nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒08‒13
ten papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
Università del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Returns to higher education subjects and tiers in China - Evidence from the China Family Panel Studies By Kang, Lili; Peng, Fei; Zhu, Yu
  2. Education-job mismatches and their impacts on job satisfaction: An analysis among university graduates in Cambodia By SAM, Vichet
  3. The Role of Colleges within the Higher Education Sector By Bernhard Eckwert; Itzhak Zilcha
  4. Returns to Higher Education: Vocational Education vs College By Ana Maria Montoya; Carlos Noton; Alex Solis
  5. Where Do You Come from, where Do You Go? Assessing Skills Gaps and Labour Market Outcomes of Young Adults with Different Immigration Backgrounds By Alison Cathles; Dongshu Ou; Simone Sasso; Mary Setrana; Tom van Veen
  6. Cultural Values, Family Decisions and Gender Segregation in Higher Education: Evidence from 26 OECD Economies By Zuazu Bermejo, Izaskun
  7. Are professors worth it? The value-added and costs of tutorial instructors By Jan Feld; Nicolás Salamanca; Ulf Zölitz
  8. Teaching Assistants, Computers and Classroom Management: Evidence from a Randomised Control Trial By Helen Johnson; Sandra McNally; Heather Rolfe; Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela; Robert Savage; Janet Vousden; Clare Wood
  9. Can Raising Instructional Time Crowd Out Student Pro-Social Behaviour? Evidence From Germany By Christian Krekel
  10. Relations Between Unemployment, Competence and Training By Mergeani, Nicea

  1. By: Kang, Lili; Peng, Fei; Zhu, Yu
    Abstract: Using the recent China Family Panel Studies, we are able to identify the subjects studied of both college (2-3 years) graduates and university (4-5 years) graduates. For the latter group, we can further distinguish universities by the tier of selectivity (i.e. Key and Ordinary Universities). We take advantage of the rich information on the respondent’s school cohort and hukou status at age 12 and the mother’s age and education to estimate the simultaneous choice of subject and tier of prestige of higher education institutions (HEI) faced by university applicants. Using the doubly robust Inverse Probability Weighted Regression Adjustment (IPWRA) method to account for selection (on observables) into subjects and tiers, our treatment effect estimates suggest that OLS substantially underestimate the effect of attending more prestigious universities, for graduates of both genders in Law, Economics and Management (LEM). We also show that the recent massive expansion of the higher education sector have reduced returns to HE for all graduates, except for those studying LEM or Other non-STEM subjects at the most prestigious universities. Our results are robust to treating subjects as predetermined for the selection into HEIs by tiers of prestige.
    Keywords: Returns to university tier and subjects,China,Inverse Probability Weighted Regression Adjustment,Higher Education expansion
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2018
  2. By: SAM, Vichet
    Abstract: Education-job mismatches, especially overeducation or vertical mismatch, are generally found to lower the worker's job satisfaction, which may generate the counter-productive behaviors such as high rates of absenteeism and turnover in developed countries. The purpose of this article is to examine the impacts of educational mismatches from their both forms and dimensions (match, overeducation, horizontal mismatch and double mismatch) on the job satisfaction among university graduates in Cambodia. To deal with the sample selection bias owing to the unobserved job satisfaction of unemployed graduates, this study applies the Heckman probit model on a survey conducted with nineteen higher education institutions in Cambodia. Results indicate that the both forms of mismatches adversely affect the job satisfaction and the consequence is stronger if graduates suffer both vertical and horizontal mismatches. This suggests that the literature has to focus on all forms and dimensions of mismatches when examining their impacts on the individual outcomes in the labor market. The findings also underline the importance of improvement in the quality of education-job matching in Cambodia because the possible counter-productive behaviors due to inadequate education-employment may affect the productivity of firms and thus limit their development.
    Keywords: Vertical and horizontal educational mismatches, job satisfaction, sample selection bias, Heckman probit regression, higher education.
    JEL: I23 I25 J24 J28
    Date: 2018–07–15
  3. By: Bernhard Eckwert; Itzhak Zilcha
    Abstract: Over the past decades the college sectors in the higher education systems of many Western countries have expanded their capacities massively. This happened even though colleges have been at a competitive disadvantage with universities which are publicly subsidized, while colleges must self-finance through tuition fees. The question arises how, in equilibrium, a diverse student population is allocated between these institutions and whether the resulting human capital accumulation process is efficient. Our paper explores these questions within an information-based theoretical framework. Individuals are screened for their (unobservable) innate abilities, and the precision of the screening mechanism, which is endogenous, balances demand and supply of educational services. We find that in the short term, when the college capacity is fixed, college subsidies are not desirable in most cases. In the long term, the college sector may expand excessively thereby establishing inefficiently low screening standards in the admission process to higher education.
