nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒05‒07
sixteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Chasing student satisfaction in the delivery of property higher education By Kathryn Robson; Guillermo Aranda-Mena; James Baxter
  2. Leveling the Playing Field for High School Choice: Results from a Field Experiment of Informational Interventions By Sean P. Corcoran; Jennifer L. Jennings; Sarah R. Cohodes; Carolyn Sattin-Bajaj
  3. The Last of the Lost Generations? Formal and Non-Formal Education in Ghana during Times of Economic Decline and Recovery By Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Hammer, Jeffrey S.
  4. The School-Entry-Age Rule Affects Redshirting Patterns and Resulting Disparities in Achievement By Philip J. Cook; Songman Kang
  5. The Effects of Student Feedback to teachers: Evidence from a Field Experiment By Margaretha Buurman; Josse (J.) Delfgaauw; Robert (A.J.) Dur; Robin Zoutenbier
  6. The effects of educational mismatch on inventor productivity. Evidence from Sweden, 2003-2010 By Igna, Ioana A.
  7. Macroeconomic consequences of the demographic and educational transition in Poland By Aleksandra Kolasa
  8. Exposure to more female peers widens the gender gap in STEM participation By Anne Ardila Brenøe; Ulf Zölitz
  9. Enlightening Communities and Parents for Improving Student Learning Evidence from Randomized Experiment in Niger By Eiji Koazuka
  10. Productivity Gap between Tradable and Non-Tradable Industries and Duality in Higher Education. By Elise S. Brezis; Gilad Brand
  11. Improving Teacher Quality at Scale: 10 Tips from Practitioners By Clemencia Cosentino; Swetha Sridharan
  12. Financial education for the disadvantaged? A review By Entorf, Horst; Hou, Jia
  13. Corporate real estate strategies for future higher education By Ronald Beckers; Jasper Driessen
  14. Do teacher aides help or hurt student achievement? the role of teacher experience By Deal, Cristopher; Stone, Joe A.
  15. The Distribution of Talent Across Contests By Ghazala Azmat; Marc Möller
  16. Immigrant Category of Admission and the Earnings of Adults and Children: How far does the Apple Fall? By Warman, Casey; Webb, Matthew D.; Worswick, Christopher

  1. By: Kathryn Robson; Guillermo Aranda-Mena; James Baxter
    Abstract: Purpose:Customer satisfaction has been a goal within the services marketing area for many years. There has been considerable debate over whether higher education students are customers. Funding sources for higher education (HE), regard student satisfaction as one of the measurable components of a university’s success in Australia. If it is accepted that HE students are indeed customers, then the marketing models that are applied to services marketing clients could also be applicable within the higher education arena.Methodology Approach: The research methodology chosen for this paper is a combination of Interpretivism and Critical Incident Theory. The authors have used open interviewing and open ended questionnaires to encourage open dialogue between the researcher and those being questioned. A questionnaire was developed using Qualtrics, which was delivered to every property undergraduate student in Australia.Findings: The current Australian HE student is contributing towards the cost of their tertiary education in a considerable way. For this reason and many others, modern HE students have different needs and expectations from students in the past and they are similar to any other service customer. Responses from the interviews and the questionnaire indicate a degree of dissatisfaction with issues around teaching quality and delivery, out-dated and inappropriate materials and the lack of practical application such as formal work experience, site visits and case studies.Originality: This research seeks to evaluate higher education property student satisfaction and identify important factors that universities can concentrate on in their goal of improving the student experience.
    Keywords: Higher Education; service quality; student satisfaction; student satisfaction models
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2017–07–01
  2. By: Sean P. Corcoran; Jennifer L. Jennings; Sarah R. Cohodes; Carolyn Sattin-Bajaj
    Abstract: We conducted a field experiment in 165 high-poverty New York City middle schools to help students navigate a complex high school choice process and access higher-performing schools. Students in treatment schools were given a customized one-page list of proximate high schools with a graduation rate at or above the city median (70%). Some also received a supplemental list highlighting academically non-selective schools or high schools organized by academic interest area. The interventions changed student application behavior in ways that led to more matches to higher-performing schools. While treatment students did not apply to higher graduation rate schools, they applied to schools where their odds of admission were higher, were more likely to receive their first-choice high school, and were less likely to match to a school with a low graduation rate. Our findings also suggest that informational interventions may not reduce inequality, since both disadvantaged and comparatively advantaged students used our materials, and in some cases the latter benefited more from them by applying and matching to more schools on our lists. Students in non-English speaking households, who were particularly responsive to the intervention and were much less likely to match to a low-performing school, were one notable exception to this pattern.
