nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒05‒28
twenty papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
Università del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Technical education, noncognitive skills and labor market outcomes: experimental evidence from Brazil By Camargo, Juliana; Lima, Lycia Silva e; Riva, Flavio Luiz Russo; Souza, André Portela Fernandes de
  2. The Effects of Universal Secondary Education Program Accompanying Public-Private Partnership on Students' Access, Sorting and Achievement: Evidence from Uganda By Masuda, Kazuya; Yamauchi, Chikako
  3. Entry Through the Narrow Door: The Costs of Just Failing High Stakes Exams By Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Jenifer
  4. Immigrant children's school performance and immigration costs: Evidence from Spain By Facundo Albornoz; Antonio Cabrales; Paula Calvo; Esther Hauk
  5. Does It Pay to Graduate from an 'Elite' University in Australia? By Tani, Massimiliano; Heaton, Christopher; Carroll, David
  6. The production of inequalities within families and across generations: the intergenerational effects of birth order and family size on educational attainment By Kieron J. Barclay; Torkild Lyngstad; Dalton Conley
  7. Does Ignorance of Economic Returns and Costs Explain the Educational Aspiration Gap? Evidence from Representative Survey Experiments By Lergetporer, Philipp; Werner, Katharina; Woessmann, Ludger
  8. Trust based evaluation in a market oriented school system By Vlachos, Jonas
  9. Process Evaluation of the CHED K to 12 Adjustment Assistance Program By Brillantes, Alex B. Jr.; Brillantes, Karen Dominique B.; Jovellanos, Justine Beatrice B.
  10. Smartphone Use and Academic Performance: Correlation or Causal Relationship? By Baert, Stijn; Vujic, Suncica; Amez, Simon; Claeskens, Matteo; Daman, Thomas; Maeckelberghe, Arno; Omey, Eddy; De Marez, Lieven
  11. Human Capital, Positional Good, or Social Network?: Exploring a Korean Model of Education By Jongick Jang; Hoon Hong; Chung Sik Yoo; Jonghyun Park
  12. Pre-service classroom teachers' scientific epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward science By Sule Bayraktar
  13. The Main Trends of Higher Education Exports in the World By Krasnova, Gulnara
  14. Building up knowledge in rural places By Hafdís Björg Hjálmarsdóttir; Vera Kristín Kristjánsdóttir
  15. Prospective Teachers’ Perceptions: A Critical Literacy Framework By Lorenzo Cherubini
  16. The role of life-long education in achieving sustainable development By Maria-Simona NAROȘ; Mihaela SIMIONESCU
  17. The Impact of Defaults on Technology Adoption, and Its Underappreciation by Pollicymakers By Bergman, Peter; Rogers, Todd
  18. Beneficial Brain Drain and Non-Migrants' Welfare By Schiff, Maurice
  19. Evolution of Educational Management and Its Impact on Society By Samuiel Balc
  20. Revisiting the Effect of Teaching of Learning Strategies on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of the Findings By Ömer Beyhan; Gökhan BA?

  1. By: Camargo, Juliana; Lima, Lycia Silva e; Riva, Flavio Luiz Russo; Souza, André Portela Fernandes de
    Abstract: This paper describes the results from the evaluation of the Student Training Scholarship ('Bolsa Formação Estudante'), a public policy that offers scholarships to current and former high school students of the public educational system in Brazil so that they can attend technical and vocational education courses free of charge. We base our analysis on a waiting list randomized controlled trial in four municipalities and use survey and administrative data to quantify the effects of the program on educational investments, labor market outcomes, noncognitive skills and self-reported risky behaviors. Our intention-to-treat estimates suggest substantial gender heterogeneity two years after program completion. Women experienced large gains in labor market outcomes and noncognitive skills. In particular, those who received the offer scored 0.63σ higher on an extraversion indicator, but, surprisingly, reported more frequently that they were involved in argument or fights and binge drinking. We find no effects of the program on the male sub-sample. The findings corroborate the evidence on gender heterogeneity in the literature on technical and vocational education programs, and also extend it to additional dimensions.
