nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2018‒04‒23
27 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Long-Term Effects of Childhood Nutrition: Evidence from a School Lunch Reform By Alex-Petersen, Jesper; Lundborg, Petter; Rooth, Dan-Olof
  2. University Quotas and Peers’ Achievement By Soledad Giardili;
  3. The Economics of University Dropouts and Delayed Graduation: A Survey By Aina, Carmen; Baici, Eliana; Casalone, Giorgia; Pastore, Francesco
  4. The Impact of Compulsory Education on Employment and Earnings in a Transition Economy By Liwiński, Jacek
  5. Interdisciplinary learning in real estate education: the case of the urban redevelopment game By Yawei Chen; Tom Daamen; Erwin Heurkens; Fred Hobma; Wouter Jan Verheul
  6. Policy proposal to Reduce Skilled Unemployment in Morocco using Public- Private Partnerships (PPPs): 3R-PPP – Retrain-Rebalance-Reduce-PPP By Thomas AWAZU PEREIRA DA SILVA
  7. Estimating the Effects of a Large For-Profit Charter School Operator By Susan Dynarski; Daniel Hubbard; Brian Jacob; Silvia Robles
  8. Parental occupation and children's school outcomes in math By Gianna Claudia Giannelli; Chiara Rapallini
  9. A Distributional Analysis of Upper Secondary School Performance By John Cullinan; Kevin Denny; Darragh Flannery
  10. The impact of mining patents on public education: evidence for mining municipalities in Chile By Mauricio Alejandro Oyarzo Aguilar; Dusan Paredes Araya
  11. How is depression related to education? By OECD
  12. Do paid teacher trainee programs lead to additional teachers in secondary education? A Regression Discontinuity Analysis By Anja Deelen; Sonny Kuijpers
  13. Government education expenditures, pre-primary education and school performance: A cross-country analysis By Daniela Del Boca; Chiara Monfardini; Sarah Grace See
  14. Gender gaps in different grading systems By Catarina Ângelo; Ana Balcão Reis
  15. Estimated Costs of Contact in College and High School Male Sports By Ray C. Fair; Christopher Champa
  17. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood By Eva Rye Johansen; Helena Skyt Nielsen; Mette Verner
  18. How does Graduate Education Affect Inventive Performance? Evidence from undergraduates' choices during recessions By ONISHI Koichiro; NAGAOKA Sadao
  19. The Returns to Schooling Unveiled By Cardoso, Ana Rute; Guimaraes, Paulo; Portugal, Pedro; Reis, Hugo
  20. Connecting Professional Development to the Curricula: Insights from the Center for Civic Education By Center for Civic Education; Jeff Archer; Jeffrey Max
  21. The Impact of Democracy Prep Public Schools on Civic Participation By Brian Gill; Charles Tilley; Emilyn Whitesell; Mariel Finucane; Liz Potamites; Sean Corcoran
  22. The Educational Burden of ADHD: Evidence From Student Achievement Test Scores By C. Dannemann; Erkan Goeren
  23. The management game as didactic approach for design teaching; on how students and staff evaluate design skills development By Peter de Jong; Louis Lousberg; John Heintz
  24. The Language of the Republic at School: Who Decides? By Szymon Jankiewicz; Nadezhda Knyaginina
  25. Reflections on the US College Loans System: Lessons from Australia and England By Barr, Nicholas; Chapman, Bruce; Dearden, Lorraine; Dynarski, Susan
  26. A lost generation? The early career effects of graduating during a recession By Wiljan van den Berge; Arne Brouwers
  27. Preferences for Public Education Spending in Hierarchical Education Systems: Theory and Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries By Debora Di Gioacchino; Laura Sabani; Simone Tedeschi

  1. By: Alex-Petersen, Jesper (Lund University); Lundborg, Petter (Lund University and IZA); Rooth, Dan-Olof (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: We examine the long-term impact of a policy that introduced free and nutritious school lunches in Swedish primary schools. For this purpose, we use historical data on the gradual implementation of the policy across municipalities and employ a difference-in-differences design to estimate the impact of this lunch policy on a broad range of medium and longterm outcomes, including lifetime income, health, cognitive skills, and education. Our results show that the school lunch program generated substantial long-term benefits, where pupils exposed to the program during their entire primary school period have 3 percent greater life-time earnings. In addition, we find the effect to be greater for pupils that were exposed at earlier ages and for pupils from poor households. Finally, exposure to the school lunch program had substantial effects on educational attainment and health and these effects can explain a large part of the return to school lunches.