    JEL: D83 I21 I24
    Date: 2018–03
  3. By: Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Hammer, Jeffrey S.
    Abstract: Using a cohort approach, this paper examines educational attainment in Ghana and its potential determinants considering both educational attainment in the formal education system and participation in non-formal education in the form of adult literacy programs. The results indicate an overall substitution between formal and non-formal education across the generations, with participation in adult literacy programs decreasing as the formal education system expanded its coverage across space and time in Ghana. Individuals who completed any formal education were also much less likely to participate in adult literacy programs, by about 10 percentagepoints per year of formal education completed. Additionally, the generations subject to the declining education system during the 1970s were substantially disadvantaged, with the cohort that was roughly of primary school age at the time of the economic breakdown in 1983 and the first few years thereafter being the last of the disadvantaged cohorts—the “lost generations.” This is especially true for the particularly vulnerable group of individuals who never received any formal education, where the crisis cohort peaked in terms of adult literacy program participation relative to later (and earlier) cohorts, possibly in response to a decrease in the quality of the formal education system as well as increased competition from returning refugees. We perform a simple test for the declining quality of the formal education system in the 1970s and find evidence consistent with a decrease in the quality in the education system during the 1970s, followed by an increase in quality thereafter.
    Keywords: Human capital,formal and non-formal education,adult literacy programs,cohort analysis,Ghana
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Philip J. Cook; Songman Kang
    Abstract: Since, other things equal, older children do better in school, the extent and pattern of delayed entry affects observed patterns in academic performance. This paper provides three new sets of relevant findings, utilizing comprehensive data on birth cohorts of children who enrolled in first grade in North Carolina public schools.: (1) Delayed entry (redshirting) reduces the male-female achievement gap by 11%; (2) For each of 6 groups defined by sex and race/ethnicity, the likelihood of redshirting is strongly inversely related to academic ability; and (3) A recent shift in the cut date to earlier in the calendar year reduced redshirting, and provided clear evidence that parental decisions are tied to the absolute age of the child rather than age relative to classmates. The adaptation of redshirting to changes in the cut date is an important mechanism by which such changes affect patterns in academic outcomes.
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2018–04
  5. By: Margaretha Buurman (VU Amsterdam, Netherlands); Josse (J.) Delfgaauw (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Robert (A.J.) Dur (Erasmus University Rotterdam, CESifo, IZA); Robin Zoutenbier (Ministry of Finance, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: We conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of student feedback to teachers at a large Dutch school for intermediate vocational education. Students evaluated all teachers, but only a randomly selected group of teachers received feedback. Additionally, we asked all teachers before as well as after the experiment to assess their own performance on the same items. We find a precisely estimated zero average treatment effect of receiving feedback on student evaluation scores a year later. Only those teachers whose self-assessment before the experiment is much more positive than their students' evaluations improve significantly in response to receiving feedback. We also find that provision of feedback reduces the gap between teachers' self-assessment and students' assessment, but only to a limited extent. All of these results are driven by the female teachers in our sample; male teachers turn out to be unresponsive to student feedback.
    Keywords: field experiment; feedback; teachers; student evaluations; gender differences
    JEL: C93 I2 M5
    Date: 2018–04–25
  6. By: Igna, Ioana A. (Department of Economics, University of Perugia)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the influence on inventor productivity of the imperfect occupational match, measured as the number of years of education in excess and in deficit to the required level (educational mismatch). The empirical model draws on a unique database that matches information about individual inventor characteristics, such as age, experience and gender, with patenting performance in Sweden over the period 2003-2010. The results suggest that over-educated (OE) inventors file a number of patents higher than inventors who are appropriately matched (RE), but perform poorly than well-matched inventors who hold a similar level of education. Conversely, under-educated (UE) inventors file a total number of patents lower than inventors who are well-matched (RE), but more than well-matched ones who hold the same level of education. These results conform to the hierarchical pattern of ORU model, well-documented in the literature relating the employees’ wages to educational mismatch (i.e. RE>OE>UE). We find that significant differences in returns to education across match and mismatch categories remain even after controlling for individual ability. Our findings are robust to controlling for differences between younger and older inventors, geographical areas and industry of work.
    Keywords: Inventor; Productivity; Educational mismatch; Patent
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2018–04–27
  7. By: Aleksandra Kolasa (University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: Soon after the start of the transition to market economy in the early 1990s, Poland has experienced both a dramatic decline in the fertility rate and an increase in the share of students among young high-school graduates. These two processes significantly changed the age structure of the population and average income characteristics of households. Using a general equilibrium model with heterogeneous households and uninsured income shocks I try to assess the impact of these demographic and educational changes on the Polish economic performance and inequalities. I find that in the long term the positive effects of educational transition on output per capita more than offset the negative impact of lower fertility, but the outcome strongly depends on the adjustments in the structure of labor demand. I also show that the educational transition increases income and consumption inequalities, while the demographic transition decreases inequality in assets.