    Date: 2018–05
  2. By: Masuda, Kazuya; Yamauchi, Chikako
    Abstract: This paper evaluates how the abolition of fees for public secondary education affects the access, sorting and achievement of students when it is accompanied by the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) scheme. In 2007, Uganda introduced the Universal Secondary Education policy, which solicited the participation of private schools to offer fee-free education by receiving public assistance. This has created (1) public schools (fee-free for all), (2) PPP private schools (accepting both fee-free and fee-paying students) and (3) private schools. We investigate the sorting across these types of schools, and further assess the impact on achievement, student composition, and learning environments by the type. In order to identify the effects of the policy, we utilize the across-cohort discontinuity in exposure to the program and across-district variation in the program intensity based on the pre-existing transition and retention rates. Our results suggest that the program increased the overall number of the students taking the secondary school exit exam by 16% in the median intensity district, the private school entry. It was not accompanied by a change in test scores, though learning environments worsened. Across the subsectors, the PPP and private schools experienced particularly large gains in the test scores. Our findings suggest that fee elimination can improve the access to secondary education with few negative effects on learning, and that PPP can provide one of the cost-effective means for financing it.
    Keywords: Post-primary education, Uganda, Access, Learning Achievement, Fee-free schooling program, Africa
    JEL: J13 J12 D10 O10
    Date: 2018–05
  3. By: Machin, Stephen (London School of Economics); McNally, Sandra (London School of Economics); Ruiz-Valenzuela, Jenifer (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: In many countries, important thresholds in examinations act as a gateway to higher levels of education and/or good employment prospects. This paper examines the consequences of just failing a key high stakes national examination in English taken at the end of compulsory schooling in England. It uses unique administrative data to show that students of the same ability have significantly different educational trajectories depending on whether or not they just pass or fail this exam. Three years later, students who just fail to achieve the required threshold have a lower probability of entering an upper-secondary high-level academic or vocational track and of starting tertiary education. Those who fail to pass the threshold are also more likely to drop out of education by age 18, without some form of employment. The moderately high effects of just passing or failing to pass the threshold in this high stakes exam are therefore a source of educational inequality with high potential long-term consequences for those affected.
    Keywords: high stakes examinations, manipulation, English
    JEL: I20 I21 I24
    Date: 2018–04
  4. By: Facundo Albornoz; Antonio Cabrales; Paula Calvo; Esther Hauk
    Abstract: This note provides evidence on how immigration costs affect school performance of immigrant children exploiting the information provided by the CDI; a standardized exam for all students enrolled in the last year of Primary education in the Madrid region. For a given socio-economic background and parent characteristics, school performance of immigrant children improves with parental immigration costs.
    Keywords: school performance; immigration; parental involvement; immigration costs
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Tani, Massimiliano (University of New South Wales); Heaton, Christopher (Macquarie University, Sydney); Carroll, David (UNSW Canberra)
    Abstract: In Australia, the so-called Group of Eight (Go8) universities have lower student-to-staff ratios, better qualified staff, superior research outcomes, and generally better placement in university rankings compared to non-Go8 universities. They are also typically the most competitive universities for prospective undergraduates to enter. Prior published research, mainly focusing on the United States, has found that graduates of prestigious and selective colleges enjoy a wage premium over graduates of other institutions when they enter the labour market. In this paper, we use data from the Graduate Destination Survey and data on Australian Tertiary Admission Ranks (ATARs) to investigate the existence of a Go8 premium in the Australian labour market and to determine the extent to which it is due merely to the recruitment of better students. We find statistically significant evidence of unconditional Go8 premia ranging from 4.3% to 5.5% and find that between 13% and 46% of these premia are due to student selection. We also find evidence of considerable heterogeneity within the Go8 and other university groupings, and that field of study and geographical region have relatively large impacts on graduate starting salaries. We conclude that, while Go8 premia exist, a graduate's alma mater is a relatively minor consideration in the determination of graduate salaries in Australia.
    Keywords: human capital, returns to education, wage premium, graduate labour market
    JEL: A23 J24
    Date: 2018–04
  6. By: Kieron J. Barclay (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Torkild Lyngstad; Dalton Conley
    Abstract: There has long been interest in the extent to which effects of social stratification extend and persist across generations. We take a novel approach to this question by asking whether birth order and sibling group size in the parental generation influences the educational attainment of their children. To address this question we use Swedish population data on cohorts born 1960-1982. To study the effects of parental birth order and family size we apply a cousin fixed effects design and exploit information on twin births in the parents generation. Relative to having a first-born mother, having a second-born or fifth-born mother is associated with educational attainment at age 30 being 4% and 8% of a standard deviation lower, respectively. After adjusting for attained parental education and social class, the parental birth order effect is heavily attenuated. Nevertheless, we do find that children who share the same birth order and gender as their parents attain slightly more education, and this is particularly pronounced when the parents have higher levels of education themselves. We do not find clear or consistent evidence for parental sibling group size effects. Overall our results suggest that birth order and family size effects operate through a Markovian process of transmission.