    Keywords: nutrition; early life; childhood; long-term; income; causal
    JEL: I12 I38 J24
    Date: 2018–04–09
  2. By: Soledad Giardili (Queen Mary University of London);
    Abstract: higher education institutions to implement a 50 percent admission quota for historically disadvantaged students. I study the implications of this regulation on the academic performance of non-targeted students. Identification rests on the use of pre-law crosswise variation in specially admitted student representation to instrument for exogenous changes in the student body composition afterward. Increased enrollment of targeted students due to the affirmative action caused an increase in the variance of academic ability within university programs. However, I find no evidence that quota-students affect the dropout of non-quota students.
    Keywords: Education, Affirmative Action, College Admission
    JEL: I23 I28 J15
    Date: 2018–02–28
  3. By: Aina, Carmen (University of Piemonte Orientale); Baici, Eliana (University of Piemonte Orientale); Casalone, Giorgia (University of Piemonte Orientale); Pastore, Francesco (Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli)
    Abstract: This survey organizes and discusses the theoretical and empirical literature on the determinants of university student achievements. According to the theoretical framework, the decision to invest in tertiary education is a sequential process made under gradually decreasing levels of uncertainty on education costs and future returns. Students, applying a learning by doing approach, update their information set each academic year and revise benefits and costs associated to tertiary education. Accordingly, they decide whether to continue university studies in order to get a degree or to withdraw. This university decisional process is discussed by clustering the determinants of university outcomes into four main categories - students' characteristics, abilities and behavior; parental background and family networks; characteristics of the tertiary education system and its institutions; labor market performance - which are drawn from the empirical evidence. The policy advice resulting from the encompassing analysis is to provide an all-inclusive orientation activity for students, before they enroll at university. A complete understanding of the potential costs and benefits of this human capital investment can in fact reduce the risk of early withdrawal or delayed graduation.
    Keywords: university dropout, time-to-degree, tertiary education, human capital theory
    JEL: H52 I21 I22 I23 J13 J24
    Date: 2018–03
  4. By: Liwiński, Jacek
    Abstract: In 1966 the minimum school-leaving age was increased from 14 to 15 years in Poland. This was a result of extending the primary school education from 7 to 8 years. At the same time, the reform did not affect the education system at post-primary levels, that is the system of secondary and higher education. In result, all education tracks were extended by one year. Using the regression discontinuity design and data from the Polish LFS (2001-2005), we find that the reform had no impact on men's and women's hourly earnings and employment rate. A similar finding was reported earlier for a few Western European countries. However, our study is the first one to estimate the impact of the compulsory schooling extended in a centrally planned economy on the individuals' labour market outcomes in the period of economic transition. Besides, we find that the reform had a negative impact on the hourly earnings of individuals with primary education.
    Keywords: education,schooling,earnings,regression discontinuity design
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Yawei Chen; Tom Daamen; Erwin Heurkens; Fred Hobma; Wouter Jan Verheul
    Abstract: Fundamental changes in economy, demography, technology, climate and society create tremendous challenges for practitioners involved in the shaping the built environment. Politicians, planners, real estate professionals, engineers, architects and others need to anticipate diverse transitions and increasing uncertainty associated with urban development processes. Many of the problems faced in cities today do not neatly follow the disciplinary boundaries of our academies or professions. To solve these so-called wicked problem, professionals often require diversified knowledge to understand the different dimensions of urban problems and their potential solutions. However, traditional education programs on real estate and urban development are usually developed from a specific disciplinary viewpoint and intent to train students to specialise in one discipline. They often pay limited attention to help students develop skills and the capacity to integrate and synthesize knowledge and identify appropriate courses of action. Interdisciplinary education programmes are proposed to be an appropriate solution that makes connections and integrate knowledge across fields of expertise and handle managerial uncertainty.This research examines how interdisciplinary education is organised within programme the Urban Redevelopment Game course as part of the Management in the Built Environment master curriculum (Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology). The research aims to answer: To what extent does the urban redevelopment game course enable students to have an interdisciplinary learning experience? Based on course evaluations and discussions it was found that the course : attempts to imitate the reality and complexity of urban development processes; emphasise the experience of negotiations bringing awareness of various actor interests and disciplines involved; and connects theory with practice by applying theoretical concepts to an empirical study location. Through the form of role simulation, students not only acquire in-depth knowledge, but also receive mentorship to integrate and synthesize knowledge from different discipline.What is also interesting to highlight the use of competition between teams and in roles greatly enhances students’ motivation and efforts. It is argued that the didactical lessons learned from this course on interdisciplinary learning might be of interest for real estate education courses and further improvements.
