from grade 3 of middle schools to grade 3 of senior high school, of 5 schools located in Macau. This study assessed Self-Efficacy and internet addiction in these students using Ralf Schwarzer's General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Hopefully, the students are able to improve their self-awake of internet addiction.
    Keywords: self-efficacy, internet addiction and adolescent
    Date: 2018–07

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