    Keywords: Sweden, birth order, education, family size, population registers
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2018–04
  7. By: Lergetporer, Philipp (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Werner, Katharina (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Woessmann, Ludger (Ifo Institute for Economic Research)
    Abstract: The gap in university enrollment by parental education is large and persistent in many countries. In our representative survey, 74 percent of German university graduates, but only 36 percent of those without a university degree favor a university education for their children. The latter are more likely to underestimate returns and overestimate costs of university. Experimental provision of return and cost information significantly increases educational aspirations. However, it does not close the aspiration gap as university graduates respond even more strongly to the information treatment. Persistent effects in a follow-up survey indicate that participants indeed process and remember the information. Differences in economic preference parameters also cannot account for the educational aspiration gap. Our results cast doubt that ignorance of economic returns and costs explains educational inequality in Germany.
    Keywords: inequality, higher education, university, aspiration, information, returns to education, survey experiment
    JEL: D83 I24 J24 H75
    Date: 2018–04
  8. By: Vlachos, Jonas (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: In Sweden, a trust-based system of school performance evaluation meets a market oriented school system with liberal entry conditions to voucher-funded private providers, several of which are for- profit corporations. National tests are administered but these are graded at the local school level and what ultimately matters to students are teacher-set grades. In relation to the achievement on national tests, privately run free schools systematically set higher grades than public schools. The differences between municipal and free schools are larger when more reliable tests are used to control for achievement. To some extent, the differences in grading standards can be accounted for by location and student demographics, but the differences between public and private providers remain substantial even after taking such factors into consideration. In particular, the grade-setting among schools that belong to two large corporate providers appear generous. The results indicate that different providers do not necessarily respond symmetrically when faced with similar market conditions and act under the same regulatory regime.
    Keywords: Private provision of public services; School performance evaluation; School vouchers
    JEL: H44 I28 L51
    Date: 2018–05–18
  9. By: Brillantes, Alex B. Jr.; Brillantes, Karen Dominique B.; Jovellanos, Justine Beatrice B.
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the implementation of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) K to 12 Adjustment Assistance Program, established following the full implementation of the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 in 2016, which introduced senior high school into the basic education curriculum. While it presented a rare opportunity to upgrade the country’s higher education sector, the transition threatened higher education institutions’ labor and sustainability and prolonged CHED's bureaucratic processes, further delaying the program’s benefits. This process evaluation examines the aspects of implementation that have led to said challenges through an assessment of the program logic and its plausibility, service delivery and utilization, and program organization. The study finds that the program has to be appreciated as a transition program itself. It has to be viewed as an innovative program spurred by the need to adapt to the calls of globalization. Adjustments to and in the internal bureaucracies of CHED must also be reevaluated to realize the gains of the K to 12 program. Stakeholders must also intensify collective efforts to develop and design accompanying policies, plans, and strategies to address these challenges and make Philippine higher education more globally competitive.
    Keywords: K to 12, higher education, education, Philippines, process evaluation, senior high school, education reform, faculty development, K to 12 transition, living allowances, education policy
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Baert, Stijn (Ghent University); Vujic, Suncica (University of Antwerp); Amez, Simon (Ghent University); Claeskens, Matteo (Ghent University); Daman, Thomas (University of Antwerp); Maeckelberghe, Arno (Ghent University); Omey, Eddy (Ghent University); De Marez, Lieven (Ghent University)
    Abstract: After a decade of correlational research, this study is the first to measure the causal impact of (general) smartphone use on educational performance. To this end, we merge survey data on general smartphone use, exogenous predictors of this use, and other drivers of academic success with the exam scores of first-year students at two Belgian universities. The resulting data are analysed with instrumental variable estimation techniques. A one-standard-deviation increase in daily smartphone use yields a decrease in average exam scores of about one point (out of 20). When relying on ordinary least squares estimations, the magnitude of this effect is substantially underestimated.
    Keywords: smartphone use, academic performance, causality
    JEL: I21 I23 L86
    Date: 2018–04
  11. By: Jongick Jang (Yonsei University); Hoon Hong (Yonsei University); Chung Sik Yoo (Yonsei University); Jonghyun Park (Gyungnam University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: As part of an endeavor to explore interactions between education and economic growth in Korea, this paper attempts to explain the apparently puzzling finding that, during the past two decades, she has experienced an extraordinary growth in college enrollment rate in spite of a continuous fall in college wage premium. For this purpose, it focuses on school ties and dual labor market as constituent parts of socioeconomic mechanism underlying her economic growth. Drawing on the concepts of positional good, social network and social capital, it puts forward the conjecture that school ties which are built upon semi-permanent rankings of Korean universities have generated, on an extended scale, competition for entrance into top-ranked universities. At a more empirical level, this translates into the hypothesis that what is responsible for the unbridled demand for college education is not a difference in wages between college graduates and high school graduates, but a difference in wages between graduates from high-ranked universities and those from low-ranked universities. To test this hypothesis, it sets up two econometric models and obtains successful results: 1) that there exists a significant difference in wages between graduates from high-ranked universities and those from low-ranked universities; 2) that this difference becomes larger with an increase in their experience and career on the job.