    Keywords: Interdisciplinary learning; Real Estate Education; role simulation; TU Delft; urban %28re%29development game
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2017–07–01
    Abstract: This proposal seeks to contribute to reduce, in a cost-effective way, Morocco’s unusually high, persistent and growing unemployment level for university graduates1. It complements and enhances the existing Université Internationale de Rabat (UIR) Public-Private Partnership (PPP). Tertiary enrolment in Morocco has been increasing above what seems to be labor market absorptive capacity. Over the past decade, the share of the unemployed with university degrees as a percentage of total unemployment climbed from 16% in 2001 to 22.4% in 2015. In particular, the skill composition of students exiting the tertiary education system seems to create a skill mismatch (or a “skill gap”) vis-à-vis labor demand. Many policy reports and recent research have blamed the lack of adequate skills among university graduates in Morocco. The existing UIR-PPP seeks to address these issues since 2012 by offering student access to a more technical curriculum. We propose to enhance it further by providing a more rigorous screening mechanism, reducing its costs and increasing its effectiveness. We also provide a simulation that measures its contribution to the reduction of the rate of skilled unemployment in Morocco under a set of assumptions, thus allowing policy-makers to assess how efficient the use of public financing in high education PPPs has been.
    Date: 2018–03
  7. By: Susan Dynarski; Daniel Hubbard; Brian Jacob; Silvia Robles
    Abstract: In this paper, we leverage randomized admissions lotteries to estimate the impact of attending a National Heritage Academy (NHA) charter school. NHA is the fourth largest forprofit charter operator in the country, enrolling more than 56,000 students in 86 schools across 9 states. Unlike several of the other large for-profit companies that operate virtual charters, NHA only has standard bricks-and-mortar schools. Our estimates indicate that attending a NHA charter school for one additional year is associated with a 0.04 standard deviation increase in math achievement. Effects on other outcomes are smaller and not statistically significant. In contrast to most prior charter school research which find the largest benefits for low-income, underrepresented minorities in urban areas, the benefits of attending an NHA charter network are concentrated among non-poor students attending charter schools outside urban areas. Using data from a survey of school administrators in traditional public and charter schools, we document several aspects of school organization, culture and instructional practice that might explain these positive effects.
    JEL: I0 I21 J0
    Date: 2018–03
  8. By: Gianna Claudia Giannelli; Chiara Rapallini
    Abstract: We find a positive relationship between math attitude and students' math scores using data obtained from PISA 2012 and a 2SLS model. Math attitude is approximated by three subjective measures: parental attitude and student instrumental motivation, which assess beliefs about math importance for the job market, and student math anxiety. The presence of one family member in a math-related career is our instrumental variable. Regardless of the proxy that is used for math attitude, an increase of one standard deviation increases the student score by at least 40 points, the equivalent of one year of schooling.
    Keywords: arental attitude toward math, Student instrumental motivation, Math anxiety, Math-related career, Math scores.
    JEL: I21 J13 J24
    Date: 2018
  9. By: John Cullinan (National University of Ireland, Galway); Kevin Denny (University College Dublin); Darragh Flannery (University of Limerick)
    Abstract: We examine the relationship between the distribution of upper secondary school performance and a range of individual and school level characteristics using unconditional quantile regression methods and data from Ireland. We find that determinants such as social class, maternal unemployment, extra private tuition, and working part-time have differential effects for low and high ability students and that important insights are lost by focusing on the conditional mean. The implication is that while certain factors can impact on whether or not a student is likely to proceed to higher education, other factors may affect where students go and what they study.