    Keywords: population aging, educational transition, inequalities, models with heterogeneous agents
    JEL: J11 D31 I24 D58 J26
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Anne Ardila Brenøe; Ulf Zölitz
    Abstract: This paper investigates how high school gender composition affects students’ participation in STEM college studies. Using Danish administrative data, we exploit idiosyncratic within-school variation in gender composition. We find that having a larger proportion of female peers reduces women’s probability of enrolling in and graduating from STEM programs. Men’s STEM participation increases with more female peers present. In the long run, women exposed to more female peers earn less because they (1) are less likely to work in STEM occupations, and (2) have more children. Our findings show that the school peer environment has lasting effects on occupational sorting and the gender wage gap.
    Keywords: Gender, peer effects, STEM studies
    JEL: I21 J16 J31
    Date: 2018–04
  9. By: Eiji Koazuka
    Abstract: Providing local communities with authority to manage school resources is a popular education policy in the developing world. However, recent studies suggest that this type of intervention has limited impact on student learning outcomes. To investigate how communities can effectively utilize school resources, we conducted a randomized experiment in Niger by providing school grants and training for school committees to increase communities’ awareness of student learning and improve resource management. The result shows that, when the training was conducted with grant provision, communities increased activities that enhanced student effort, and student test scores in math and French remarkably improved, particularly for low-performing children. As a secondary effect of the training, parents, who have realized their children are not learning the basics at school, increased their contribution to school committees and their support for children’s home study. These results suggest that sharing information and knowledge with communities and raising their awareness is a key to enhancing effectiveness of community participation and school grants policy.
    Keywords: Education, Decentralization, Accountability, Field experiments
    Date: 2018–03
  10. By: Elise S. Brezis (Bar-Ilan University); Gilad Brand
    Abstract: Over the last decades, productivity in the tradable sector rose substantially, while in the non-tradable sector, output per worker has remained the same, despite a similar increase in human capital in both sectors. This paper emphasizes that duality in higher education as well as heterogeneous ability of individuals can explain the differences in labor productivity between tradable and non-tradable industries. The duality in the higher-education sector enables a separation of individuals by their ability, and in consequence, human capital in both industries is different. The heterogeneity in human capital can explain that despite an increase in human capital in both sectors, there is still a gap in productivity. In other words, the productivity gap between tradable and non-tradable sectors is fueled by the duality in higher education, leading to heterogeneity in human capital. In consequence, there is a contrast between on one hand, more mobility across countries, and on the other hand, less mobility between sectors.
    Keywords: ability, skills, productivity, tradable goods, services, duality, higher education, human capital, wage premium.
    JEL: F12 F16 J24 O14
    Date: 2017–10
  11. By: Clemencia Cosentino; Swetha Sridharan
    Abstract: Enhancing teacher quality is a high priority for the Partnership to Strengthen Innovation and Practice in Secondary Education (PSIPSE)—a collaborative of donors seeking to catalyze improvements in secondary education.
    Keywords: PSIPSE, Secondary Education, Africa, international, teacher quality, practitioners
    JEL: F Z
  12. By: Entorf, Horst; Hou, Jia
    Abstract: In contrast to the popularity of financial education interventions worldwide, studies on the economic effects of those interventions report mixed results. With a focus on the effect on disadvantaged groups, we review both the theoretical and empirical findings in order to understand why this discrepancy exists. The survey first highlights that it is necessary to distinguish between the concepts of, and the relationships between, financial education, financial literacy and financial behavior to identify the true effects of financial education. The review addresses possible biases caused by third factors such as numeracy. Next, we review theories on financial literacy which make clear that the effect of financial education interventions is heterogeneous across the population. Last, we look closely at main empirical studies on financial education targeted at the migrants/immigrants, the low-income earners and the young, and compare their methodologies. There seems to be a positive effect on short-term financial knowledge and awareness of the young, but there is no proven evidence on long-term behavior after being grown up. Studies on financial behavior of migrants and immigrants show almost no effect of financial education.