    Keywords: JEL Classification:
    Date: 2018–05
  12. By: Sule Bayraktar (Giresun University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service classroom teachers? scientific epistemological beliefs and their attitudes towards science. Sample of the study consisted of 98 students pursuing their third year in primary teacher education department of Faculty of Education at Giresun University which is located at Northeastern part of Turkey. Data for the study was collected through the use of ?Scientific Epistemological Beliefs Scale? and ?Attitudes toward science scale?. Scientific epistemological beliefs scale was developed by Elder (1999) and adapted into Turkish by Acat, Tüken & Karada? (2010). Attitudes toward science were assessed by utilizing an attitude scale consisted of 34 items which was constructed by using items from various attitude scales. Data was analyzed through statistical techniques such as means, t-test and regression analysis. Findings of the study showed that pre-service classroom teachers? scientific epistemological beliefs differentiated for the dimensions of the scale from naive to sophisticated beliefs. There was not a significant difference between male and female pre-service teachers in terms of scientific epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward science. The results of the study also showed that there is a positive correlation between the scientific epistemological beliefs and attitudes towards science.
    Keywords: scientific epistemological beliefs, attitudes toward science, pre-service teachers
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2018–04
  13. By: Krasnova, Gulnara (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The paper examines the main trends of higher education exports in the world. The main external and internal factors affecting the expansion and development of higher education exports are described.
    Date: 2018–04
  14. By: Hafdís Björg Hjálmarsdóttir (University of Akureyri); Vera Kristín Kristjánsdóttir (Akureyri University)
    Abstract: For over 70 years, there was only one university in Iceland, located in Reykjavík the capital of Iceland. Therefore, for anyone wanting to go to university the only option was to move to Reykjavík or attend a university in a foreign. That changed in the year of 1987 with the establishment of Akureyri University. Akureyri University, located in the northern region of Iceland, has been instrumental in the economic growth of the region and a key factor in building up knowledge in rural places in Iceland. In the recent years, Akureyri University has developed teaching methods to be able to offer blended learning and distance learning study programmes. Now it possible for students all over the country to seek and get education wherever they may be located. The University of Akureyri has now around 2.000 students. Majority, about two thirds, of the students are off-campus students, using the technology to access their studies, their lectures, their classes and so on. Majority of these students are located in Iceland but about 5% of them are located outside of Iceland. A qualitative research was done among several former students of Akureyri University in rural areas in Iceland. The aim was to study the impact of knowledge building and edification in the rural societies in Iceland. In this presentation the main finding of this research will be explained and the role of Akureyri University in building up knowledge in the rural parts of Iceland discussed. Technology has changed the ways of teaching and the university is now aiming to make all of the studies flexible and independent of time and space.
    Keywords: education in rural places, distance learning, impact of education on rural societies
    Date: 2018–04
  15. By: Lorenzo Cherubini (Brock University St. Catharines, Ontario)
    Abstract: The education of Aboriginal youth is, in some respects, in crisis. Aboriginal communities in Ontario are as a group currently experiencing marginalization within the education system. As such it is imperative that efforts be made to better understand the system to improve the success rate for Aboriginal youth. The Ontario First Nation, Métis and Inuit Education Policy Framework (2007) has committed to “improve achievement among First Nation, Métis and Inuit students and to close the gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students†. English and Language Arts teachers are compelled to consider how the policy discourse of the 2007 Aboriginal Policy Framework implicates upon the socio-political and socio-historical currency of literacy in their instruction. Consequently, this qualitative study examined one component of a large-scale project, in the tradition of grounded theory, including the implications of Aboriginal education policy discourse on literacy instruction as it applies to over 200 prospective teachers enrolled in a Teacher Education Program in Ontario, Canada. Participants identified two themes that they believed Aboriginal students would find most challenging, including: tension with provincial curriculum and, feelings of misrepresentation.