    Keywords: Secondary school performance; Distribution; Unconditional quantile regression; Ireland
    JEL: I20 I21 J00 J01
    Date: 2018–12–04
  10. By: Mauricio Alejandro Oyarzo Aguilar (Departamento de Economía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile); Dusan Paredes Araya (Departamento de Economía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile)
    Abstract: Chilean mining municipalities collect a mineral tax to compensate the negative externalities associated with resource extraction. This collection implies a positive marginal impact on local finance to improve the quality of life in the mining communities. However, there is not enough empirical evidence to support this causal mechanism. This article contributes to cover this knowledge gap with a unique experimental framework proposed by the Chilean tax system. Mining law indicates that municipalities above an exogenous threshold are able to keep this extra income. We use this Regression Discontinuity Design to identify the causal effect in public education indicators of the mining communities. Our results show that the mining municipalities these have a worse educational performance. In addition, the levels of spending in public education are not significant, which accounts for the disadvantaged position in relation to the high dependence on extractive activities.
    Keywords: Public education, Mining patents, Local governments.
    JEL: H20 H40 H70 H32 I25
    Date: 2017–08
  11. By: OECD
    Abstract: People with higher levels of education report less prevalence of depression in all OECD countries with data. A greater share of women than men report suffering from depression, but the share decreases more steeply for women than for men as educational attainment increases.Employment is associated with a lower share of self-reported depression, especially among low-educated adults. Given that mental illness has its onset in childhood or adolescence, these findings highlight the important role education systems play in ensuring students complete their education and successfully transition into the workplace.
    Date: 2018–04–20
  12. By: Anja Deelen (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Sonny Kuijpers (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the quantitative effects of two teacher traineeships that were implemented in the Netherlands to address shortages of fully qualified teachers in secondary education. Applying a fuzzy regression discontinuity design, we estimate the effects of being selected to participate in one of the traineeships. We find no significant local average treatment effects of being selected on the probabilities of enrolling into academic teacher training, obtaining a full teaching qualification, and on working in education, although the point estimates are positive for the first two outcome variables. The lack of significant results may partially be due to our small sample size. However, t he specific design of the traineeship programs, that required candidates to find a school by themselves, may also contribute to these findings.
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2018–02
  13. By: Daniela Del Boca (University of Turin and Collegio Carlo Alberto); Chiara Monfardini (University of Bologna); Sarah Grace See (University of York)
    Abstract: Using data from OECD’s PISA, Eurostat and World Bank’s WDI, we explore how child cognitive outcomes at the aggregate country level are related to macroeconomic conditions, specifically government education expenditures and early education experience. We find that both government expenditures in education and attendance to early child care are associated with better later school performance. We also consider different childcare characteristics such as duration and quality, which appear to have significant effects Our results may imply that policies encouraging childcare expansion should also take into account quality issues.
    Keywords: early childcare and education, school performance, test scores, early childhood education
    JEL: H52 J24
    Date: 2018–04
  14. By: Catarina Ângelo; Ana Balcão Reis
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of grading practices on the gender gap in student achievement. We examine the gender difference in the difference between teacher grading and scores on national exams to test whether there are gender differences associated with different grading systems. We use Portuguese data on 21 subjects across humanities and sciences for the whole population of students taking exams at the end of the 6th, 9th, 11th and 12th grades from 2007 to 2016. Results show that the difference in scores between teacher grading and exams is on average positive for boys and girls, but higher for the latter. This is verified across the whole distribution of exam scores. Thus, our results indicate that a grading system based on exams favors boys while one based on classroom evaluation favors girls.JEL codes: I21, I24,J16
    Keywords: student achievement; grading practices; gender gap
    Date: 2018
  15. By: Ray C. Fair (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Christopher Champa (Yale University)
    Abstract: Injury rates in twelve U.S. men’s college sports and five U.S. boys’ high school sports are examined in this paper. The sports are categorized as “contact” or “non-contact,” and differences in injury rates between the two are examined. Injury rates in the contact sports are considerably higher than those in the non-contact sports and they are on average more severe. Estimates are presented of the injury savings that would result if the contact sports were changed to have injury rates similar to those in the non-contact sports. The estimated college savings are 49,600 fewer injuries per year and 6,000 fewer years lost-to-injury per year. The estimated high school savings are 601,900 fewer injuries per year and 96,000 fewer years lost-to-injury per year. For concussions the savings are 6,900 per year for college and 161,400 per year for high school. The estimated dollar value (in 2015 dollars) of the total injury savings is between $446 million and $1.5 billion per year for college and between $5.4 billion and $19.2 billion per year for high school. Section 11 speculates on how the contact sports might be changed to have their injury rates be similar to those in the non-contact sports.