    Keywords: higher education, college expansion, equilibrium screening mechanism, efficiency
    JEL: D80 I21 I23 I25
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Ana Maria Montoya; Carlos Noton; Alex Solis
    Abstract: Students scoring above a given threshold in the college admission test are eligible for education loans in Chile. Given the random variation in college enrollment induced by this cutoff rule, we use a regression discontinuity design to identify the marginal returns of vocational education versus college education. We use individual-level data on educational background and labor history for the universe of test takers in 2007.We find no differences in earnings, employment, or participation in the formal sector. Given the more expensive tuition fees, more years of instruction, and lower probability of graduation, the students induced to enroll in college have suffered from high-income losses in the margin. Key words:
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Alison Cathles; Dongshu Ou; Simone Sasso; Mary Setrana; Tom van Veen
    Abstract: This paper analyzes numeracy and literacy skills of migrants, using PISA and PIAAC data from twelve OECD countries. Our results first show some convergence of the skills gap between the second generation immigrants and the natives over time. Second, the gap in literacy skills among the first-generation and natives and among first-generation and second-generation immigrants has increased over time. Third, demographics and family background contribute to the achievement gaps between different groups. Fourth, school input variables do contribute to skills gaps of young adults with different immigrant backgrounds. Fifth, an immigrant background does not appear to affect the chances of studying in a STEM field.
    JEL: I24 I25
    Date: 2018
  6. By: Zuazu Bermejo, Izaskun
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of cultural values and family decision-making in the gender distribution of higher education on a panel database of 9 elds of study in 26 OECD countries over 1998-2012. The paper surmises an interplay between family-friendly policies and cultural values that might be associated with gender segregation. Using survey data from the World Value Survey, the results suggest that gender-egalitarian attitudes of females are negatively associated with gender segregation. However, attitudes of males are not associated with signi cant coe cients. Marriage market indicators, such as the age at rst marriage, are positively associated with gender segregation. Finally, family-friendly policies are found to display a positive association with segregation in societies that are attached to traditional gender roles in the labor market. To the contrary, the same policies are negatively associated with segregation in gender-egalitarian societies. These ndings are robust to country and eld-speci c levels of segregation, and remain using alternative speci cations and estimation techniques.
    Keywords: gender, segregation, higher, education, cultural, values, marriage, market, family, policies
    JEL: A13 I24 J16
    Date: 2018–06–11
  7. By: Jan Feld; Nicolás Salamanca; Ulf Zölitz
    Abstract: A substantial share of university instruction happens in tutorial sessions—small group instruction given parallel to lectures. In this paper, we study whether instructors with a higher academic rank teach tutorials more effectively in a setting where students are randomly assigned to tutorial groups. We find this to be largely not the case. Academic rank is unrelated to students’ current and future performance and only weakly positively related to students’ course evaluations. Building on these results, we discuss different staffing scenarios that show that universities can substantially reduce costs by increasingly relying on lower-ranked instructors for tutorial teaching.
    Keywords: Teacher value-added, teaching effectiveness, higher education
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2018–07
  8. By: Helen Johnson; Sandra McNally; Heather Rolfe; Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela; Robert Savage; Janet Vousden; Clare Wood
    Abstract: Many students still leave school without a good grasp of basic literacy, despite the negative implications for future educational and labour market outcomes. We evaluate a programme that involves changing how resources are used within classrooms to reinforce the teaching of literacy. Specifically, the programme involves training teaching assistants to deliver a tightly structured package of materials to groups of young children. Further, we compare the effectiveness of computer-aided instruction using available software with the paper equivalent. We implement the experiment in the context of a Randomised Control Trial in English schools. Both interventions have a short-term impact on children's reading scores, although the effect is bigger for the paper intervention and more enduring in the subsequent year. This paper shows how teaching assistants can be used to better effect within schools, and at a low cost.
    Keywords: literacy, ICT, teaching assistants
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2018–08
  9. By: Christian Krekel (LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: We study whether raising instructional time can crowd out student pro-social behaviour. To this end, we exploit a large educational reform in Germany that has raised weekly instructional hours for high school students by 12.5% as a quasi-natural experiment. Using a difference-in-differences design, we find that this rise has a negative and sizeable effect on volunteering, both at the intensive and at the extensive margin. It also affects political interest. There is no similar crowding out of scholastic involvement, but no substitution either. Impacts seem to be driven by a reduction in available leisure time as opposed to a rise in intensity of instruction, and to be temporary only. Robustness checks, including placebo tests and triple differencing, confirm our results.
    Keywords: Instructional Time, Student Pro-Social Behaviour, Volunteering,Scholastic Involvement, Political Interest, Quasi-Natural Experiment,G8 Reform, SOEP
    Date: 2017–08–29
  10. By: Mergeani, Nicea
    Abstract: Increasing the rate of structural unemployment and increasing the duration of maintaining the status of the unemployed is becoming more and more serious for the new generations. That is due to the natural difference between young people's new way of thinking and the rigidity of a system of work built many years ago. At the same time, young people, under the urge to grow socially and economically faster than the current society allows, give up education and training to access the labour market sooner. The low number of competences accumulated in the limited time of education reduces the potential of new employees, making them the real victims of the labour market. Following a survey conducted in Dr. Tr. Severin, lacks of competences were identified. They should be solved through a correct and coherent education in the national educational system, until the end of the gymnasium cycle. The most important of these are the lack of technological skills of young people under the age of 25 and the lack of digital skills among adults aged over 55.
    Keywords: qualification of personnel; competences; decreasing unemployment; digital competences; technological competences; structural unemployment
    JEL: J2 J6
    Date: 2018–01

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