    Keywords: Aboriginal students, critical literacy, education policy
    Date: 2018–04
  16. By: Maria-Simona NAROȘ (School of Advanced Studies of the Romanian Academy); Mihaela SIMIONESCU (Institute for Economic Forecasting of the Romanian Academy, Centre for Migration Studies in Prague Business School)
    Abstract: Considering the role of education in achieving an important objective of any national economy- the sustainable development- this paper brings as novelty a new concept on education- sustainable education model. In this context, the sustainable development is defined from the perspective of education contribution in improving the economic and social development. A particular attention is assigned to education for sustainable development and to the correlations between education and macroeconomic and social indicators (economic growth, productivity, income, trade, political system, demographic trend).
    Keywords: education, life-long education, sustainable development, economic development, sustainable education
    JEL: I21 I23 I25
    Date: 2018–05
  17. By: Bergman, Peter (Columbia University); Rogers, Todd (Harvard University)
    Abstract: We conduct an experiment to understand how enrollment defaults affect the take up and impact of an education technology. We show that a standard and simplified opt-in process induce low take up. Automatically enrolling parents increases adoption significantly and improves student achievement. Our surveys show automatic enrollment is uncommon because its impact is underestimated: District leaders overestimate take-up under the standard condition by 38 percentage points and underestimate take-up under automatic enrollment by 31 percentage points. After learning the actual take-up rates, there is a 140% increase in willingness to pay for the technology when shifting implementation to automatic enrollment.
    Date: 2017–06
  18. By: Schiff, Maurice (World Bank)
    Abstract: Though a net brain gain has tended to be seen as a benefit and referred to as a 'beneficial brain drain' in the literature, its welfare impact for source country residents – or non-migrants – is at best ambiguous. Increased educational investment in response to a brain drain is equivalent to a bet where migrants (M) win and where the impact on residents (R) – whose well-being is a concern for the government – is ambiguous or negative. I compare residents' welfare a) for an open vs. a closed economy, b) under the presence or absence of education externality, c) with vs. without government intervention, and d) with government's concern equal for R and M (R = M) or greater for R (R > M). Main findings are: i) residents lose under an open economy in four of the five scenarios considered, with an ambiguous result under an externality and no intervention; ii) optimal education policy has a positive or ambiguous impact on residents' welfare (and a positive impact under a closed economy); and iii) welfare is higher under intervention when R > M than when R = M. It is worth noting that, though the standard developing country policy of subsidizing higher education is optimal under an education externality in the case of a closed economy, this result need not hold under an open economy.
    Keywords: brain drain, net brain gain, education policy, source country residents, welfare
    JEL: F22 I20 J61
    Date: 2018–04
  19. By: Samuiel Balc (Baptist Theological Institute in Bucharest, Romania)
    Abstract: It is recognized that education is the field with the oldest history throughout the science perimeter. Education has been a special concern and a major concern for all social categories throughout history. The ultimate goal of education has been and remains to ensure the inner peace of man in all circumstances of life. Beyond the information received, man needs to know what to do and how to do in the context of a correct understanding of reality. The hope of people lies in the good education they provide to every citizen. Through this education, each person must be prepared to live a complete life and to be able to fulfill all the kinds of activities he needs in life. In this sense, it is very important for education to have clear objectives; without this objective, the whole educational process being inefficient. This article highlights the evolution of educational management over the course of history and its impact on society. At the same time, some recommendations will be presented for the effective use of the fantastic potential of the company
    Keywords: management, education, evolution, society, school
    Date: 2018–04
  20. By: Ömer Beyhan (Necmettin Erbakan University, Ahmet Kele?o?lu Education Faculty); Gökhan BA? (Ni?de Ömer Halisdemir University, Education Faculty)
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of teaching of learning strategies on students? academic achievement. In this research, meta-analysis method was adopted to determine the effect of teaching of learning strategies on students? academic achievement and the studies in relation with the subject carried out in Turkey were combined. The effect sizes of the studies included in the meta-analysis were compared in regard of instructional level, course type, and publication type variables. This meta-analysis sought an answer to the problem statement of ?What kind of effect does teaching of learning strategies have on students? academic achievement levels?? Some certain criteria were taken into consideration to include the studies in the meta-analysis. According to the selected criteria, the experimental studies (N = 11) were included in the research. At the end of the research, it was concluded that teaching of learning strategies had a moderate effect size (d = 0.818) on students? academic achievement levels. Besides, while the effect sizes obtained as a result of the meta-analysis were compared with respect to instructional level, course type, publication type variables, it was revealed that there were significant differences in regard of the effect sizes of the studies with respect to all variables in the research.
    Keywords: The teaching of Learning Strategies, Academic Achievement, Meta-Analysis, Experimental Studies.
    JEL: I20 I21
    Date: 2018–04

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