    Keywords: Sports injuries, Collegiate sports
    JEL: I18 I20
    Date: 2017–08
  16. By: Ricardo Martínez (Universidad de Granada.); Antonio Villar (Universidad Pablo de Olavide e IVIE.)
    Abstract: We propose in this paper a general framework for evaluation problems in which the outcome range of the variable can be partitioned into a series of levels that may have different meaning or importance, as they may represent qualitatively different results. Measures of poverty, excellence, inclusion or overall performance indicators are particular cases of this type of problems. We focus on the case of additive functions, to facilitate the discussion. This framework is applied to the analysis of educational poverty, excellence and overall performance of 15-year old students, according to the PISA 2015 data for all 68 participating countries and large economies. The analysis provides insights on the differences between countries that are not captured by the average test scores.
    Keywords: social evaluation, multilevel indicators, education, poverty, excellence, PISA.
    JEL: H7 I2 I3 J1
    Date: 2018–04
  17. By: Eva Rye Johansen (Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, Denmark); Helena Skyt Nielsen (Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, Denmark); Mette Verner (VIVE (The Danish Centre of Applied Social Science))
    Abstract: Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood. The analysis is based on Danish men and women born between 1968 and 1977, from whom we identify brothers and sisters, respectively. We find that early parenthood reduces educational attainment and employment, and that the relationship is only slightly weaker for men than for women. One exception is earnings (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than individuals with a less favorable background. We interpret this as evidence of higher opportunity costs or stigma.
    Keywords: Teenage childbearing, long-term outcomes, heterogeneous effects
    JEL: I21 J13 J24
    Date: 2018–04–09
  18. By: ONISHI Koichiro; NAGAOKA Sadao
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of graduate education on inventive performance, as well as the underlying mechanisms, using inventor life-cycle data to focus on the factors affecting the capability of an inventor to absorb and combine diverse external knowledge. In order to control for endogeneity in the choice of graduate education, we use as an instrument the unemployment rate of college graduates in the year preceding the graduation of the focal inventor, as well as in the academic field in which the inventor is specialized. Our first-stage estimation results show that a college student who graduates under adverse labor market conditions chooses much more frequently to pursue a graduate degree. This instrument is also likely to satisfy the exclusion restriction, since our dependent variables are long-run inventor activities. We find that graduate education induced by this instrument significantly enhances inventive performance, as measured by the level and scope of forward citations and the number of patent applications. It also significantly enhances the scope of knowledge exploited for inventive processes, both in the use of scientific knowledge as well as in the scope of knowledge cited in the prior patent literature.
    Date: 2018–03
  19. By: Cardoso, Ana Rute (IAE Barcelona (CSIC)); Guimaraes, Paulo (Banco de Portugal); Portugal, Pedro (Banco de Portugal); Reis, Hugo (Banco de Portugal)
    Abstract: We bring together the strands of literature on the returns to education, its spillovers, and the role of the employer shaping the wage distribution. The aim is to analyze the labor market returns to education taking into account who the worker is (worker unobserved ability), what he does (the job title), with whom (the coworkers) and, also crucially, for whom (the employer). We combine data of remarkable quality – exhaustive longitudinal linked employer-employee data on Portugal – with innovative empirical methods, to address the homophily or reflection problem, selection issues, and common measurement errors and confounding factors. Our methodology combines the estimation of wage regressions in the spirit of Abowd, Kramarz, and Margolis (1999), Gelbach's (2016) unambiguous conditional decomposition of the impact of various omitted covariates on an estimated coefficient, and Arcidiacono et al.'s (2012) procedure to identify the impact of peer quality. We first uncover that peer effects are quite sizeable. A one standard deviation increase in the measure of peer quality leads to a wage increase of 2.1 log points. Next, we show that education grants access to better-paying firms and job titles: one fourth of the overall return to education operates through the firm channel and a third operates through the job-title channel, while the remainder is associated exclusively with the individual worker. Finally, we unveil that an additional year of average education of coworkers yields a 0.5 log points increase in a worker's wage, after we net out a 2.0 log points return due to homophily (similarity of own and peers' characteristics), and 3.3 log points associated with worker sorting across firms and job titles.