    Keywords: Financial Education,Financial Literacy,Inequality,Program Evaluation
    JEL: G28 I24 I25 I28
    Date: 2018
  13. By: Ronald Beckers; Jasper Driessen
    Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to explore the alignment of Corporate Real Estate (CRE) strategies of Dutch Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) with the developments in higher education.Methodology/approach – The paper first illustrates the key developments in higher education learning and teaching, and relevant CRE management literature. Subsequently, it presents two studies that examine the CRE strategies of large Dutch UAS, to align their CRE with current and potential future developments. These are explored based on interviews and scenario analysis with experts in the field of higher education and CRE management.Findings – The findings of the two studies show that CRE in the short term is well aligned with recent and current developments in higher education. Yet, in the long term, CRE-managers in general doubt the probability of some developed scenarios and are not sufficiently prepared for disruptive developments due to inflexibility of the CRE portfolio.Originality/value –There is still limited understanding of how to optimally align school buildings to education. Furthermore, the future is unclear. The two studies in this paper contribute to insights about strategies of CRE-managers in the education sector to translate current and assumed developments into future proof accommodations. The presented frameworks and the scenario approach are applicable in other sectors as well
    Keywords: Alignment; Corporate real estate management; Higher Education; Scenarios; Strategies
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2017–07–01
  14. By: Deal, Cristopher; Stone, Joe A.
    Abstract: Employment of teacher aides in U. S. public schools increased roughly six-fold since 1969. Yet randomized studies of aides find predominantly negative effects on student achievement. This study of public elementary schools in Oregon explores the role of teacher experience in the effectiveness of aides and finds a strong complementarity between aides and teacher experience. The complementarity explains two results of prior studies: negative effects for aides and positive effects primarily for early years of teacher experience. Without complementarity, the effect of aides is negative; with it, the effect is positive for schools with experienced teachers and negative only for schools with inexperienced teachers. Similarly, without complementarity, the effect of experience is negative; with it, the effect is positive for schools that use aides intensively and negative only for schools that do not. The study exploits the longitudinal, hierarchical structure of the Oregon data to estimate a hierarchical linear model with controls for both observed and unobserved influences on individual student achievement. A series of alternative specifications, including a nullification test of causality based on prior test scores suggest robustness for the estimates. Results of the study suggest that prior evidence for the effectiveness of aides is too pessimistic in the context of experienced teachers and that prior evidence for the effectiveness of teacher experience is too pessimistic in the context of schools that use aides intensively. The results also suggest that experienced teachers have expertise important to effective supervision of aides, particularly in schools where teachers are relatively inexperienced and aides are prevalent. Hence, attempts to address problems of large class sizes by adding aides are more likely to be effective in schools with experienced teachers.
    Keywords: teacher aides student achievement teacher experience schools
    JEL: H00 I00 I21 J00
    Date: 2017–08–23
  15. By: Ghazala Azmat (Département d'économie); Marc Möller (University of Bern)
    Abstract: Do the contests with the largest prizes attract the most able contestants? To what extent do contestants avoid competition? We show that the distribution of abilities is crucial in determining contest choice. Complete sorting exists only when the proportion of high-ability contestants is small. As this proportion increases, high-ability contestants shy away from competition and sorting decreases, making reverse sorting a possibility. We test our theoretical predictions with a large panel data set containing contest choice over 20 years. We use exogenous variation in the participation of highly able competitors to provide evidence for the relationship among prizes, competition and sorting.
    Date: 2018–03
  16. By: Warman, Casey; Webb, Matthew D.; Worswick, Christopher
    Abstract: Immigrants in many Western countries have experienced poor economic outcomes. This has led to a lack of integration of child immigrants (the 1.5 generation) and the second generation in some countries. However, in Canada, child immigrants and the second generation have on average integrated very well economically. We examine the importance of Canada's admission classes to determine if there is an earnings benefit of the selection under the Economic Classes to: 1) the Adult Arrival immigrants and 2) the Child Arrival immigrants (1.5 generation) once old enough to enter the labour market. We employ unique administrative data on landing records matched with subsequent income tax records that also allows for the linking of the records of Adult Arrival parents and their Child Arrival children. We find, relative to the Family Class, the Adult Arrivals in the Skilled Worker category have earnings that are 29% higher for men and 38% higher for women. These differences persist even after controlling for detailed personal characteristics such as education and language fluency at 21% for men and 27% for women. Child Arrival immigrants landing in the Skilled Worker Class have earnings advantages (as adults) over their Family Class counterparts of 17% for men and 21% for women. These Child Arrival Skilled Worker advantages remain at 9% for men and 14% for women after controlling for child characteristics, the Principal Applicant parent's characteristics and the parent's subsequent income in Canada.
    Keywords: Canada,Immigration,Earnings,1.5 generation,Second generation,Child immigrants,Integration,Points System,Skilled Workers,Economic Class
    JEL: J15 J13 J31 J61 J62
    Date: 2018

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