    Keywords: wage distribution, human capital spillovers, returns to education, peer effects, linked employer-employee data, high-dimensional fixed effects, firm, job title
    JEL: J31 J24
    Date: 2018–03
  20. By: Center for Civic Education; Jeff Archer; Jeffrey Max
    Abstract: Amid recent calls for improvements in professional development, a frequent refrain is that teachers need more training geared specifically to the curricula they teach.
    Keywords: professional development, curricula, Center for Civic Education
    JEL: I
  21. By: Brian Gill; Charles Tilley; Emilyn Whitesell; Mariel Finucane; Liz Potamites; Sean Corcoran
    Abstract: Using randomized admissions lotteries to conduct an experimental analysis, we find that the Democracy Prep charter-school network produces substantial positive impacts on rates of voter registration and election participation after students become old enough to vote.
    Keywords: school choice, charter schools, voter participation, voter registration, civic education
    JEL: I
  22. By: C. Dannemann (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics); Erkan Goeren (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper hypothesizes and empirically establishes the educational burden of the ADHD-related behavioral symptoms inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity on aggregate cognitive achievement outcomes. We use a novel compilation of the 2- and 7-repeat allele variants of the human DRD4 exon III gene that candidate gene association studies have identified as an important biomarker in the etiology of childhood ADHD. The main results show a negative and statistically significant association between aggregate international student achievement test scores and the DRD4 exon III 2- and 7-repeat allele frequency measure in a cross-section of 81 countries. This finding is robust to the inclusion of additional country-specific historical, cultural, socioeconomic, biogeographic, health-related, educational, genetic, and diversity factors. Additional estimates suggest the predictive power of the country-level DRD4 exon III 2- and 7-repeat allele frequency measure on cross-country differences of estimated ADHD prevalence rates, confirming the reliability of the proposed biomarker for the measurement of ADHD-related behavioral symptoms in the general population.
    Keywords: Human Capital, Cognitive Ability, Cognitive Skills, International Student Achievement Tests, Education Production Function, ADHD, DRD4 Exon III, Genetic Diversity
    Date: 2018–04
  23. By: Peter de Jong; Louis Lousberg; John Heintz
    Abstract: The challenges facing project managers and real estate practitioners are increasingly characterised by their high degree of complexity, involving unexpected, uncertain, unstable or unique situations. Sustainable projects increase this complexity due to the need to integrate an even wider range of criteria and stakeholders. It is therefore necessary that students are trained to deal with these problems. For many years these skills are taught through The Management Game. Groups of students are assigned complex problems which require a multi-disciplinary design approach. The Game has evolved through time, and is now taught in different forms at both BSc and Master’s levels. The intention is to provide students with an opportunity to apply design thinking and managerial knowledge to contemporary complex urban problems, and to learn from their own experience in dealing with them. This paper re-establishes theoretical foundations for the game in contemporary theories of design, reflection and learning.A conceptual framework is developed to explicate the design process. The 5 contributing elements are distinguished:generic elements in the design process,concepts of reflection-in-action,design-thinkingmanaging as designingpolicy gamingThe management game not only bridges design and built environment management education, but also exemplifies the advantage teaching built environment management in an architectural context. Students learn to develop solutions for the contemporary complex challenges facing obsolescent and unsustainable urban areas, for which a proper understandings of building design and the market are essential.The education of managers of building projects should focus in increasing the effectiveness of individual actors within the broader social context. This focus on personal awareness, design, performance and reflection makes the approach ideal for the education of students and professionals. By focusing on the higher level actions we avoid losing ourselves in chasing the ever changing body of management tools and techniques which will face anyone in the field, and concentrate on those cognitive and social skills that will be required for making sustainability in building projects possible.The Management Game is a highly valued element in our curriculum. By making this design approach more explicit, and providing a contemporary theoretical framework, we intend to make the course more valuable to the academic community at large.
    Keywords: Design school; Design-thinking; Policy gaming; Real Estate Education; Reflection-in-action
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2017–07–01
  24. By: Szymon Jankiewicz (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Nadezhda Knyaginina (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: After inspections by Public Prosecutor’s Office in 2017, the question of lawfulness of compulsory learning of republican languages at school received widespread ñoverage. This article addresses the question of whether Russian republics have the right to establish a duty to learn the state language of the republic in schools. The right of republics to establish their own state language, stipulated by the provisions of the Russian Constitution, federal legislation, and the national-territorial principle of the formation of republics in Russia, presupposes the republic’s ability to establish the compulsory study of its language in the state and municipal schools on its territory. Since 2007, this right has been formally blocked by the Federal State Educational Standards (FSES) approved by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science. The de facto prohibition of compulsory language learning significantly limits the republics in the full realization of the right to establish their state language
    Keywords: linguistic rights, educational rights, state language of republic, federalism, federal state educational standards
    JEL: K10
    Date: 2018
  25. By: Barr, Nicholas (London School of Economics); Chapman, Bruce (Australian National University); Dearden, Lorraine (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Dynarski, Susan (University of Michigan)
    Abstract: There is wide agreement the US student loan system faces significant problems. Seven million borrowers are in default and many more experience non-repayment. The stress of repayments faced by many students results at least in part from the design of US student loans. Specifically, loans are organised like a mortgage, with fixed monthly repayments over a fixed period of time, creating a high repayment burden on borrowers with low income. This paper draws on the experience of the income-contingent loan (ICL) systems operating in England and Australia, in which monthly repayments are related to the borrower's monthly income. By design, those systems explicitly include insurance against problems of repayment during periods of low income. We discuss the design of this type of loan in detail since such an exercise seems to be largely absent in the US literature. Drawing on data from the US Current Population Survey (CPS) we provide two main empirical contributions. First a stylised illustration of the revenue and distributional implications of different hypothetical ICL arrangements for the USA; and second an illustration of repayment problems faced by low-earning borrowers in the US loan system, including a plausible example of adverse outcomes in the Stafford loan. Importantly, we compare repayment burdens under the existing and alternative systems. Our illustrations show how US mortgage-style loans can create financial difficulties for a significant minority of US borrowers, difficulties which a well-designed ICL has significant potential to address.
    Keywords: income contingent loans, mortgage-type loans, student loan design, loan defaults, repayment burdens
    JEL: I22 I28 J24
    Date: 2018–03
  26. By: Wiljan van den Berge (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Arne Brouwers (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of graduating during a recession on the early careers of high educated graduates in the Netherlands between 1996 and 2012. Exploiting field-specifi c differences in un-employment rates, we fi nd that graduates on average suffer a 2.3% lower wage in a typical recession in their first year. The wage loss fades out four years after graduation. Employment probabilities are hardly affected. We fi nd that women suffer larger wage losses than men. Poor entry conditions are associated with an increased probability of employment at lower quality employers. The primary mechanism through which graduates catch up to their luckier counterparts is mobility across jobs and sectors to better paying employers. We show that those who graduate during a recession are more likely to switch jobs earlier, and less likely to switch jobs later in their career. This suggests an intertemporal shift in job-search effort. While both men and women who graduate during a recession are more likely to switch employers in the short-run, the average returns to successful job search are much higher for men than for women.
    JEL: J23 J31
    Date: 2017–07
  27. By: Debora Di Gioacchino; Laura Sabani; Simone Tedeschi
    Abstract: This paper analyses the factors affecting preferences for public education spending, focusing on household income and other individuals’ characteristics as well as on institutional features. Standard redistributive arguments à la Meltzer and Richard (1981) suggest that the impact of household income on preferences should be negative since richer families are likely to oppose the redistributive effect of public funding. However, the empirical evidence does not seem to confirm this prediction. To shed some light on this issue, our proposed interpretative key hinges on the hierarchical structure of the education system. To this purpose, we set up a model in which agents are heterogeneous in terms of income and education and human capital is produced in a two-tier education system. We show that individual preferences for public education spending are affected by household income and by variables related to the socioeconomic context, such as income inequality and social inclusiveness of the education system, which determine the ultimate redistributive effect of public spending. We are able to test some of the predictions of our model using individuals’ data from ISSP (2006 wave). The econometric analysis points out that household income is, unambiguously, a negative predictor of preferences when considering openly redistributive education expenses. Differently, when considering general schooling expenses, the intensity and even the direction of the income effect is affected by income inequality and by the social inclusiveness of the education system. We also assess the presence of significant residual variability in the income coefficient, due to unobserved factors, which for the most part is due to the individual within-country rather than to the cross-country level.
    Keywords: Education, basic, tertiary, preferences
    JEL: D1 D78 H52 I28
    Date: 2018

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